• Brush Control and Rio Grande Turkeys in North-Central Texas

      Quinton, D. A.; Montel, A. K.; Flinders, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Rio Grande turkeys used brush-controlled and untreated rangeland equally when suitable roosting and other cover was available but were absent in areas having an adequate food supply with little available cover. Food selection of turkeys was based upon availability of their preferred foods at different seasons. The two most prevalent foods in each of grass, forb, mast and cactus classes were the same from both treated and untreated areas 83% of the time. Similarity indices of diets between brush-controlled versus untreated areas were 60% and 73% for summer and fall, respectively.
    • Bite-count vs Fecal Analysis for Range Animal Diets

      Sanders, K. D.; Dahl, B. E.; Scott, G. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      This study indicated that the bite-count and fecal analysis methods give similar results for estimating major components of cattle diets in Texas. The bite-count method could not be used on large, brush-infested pastures with rough terrain; however, the fecal analysis method was easily used under such conditions. Other advantages of fecal analyses were: samples were collected with a minimum of field work, diets of wild and domestic animals could be obtained, and bad weather and poor field conditions were not problems. Major disadvantages of the fecal analysis technique were: forages with dense stellate trichomes were overestimated; mesquite beans were retained in the digestive tract for abnormally long periods; the laboratory phase required a trained technician; and the work was tedious.
    • Seasonal Concentration and Toxicity of Saponins in Alfombrilla

      Williams, M. C.; Fierro, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Alfombrilla collected monthly for 1 year in Chihuahua, Mexico, was analyzed for percentage of saponin and for toxicity to 1-week-old chicks. Saponin level ranged from 2.8% in dormant plants collected in January to 6.3% in mature fruiting plants collected in September. Saponin level was low in seeds. High saponin levels may persist in dormant plants into December. The amount of plant required to kill 50% or more of the chicks was inversely proportional to the saponin level of the plants.
    • Microhabitat Relationships of Six Major Shrubs in Navajo National Monument, Arizona

      Fairchild, J. A.; Brotherson, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Six shrub species were studied to determine their microhabitat relationships as well as their effect on the immediate environment. Analysis of site characteristics and mineral composition of soils in open areas adjacent to shrubs and beneath shrubs allowed for comparison of the different habitats following shrub establishment. Soil pH differs beneath the various shrubs and all six species tended to create more alkaline soils beneath their canopy. All species showed increased soil salinity beneath their canopy. However, the concentration of total soluble salts in the soil surface beneath the shrubs varied with the species and was highest beneath fourwing saltbush. Significant increases in the concentration of magnesium and potassium ions beneath shrubs were observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus were also found in greater concentration beneath the shrub canopy. Soil depth differed beneath the shrub species, with sagebrush and fourwing saltbush growing on the deeper more highly developed types. There was a positive relationship between the presence of shrubs and the depth of the soil profile.
    • Long-Term Effects of Fire on Cactus in the Southern Mixed Prairie of Texas

      Bunting, S. C.; Wright, H. A.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Few brownspine pricklypear were immediately killed by the direct effects of fire. Most plants resprouted after burning in the spring, but mortality averaged 70% by the end of the fourth year after burning. Interactions of fire with insects and rodents caused most of the brownspine pricklypear mortality. Walkingstick cholla and tasajillo were more directly affected by fire than brownspine pricklypear. First-year mortality was 40 to 65%, respectively; and fourth year mortality was 57 to 80%. Mortalities of other minor species of cactus varied from 49 to 100%.
    • New Collections of Range Plants from the Soviet Union

      Dewey, D. R.; Plummer, A. P. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Range revegetation in the temperate arid and semiarid regions of the United States has been accomplished to a considerable extent with species introduced from Asia, particularly the Soviet Union. Only a small part of the Asian range-forage germplasm has been collected and evaluated in the United States. A 45-day plant-collecting expedition was authorized during the summer of 1977 to five locations in the U.S.S.R.-Stavropol, Tselinograd, Alma Ata., Dzhambul, and Chimkent. About 1,100 seed collections were made of 250 species, most of which were grasses and legumes from arid or semiarid sites. Large collections were made of Agropyron cristatum, A. desertorum, A. intermedium, A. repens, Bromus inermis, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca sulcata, Medicago falcataromanica, M. sativa, and Trifolium ambiguum. All collections have been established at Logan, Utah. Preliminary observations indicate that certain collections may be useful for forage or conservation purposes on rangeland. All accessions have been entered into the National Plant Germplasm System, and seed will be available for research and evaluation purposes in 1979 or succeeding years.
    • Perennial Grasses and Their Response to a Wildfire in South-central Washington

      Uresk, D. W.; Rickard, W. H.; Cline, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Three years of past burning responses of three perennial grasses were evaluated by comparing a burned area with an adjacent control (unburned) area. The average leaf length of Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass was shortened by burning in all 3 years, but leaf shortening was inconsistent for bluebunch wheatgrass. Burning increased the number of flowering culms per clump for Cusick bluegrass during the second year of postburning and for Thurber needlegrass during the third year. The average number of flowering culms per clump in bluebunch wheatgrass was greater in the burned area for all 3 years of postburning. Culm and spike lengths of bluebunch wheatgrass were increased by burning for the first 2 years. Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass generally responded to burning with shortened culms and spikes. The basal area of Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass was reduced by burning. Phytomass production of bluebunch wheatgrass showed an increase during the 3 years of postburning, whereas Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass showed a reduction in phytomass production. No single measurement provided a way to evaluate overall plant responses.
    • Organic Solvent-Soluble Organic Matter from Soils Underlying Native Range and Crested Wheatgrass in Southeastern Alberta, Canada

      Dormaar, J. F.; Johnston, A.; Smoliak, A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Gas chromatographic patterns of organic solvent-soluble constituents present in alkaline hydrolysates of organic matter from soils underlying native range and crested wheatgrass were qualitatively, but not quantitatively similar. The peak at 222 degrees C or with a retention time of about 31 min was identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Larger quantities of the extracted compounds were obtained from the native range than from the crested wheatgrass soils. Fifty years was not long enough for organic matter of soil cultivated for only 5 years to regain its original quantitative chemical composition under the prevailing climatic conditions.
    • Nitrogen Fertilization of Range: Yield, Protein Content, and Cattle Behavior

      Samuel, M. J.; Rauzi, F.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Effects of rate and season of nitrogen (N) application on the utilization, crude protein, and yield of mixed prairie in southeastern Wyoming were evaluated. Fertilization increased herbage production, crude protein content and utilization by cattle as measured by both frequency of grazing and forage removal by grazing. Yield and protein content increased linearly with increased amounts of fall applied N, but non-linearly to spring applied N. Forage removal showed a curvilinear response to both spring and fall applied N and was closely correlated with forage yield and frequency of grazing.
    • President’s Address: SRM's Future—Dreams or Opportunities

      Merkel, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
    • Range Grasses and Their Small Grain Equivalents for Wind Erosion Control

      Lyles, L.; Allison, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      An equation that estimates potential wind erosion requires that all vegetative cover (dry weight per area) be expressed as a small grain equivalent. Wind-tunnel tests were used to determine that equivalent for selected range grasses, either as single species or mixtures, at three grazing-management levels. Compared with flat small grain, range grasses evaluated effectively prevented erosion, with buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) the most effective and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) the least effective among those tested. A possible procedure for extending the results to other grasses or mixtures is suggested. The data on range grass to small grain equivalent for erosion control may be used to predict the wind erosion potential of range sites or to determine the amounts of range grass needed to hold potential erosion to tolerable limits.
    • Root Distribution in 1- to 48-Year-Old Stripmine Spoils in Southeastern Montana

      Wyatt, J. W.; Dollhopf, D. J.; Schafer, W. M. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      A study was initiated in June 1976 at Colstrip, Montana, to determine root distribution to 1- to 48-year-old stripmine spoils and in undisturbed soils of the area. Root distribution was determined using three methods: (1) soil profile description, (2) root biomass, and (3) radioactive tracer (32 P). Results from all three methods showed that old spoils had substantially more roots below 100 cm than new spoils or undisturbed soils. Differences in root abundance were attributed to species composition. Old spoils were dominated by half-shrubs, while new spoils and undisturbed soils were dominated by grasses and forbs. Root biomass in the upper 100 cm of new spoils was 44% less than in undisturbed soils and 43% less than in old spoils. Maximum rooting depths of 15 important plant species were determined using the radioactive tracer method.
    • Responses of Falsemesquite, Native Grasses and Forbs, and Lehmann Lovegrass after Spraying with Picloram

      Martin, S. C.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Aquecus sprays of picloram at the rate of 0.56 kg/ha (94 1/ha total volume) were applied to 5 plots each in May 1973 and August 1976 to control falsemesquite (Calliandra eriophylla) in southern Arizona. Falsemesquite was effectively controlled on both spraying dates. The greatest vegetation change on sprayed and unsprayed plots alike was the overwhelming natural increase in density and yield of Lehmann lovegrass, an introduced species. Perennial forbs were almost completely eliminated and densities of native perennial grasses were greatly reduced both on treated and untreated plots.
    • The Response of Native Vertebrate Populations to Crested Wheatgrass Planting and Grazing by Sheep

      Reynolds, T. D.; Trost, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Native vertebrate population levels were examined in grazed and ungrazed habitats dominated by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) in southeast Idaho. Our objective was to determine the species diversity and relative density of birds, mammals, and reptiles in these habitats with and without grazing pressures by sheep. In a habitat dominated by sagebrush, grazing did not significantly alter the species diversity or the density of reptiles or nesting birds. However, both the diversity and the relative density of small mammals were significantly reduced. Crested wheatgrass plantings, regardless of sheep use, supported fewer nesting bird species and a lower density of birds, mammals, and reptiles than did areas dominated by sagebrush. The synergistic effects of planting with crested wheatgrass followed by grazing were most evident in (1) a significant reduction in the relative density of small mammals, and (2) the occurrence of only one nesting bird species: the horned lark (Eremophila alpestris).
    • Food Habits of the Plains Pocket Gopher on Western Nebraska Rangeland

      Luce, D. G.; Case, R. M.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Plains pocket gophers (Geomys bursarius) were trapped during 10 months (June and July excluded) of 1974, 1975, and 1976 to determine their food habits. Using a microscopic technique, twenty species of grasses, forbs, and rushes were identified in the stomach contents of 141 pocket gophers. Of the total diet, forbs comprised 9.9%, grasses 44.9%, and rushes 14.8%. Root and leaf-stem materials were found to make up 30.9% and 38.7% of the diet, respectively. Winter food constituents were difficult to identify with 30.4% of the total diet being unidentified material. Gophers exhibited diet selectivity; major species in the vegetation were not necessarily major species in the diet.
    • Habitat and Dietary Relationships of the Pygmy Rabbit

      Green, J. S.; Flinders, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Vegetal habitat characteristics and annual dietary selection were examined for the pygmy rabbit in southeastern Idaho. Areas selected for habitation by pygmy rabbits had a significantly greater woody cover and height than other areas. Total grass-forb biomass was similar in rabbit and nonrabbit sites. Grass biomass was least and forb biomass greatest where pygmy rabbits were most abundant. Sagebrush was eaten throughout the year, although in lesser amounts in summer (51%) than in winter (99%). Grasses and forbs were eaten through the summer (39 and 10%, respectively) and decreased in the diet through fall to winter. Sagebrush is critical to the pygmy rabbit for both food and cover, although in this study, cover and height of woody vegetation appeared to be the critical features of the habitat selected for. This fact should be considered before brush removal treatments are applied within pygmy rabbit range.
    • Fall and Winter Diets of Feral Pigs in South Texas

      Everitt, J. H.; Alaniz, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      During late fall and winter of 1975-76 and 1976-77, contents of 41 stomachs were analyzed to determine foods of feral pigs in extreme southern Texas. Thirty-six food items were identified, including 32 plant taxa and four types of animal matter. Average volume for food classes were 55.8% forbs, 17.3% grasses, 9.8% sedges, 7.6% woody plants, 4.7% unknown plants, and 4.8% animal matter. Mossrose, an annual forb, was the most important item in the diet, comprising 21.8% of the total volume. Important differences occurred in the diet between years among forbs, grasses, and sedges. The 1975-76 diet was comprised of 41.1% forbs, 24.7% grasses, and 15.4% sedges, as compared to 73.0% forbs, 8.2% grasses, and 3.3% sedges in the 1976-77 diet. Our results indicated that feral pig diets could be competitive with those of livestock and wildlife. The pigs' extensive rooting may result in at least partial removal of many plant species from the range; however, these disturbed areas cause a shift in plant succession which is beneficial to some wildlife.
    • Chemical Scarification, Moist Prechilling, and Thiourea Effects on Germination of 18 Shrub Species

      Stidham, N. D.; Ahring, R. M.; Powell, J.; Claypool, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Establishment is a major problem of increasing palatable shrubs on rangeland; therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of chemical scarification, moist prechilling, and thiourea on seed germination in 18 different shrub species. Scarification for various periods in concentrated sulfuric acid, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (clorox) produced unchanged or reduced germination, except for one hydrogen peroxide treatment of bitterbrush. Moist prechilling prior to germination was conducted on vermiculite moistened with distilled water or 0.2% potassium nitrate for periods up to 16 weeks. In general, prechilling yielded maximum germination, without respect to moistening agent. Seeds treated with thiourea were soaked for periods up to 1 hr in a 0.3% solution. Thiourea treatments were ineffective in increasing germination. On the basis of their germination response to prechilling treatments, bitterbrush, shadscale, big sagebrush, cliffrose, curlleaf mountain mahogany, and golden currant are recommended for fall planting. Apache plume, shrubby cinquefoil and Morman tea could be planted in spring or fall, and winterfat, fourwing saltbush, and Jersey tea should be planted in spring. Constraints other than seed germination, not studied here, must also be considered in planting shrubs for range improvement.
    • Contributions of White Clover to the N, P, and Ca Concentration of Perennial Grasses

      Dobson, J. W.; Beaty, E. R. (Society for Range Management, 1980-03-01)
      Southern range forages tend to grow vegetatively for 5 months of the year. During the other 7 months, forage available is low in energy and minerals. Cattle are usually grazed on seeded pastures or fed hay from October until May. Growing of a legume with the grass is currently of major interest as it increases energy, N, and minerals as compared to that of the grasses grown alone. Growing white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with any of the five major perennial forage grasses was found to increase the N concentration in the forage produced all season long. Grass forages grown with white clover but without N averaged as high or higher in N concentration than monospecific grass forage fertilized at all N rates up to 336 kg/ha. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was not appreciably influenced by presence of white clover but averaged 0.37% in the spring and 0.26% in the fall, a 30% reduction with season. Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forage had higher P concentrations than did the warm-season perennials Coastal and common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.). Ca concentration of the forage was directly related to quantity of clover present. Including white clover with the perennial grasses would significantly increase the N and Ca concentrations of the forage as compared to the grass alone. The increases in concentrations of N and Ca would significantly improve the nutritional quality of the grass forages being grown.