• Range Relationships of Feral Horses with Wild Ungulates and Cattle in Western Alberta

      Salter, R. E.; Hudson, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Spatial and foraging relationships between feral horses and coexisting ungulates were studied in the foothills of western Alberta. Distribution patterns of horses were compared to those of cattle, elk (Cervus elaphus), deer (Odocoileus hemionus and O. virginianus), and moose (Alces alces) using indices of spatial and habitat use overlap. Horses were more ubiquitous in their distribution than any other ungulate and utilized sites also used by other species. Lack of behavioural interactions and dietary differences suggested ecological separation of horses from deer and moose. Although horses and elk both used dry grasslands during winter and spring, competition for forage was minimal due to the low number of elk present. During spring horses occupied some areas later preferred by cattle but range use was not excessive prior to the turn-out of cattle. There was little contemporaneous spatial overlap of horses and cattle even though their summer diets showed 66% overlap. Potential for competition appeared highest between horses and cattle but grazing relationships were complex.
    • Response of Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany to Pruning Treatments in Northern Utah

      Austin, D. D.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Production of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) within browsing height of big game on winter ranges was increased 500-900% when 90-99% of the canopy was pruned from mature trees. However, since adventitious sprouting did not occur, numerous live twigs must be present in the browsing zone before treatment for any practical benefit to accrue. Pruning at less than 90% canopy removal and girdling showed positive but smaller vegetative responses, while 100% canopy removal and application of pruning paint to wound surfaces in an attempt to eliminate sap flow had no effect on forage production available to big game.
    • Spraying of Big Sagebrush With 2,4-D Causes Negligible Stream Contamination

      Schroeder, M. H.; Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The maximum level of 2,4-D detected in stream water was 5 ppb following aerial application of 2.2 kg/ha herbicide to a 238-ha watershed for big sagebrush control. Careful placement of the aerially applied herbicide, leaving an unsprayed buffer strip 30 m wide bordering the stream channel, and the presence of a snowdrift over the channel, prevented significant water contamination. Surface snow within the unsprayed buffer zone averaged 35 ppb of 2,4-D. Herbicide levels in a stream .5 km downwind from the sprayed watershed did not exceed 2 ppb immediately following spraying even though wind speeds exceeded 2.2 m/s during much of the spray period.
    • Using Sodium Carbonate to Seal Leaky Stock Ponds in Eastern Montana

      Neff, E. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Mixing sodium carbonate into the top 100 to 150 mm of soil in three farm ponds constructed in calcareous soil in eastern Montana effectively reduced seepage losses for about 3 years following treatment. Seepage rates the first year after treatment were decreased to 20 to 40% of the pretreatment rate, but they were 60 to 100% of the pretreatment rate 4 years after treatment.
    • Vivipary, Proliferation, and Phyllody in Grasses

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Some temperate grasses have the ability to produce in their inflorescence modified spikelet structures that act to reproduce the species vegetatively. These types may be either genetically fixed or an occasional expression of environmental change.