• Alkaloid Levels in Reed Canarygrass Grown on Wet Meadows in British Columbia

      Majak, W.; McDiarmid, R. E.; van Ryswyk, A. L.; Broersma, K.; Bonin, S. G. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Hordenine, gramine, and 5-methoxy-N-methyltryptamine (5MMT) were identified as the major basic alkaloids in reed canarygrass grown on wet meadows in Interior British Columbia. The concentrations of these anti-quality constituents, determined sequentially at four field locations, were exceptionally low compared with levels found for reed canarygrass grown under growth room conditions. Under field conditions, for example, 5MMT levels did not exceed 250 micrograms/gram (dry wt), whereas a peak level of 4,250 micrograms/gram 5MMT was recorded from the growth room. Depressed alkaloid levels under wet meadow field conditions were observed in all varieties tested including two experimental varieties, one registered variety, and a commercial type. Low alkaloid levels on wet meadows appeared to coincide with fewer types of alkaloids: 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5DMT) was not detected under field conditions but it was present in all reed canarygrass samples analyzed from the growth room. Field applications of fertilizer (NPK) appeared to have marginal effects on alkaloid levels. On wet meadows the trends indicated that gramine and 5MMT concentrations increased toward the end of the growing season, but low total alkaloid levels were still maintained. The factor of soil moisture stress is reviewed in relation to alkaloid levels in reed canarygrass. Recently developed thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanning procedures were used to determine concentrations of gramine and 5MMT. New TLC fluorescence methods were devised for the quantitative determination of hordenine and 5DMT in reed canarygrass.
    • Comparison of Fecal, Rumen and Utilization Methods for Ascertaining Pronghorn Diets

      Smith, A. D.; Shandruk, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Fourteen male pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), two in each of seven spring and summer months, were killed to obtain rumen and fecal matter for comparing methods of determining diets. They came from a herd confined to the Desert Experimental Range in southwestern Utah. Animals were killed only after they had completed their early morning grazing period. Plant material was removed from the rumens and rectums, fresh feces were collected from the feeding site, and forage utilization and production estimates were made there. Diets as indicated by the four data sources-rumen, intestinal feces, site feces, and utilization-varied with individual animals from close to little agreement, a not unexpected result in view of food availability and selection. Fewer plant species were identified by fecal analysis than were found in the rumen; even fewer species were recorded by utilization estimates. This indicates that fecal analysis may be less accurate than rumen data but more so than those based on plant utilization. Validation tests of the fecal method conducted with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fed known diets showed substantial differences with individual species in the amounts fed and the amounts indicated by fecal analysis. Only in the case of the single grass species fed was there close agreement; browse and forb species differed greatly.
    • Control of Common Goldenweed with Herbicides and Associated Forage Release

      Mayeux, H. S.; Drawe, D. L.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Common goldenweed, an aggressive half-shrub, is rapidly increasing as a management problem on south Texas rangeland. Control with conventional foliar-applied herbicides has been erratic, with the extent of success apparently dictated primarily by growth conditions, especially soil moisture, at the time of treatment. After exceptionally high rainfall, applications of 2,4-D at 1.12 kg/ha in the spring or fall effectively controlled common goldenweed. When conditions were less than optimum for weed response, the addition of dicamba at 0.28 kg/ha with 2,4,-D or 2,4,5-T improved results compared to applications of phenoxy herbicides alone. Picloram was more effective than phenoxy herbicides or phenoxy/dicamba mixtures for common goldenweed control. Equal ratio combinations of picloram and 2,4,5-T were also effective and would be preferred where common goldenweed occurs with certain problem woody species. Within 1 year of treatment, 4.6 to 10.4 kg/ha of oven-dry forage was produced for each percentage unit of common goldenweed foliar cover removed by broadcast sprays. Successful treatments were effective for at least 3 years.
    • Control of Saltcedar by Subsurface Placement of Herbicides

      Hollingsworth, E. B.; Quimby, P. C.; Jaramillo, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      A root plow modified for deep subsurface placement of herbicides effectively controlled saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.). One operation, preferably in the spring, which severed the tap root 35 to 60 cm below the soil surface and simultaneously applied any of several herbicides at the same depth increased saltcedar kill by more than 100% over that of root cutting alone. Residual herbicides, including uracils, substituted ureas, 2,3,6-TBA, picloram, dicamba, and karbutilate, applied with the root plow consistently controlled saltcedar with a single treatment. Phenoxy herbicides showed initial activity against saltcedar but did not persist long enough to satisfactorily kill late sprouting, previously quiescent buds. Two arsenicals and dichlobenil were ineffective for saltcedar control.
    • Effect of Grazing by Cattle on the Abundance of Grasshoppers on Fescue Grassland

      Holmes, N. D.; Smith, D. S.; Johnston, A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Grasshoppers were collected annually from 1970 to 1976 in late August from experimental fields of fescue rangeland that had been grazed by cattle at four rates of intensity. Sixteen species of grasshoppers were found but only four species constituted 90% of the population. Chorthippus longicornis, Melanoplus sanguinipes, Aeropedellus clavatus, Neopodismopsis abdominalis, and M. bivittatus were more abundant on the lightly and moderately grazed fields, whereas M. dawsoni, M. gladstoni and M. infantalis were more abundant in the heavily and very heavily grazed fields. Camnula pellucida was randomly distributed among the four fields. Generally, more grasshoppers were collected from the heavily and very heavily grazed fields than from the lightly and moderately grazed fields.
    • Emergence and Survival of Honey Mesquite Seedlings on Several Soils in West Texas

      Ueckert, D. N.; Smith, L. L.; Allen, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Results from field and laboratory studies indicated that germination and emergence was adequate on soils that supported heavy densities, low densities, or no mesquite for establishment of dense populations of honey mesquite. Absence of honey mesquite or low densities of this species on soils where seeds are readily deposited by natural mechanisms could not be explained by soil chemical or physical properties that might inhibit seed germination or emergence of seedlings. In field studies, seedling emergence was not related to the density of honey mesquite presently growing on six range sites. At the end of the first growing season and at 1 year after planting, seedling survival was inversely related to density of honey mesquite. Two years after planting, seedling survival was not related to density of mesquite supported by the six soils. In this short-term study, competition with associated herbaceous vegetation overshadowed the effects of soil properties on survival of honey mesquite seedlings.
    • Factors affecting root of stem cuttings of salt desert shrubs

      Richardson, S. G.; Barker, J. R.; Crofts, K. A.; Van Epps, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Several variables were identified that affect rooting of stem cuttings of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), cuneate saltbush (A. cuneata), shadscale (A. confertifolia), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). Differences in rooting were found among different individuals within the same population. Rooting varied with season of collection and with concentration of hormone application. There was an interaction between the effects of season of collection and concentration of applied hormone. Longer fourwing saltbush cuttings rooted better than shorter ones, and woody basal portions of new leaders rooted better than herbaceous tips. Sex of dioecious saltbush species was generally not an important factor in rooting success. Cuttings from greasewood plants grown in a greenhouse rooted better than field-collected cuttings.
    • Fertilizing and Burning Flint Hills Bluestem

      Owensby, C. E.; Smith, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Burned and unburned Kansas Flint Hills range was fertilized in early May with 0, 40, and 80 lb N/acre/year and grazed from May 1 to October 1. Fertilizing with 40 lb N/acre increased carrying capacity per pound of nitrogen applied more than 80 lb N/acre did. Maintenance of good quality range was favored by burning and 0 and 40 lb N/acre compared to not burning and the same fertilizer rates. Eighty lb N/acre produced poor quality range whether burned or not. Individual steer gains were highest on burned pastures with 0 and 40 lb N/acre compared to unburned pasture at those same rates or pastures with 80 lb N/acre whether burned or not. Increased carrying capacity on fertilized pastures compared to unfertilized gave higher gains/acre.
    • Grazing and Overstory Effects on Rotationally Burned Slash Pine Plantation Ranges

      Clary, W. P. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Light, moderate, or heavy grazing did not affect total herbage production in rotationally burned slash pine plantations approaching the first pulpwood thinning. However, carpetgrass tended to replace pinehill bluestem in the composition in proportion to grazing intensity. Grazing since tree regeneration has not affected tree crown cover, but heavy grazing reduced tree basal area. Increased tree dominance decreased herbage production, as predicted by earlier studies.
    • Herbage Response to Grazing Systems and Stocking Intensities

      Van Poollen, H. W.; Lacey, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      A review of pertinent literature shows that grazing systems and grazing intensities both influence herbage production on Western ranges. Mean annual herbage production increased by 13% when grazing systems were implemented at a moderate stocking intensity. Increases were larger (35% and 27%) when continuous livestock use was reduced from heavy to moderate, and moderate to light, respectively. This suggests that adjustments in livestock numbers have a greater effect on herbage production than do grazing systems.
    • Interactions between Mule Deer and Cattle on Big Sagebrush Range in British Columbia

      Willms, W.; McLean, A.; Tucker, R.; Ritcey, R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Interaction between deer and cattle took various forms. The potential for direct competition was greatest in spring. Both deer and cattle selected bluebunch wheatgrass and crested wheatgrass while Sandbergs bluegrass was most often used by deer. Evidence of indirect interaction was observed. Moderate or heavy fall grazing by cattle made the spring forage more attractive to deer by removing mature forage. Light grazing did not exert any appreciable effect on deer distribution.
    • Low-Level Aerial Photography as a Management and Research Tool for Range Inventory

      Heintz, T. W.; Lewis, J. K.; Waller, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      An inexpensive technique is reviewed for using low-level aerial photography as a management and research tool for range. Modifications of a previously documented camera mount are reported that allow greater flexibility in the use of aerial photography for range evaluation. This technique involves the use of color infrared film with a 135-mm telephoto lens double filtered with orange and magenta filters.
    • Potential Evapotranspiration and Surfacemine Rehabilitation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

      Toy, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Energy resource development in the Western United States must contend with the problem of water deficiency resulting from potential evapotranspiration rates which usually exceed precipitation rates. In this report the Blaney-Criddle method, with locally calibrated monthly natural vegetation coefficients, was used to estimate potential evapotranspiration (PET) for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In this area PET ranges from 15.02 inches per year to 26.76 inches. A radiation-based method for microclimatic adjustment of PET is presented. According to this procedure it might be expected that, for slopes of 20% inclination at 44° North latitude, annual PET is 17% less on northerly-facing slopes than a horizontal surface and 14% more on southerly-facing slopes.
    • Prescribed Burning: Vegetative Change, Forage Production, Cost, and Returns on Six Demonstration Burns in Utah

      Ralphs, M. H.; Busby, F. E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Six demonstration burns were conducted between 1974 and 1976 as part of the Utah Rangeland Development Program. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the target species, was essentially eliminated on the areas that were burned. Five of the six burns were seeded, with predominately crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum). Despite the severe drought only one seeding was considered a failure. Forage production increased several-fold above preburn production and is expected to continue to increase as the grass stands mature. An economic analysis of the 1974 burn showed an internal rate of return of 17%. Great risks were associated with the use of fire. Extensive precautions were taken to minimize hazards but variable weather conditions in late summer greatly increased the chance of the fire escaping. Prescribed burning is inexpensive and effective in controlling big sagebrush when adequate safety precautions are taken.
    • Production Response of Native and Introduced Grasses to Mechanical Brush Manipulation, Seeding, and Fertilization

      Gonzalez, C. L.; Dodd, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Effects of two mechanical brush manipulation treatments (root-plowing and front-end stacking) with and without grass seeding and with and without nitrogen fertilization on herbaceous forage production were investigated in the Rio Grande Plain of Texas. Total herbaceous production (4-year average) was 5,981 for root-plowing and 4,789 kg/ha for front-end stacking as compared with 2,178 kg/ha for the undisturbed control. The 4-year average yield of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. (L.) Link) seeded alone contributed 53% of total herbaceous production on plots with root-plowing, 73% on plots with front-end stacking, and 38% on control plots. The combined yield of three native species, pink pappus-grass (Pappophorum bicolor Fourn.), four-flower trichloris (Trichloris pluriflora Fourn.), and Arizona cottontop (Digitaria californica (Benth) Henr.), seeded as a mixture contributed 41% of the total herbaceous production on plots with rootplowing, 28% on plots with front-end stacking, and 11% on control plots. The application of 45 kg/ha nitrogen significantly increased total herbaceous production the season after application.
    • Response of Blue-winged Teal to Range Management on Waterfowl Production Areas in Southeastern South Dakota

      Kaiser, P. H.; Berlinger, S. S.; Fredrickson, L. H. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      The blue-winged teal (Anas discors) was the predominant upland-nesting waterfowl species in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in southeastern South Dakota. In native plant communities, factors that resulted in high nest density and success were excellent range condition (high proportion of climax vegetational and matted residual vegetation. In tame plant communities, smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) cover in which residual vegetation formed a matted mulch had high nest densities and nest success.
    • Response of Native Grassland Legumes to Water and Nitrogen Treatments

      Lauenroth, W. K.; Dodd, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      The response of native shortgrass prairie legumes to water and nitrogen additions was evaluated utilizing a replicated factorial design of two water and two nitrogen treatments. Responses measured were densities and aboveground biomass by species. Water treatment greatly increased both density and biomass of legumes, presumably because of more favorable conditions for nitrogen fixation and increased competitive advantage under nitrogen deficient conditions.
    • Southern Wax-myrtle Response Following Winter Prescribed Burning in South Florida

      Terry, S. W.; White, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Southern wax-myrtle is an undesirable shrub that is invading thousands of acres of rangeland in south Florida. Prescribed burning has been considered a potential management tool for maintaining pastures free of wax-myrtle. Results of this study show wax-myrtle to be easily crown killed by a single winter fire. However, most plants survive through basal sprouts. Use of prescribed winter fire to reduce wax-myrtle competition will require repeated periodic burns coordinated with cattle grazing programs.
    • The Economics of Sheep Predation in Southwestern Utah

      Taylor, R. G.; Workman, J. P.; Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-07-01)
      Ten sheep ranches in southwestern Utah were chosen for a verification study of sheep losses during 1972-1975. Using the ratio of verified predator kills to total lamb carcasses discovered, total lamb loss to predators was estimated. Predation accounted for 5.8% of total lambs docked or 62% of the total lamb loss. Coyotes made 94% of all predator kills. For the 10 herds (1972-1974) direct income loss due to lamb predation averaged $2,800 per herd; for a three-herd subsample (1972-1975) direct income loss averaged $3,500 per herd. Applying our study rate of predation to the entire Southwest region of Utah gave an estimate of 14,900 lambs killed by predators and a direct income loss of $419,000. In addition, the region suffered indirect or multiplier losses of $1,166,000 to $1,816,000 during the 4 years studied. Further data needs in predation economics could be achieved by integrating predation loss, predator population, and predator control data into a standard production function model.