• Spraying of Big Sagebrush With 2,4-D Causes Negligible Stream Contamination

      Schroeder, M. H.; Sturges, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      The maximum level of 2,4-D detected in stream water was 5 ppb following aerial application of 2.2 kg/ha herbicide to a 238-ha watershed for big sagebrush control. Careful placement of the aerially applied herbicide, leaving an unsprayed buffer strip 30 m wide bordering the stream channel, and the presence of a snowdrift over the channel, prevented significant water contamination. Surface snow within the unsprayed buffer zone averaged 35 ppb of 2,4-D. Herbicide levels in a stream .5 km downwind from the sprayed watershed did not exceed 2 ppb immediately following spraying even though wind speeds exceeded 2.2 m/s during much of the spray period.
    • Using Sodium Carbonate to Seal Leaky Stock Ponds in Eastern Montana

      Neff, E. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Mixing sodium carbonate into the top 100 to 150 mm of soil in three farm ponds constructed in calcareous soil in eastern Montana effectively reduced seepage losses for about 3 years following treatment. Seepage rates the first year after treatment were decreased to 20 to 40% of the pretreatment rate, but they were 60 to 100% of the pretreatment rate 4 years after treatment.
    • Vivipary, Proliferation, and Phyllody in Grasses

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-07-01)
      Some temperate grasses have the ability to produce in their inflorescence modified spikelet structures that act to reproduce the species vegetatively. These types may be either genetically fixed or an occasional expression of environmental change.