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Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424

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### Recent Submissions

• #### Winter Cold Damage to Bitterbrush Related to Spring Sheep Grazing

Sub-freezing winter cold occasionally causes extensive damage to rangeland shrubs. Bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) was damaged in northern Utah during the winter of 1972-1973. The damage appeared to be largely independent of spring grazing by domestic sheep. Managers should recognize and separate the influence of such damage from grazing influences to properly assign stocking levels. Improper interpretation of reduced browse plant production or condition may lead to unnecessary reductions in animal populations.
• #### Utilization Practices and the Returns from Seeding an Area to Crested Wheatgrass

Numerous studies have estimated the benefits and costs of various types of range improvements, including seedings. However, the results reported have varied widely. One of the reasons why these estimates have varied is that the effect of utilization (season and amount) has generally not been explicitly considered. In an effort to provide some insight into the effect utilization has on returns, a study of the Point Springs seedings in south-central Idaho was undertaken. This study indicated that: (1) spring utilization of crested wheatgrass seedings is a necessary prerequisite to favorable net returns; (2) grazing patterns involving heavy utilization had the shortest life, but the highest net returns; (3) fall only utilization had the lowest net returns; (4) the net returns from seeding the area were greater than the investment costs for nearly all utilization patterns considered; and (5) seeding an area to crested wheatgrass can yield returns which may be greater than the returns from investing scarce investment dollars in other range improvement alternatives.
• #### The Literature of Range Science Based on Citations in the Journal of Range Management

Literature citations in the Journal of Range Management (JRM) were used to indicate and evaluate the various sources of range science literature. Authors in the JRM are presently (1976-1977) obtaining 51.2% of their reference citations from periodical literature, 18.9% from monographic series, 13.0% from books, and 7.3% from regular proceedings, annals, and reviews. Of the total citations made to periodical articles, 27.8% are from the JRM itself with Ecology, Weed Science, Agronomy Journal, Journal of Wildlife Management, and Journal of Forestry ranked next (6.9 to 2.2%). JRM authors are citing primarily U.S. sources of literature (86%), and JRM articles are averaging 13.3 citations per article (1976-1977).
• #### Seminal and Adventitious Root Growth of Blue Grama Seedlings on the Central Plains

Blue grama has not established itself on abandoned farmland in the Central Plains. This study was conducted to determine the environmental conditions which limit the growth of the seminal and adventitious roots of blue grama seedlings in northeast Colorado. Field seedings of blue grama were made in both spring and late summer of 1973 and 1974. It was found that the soil surface had to remain moist for 2 to 4 days for blue grama seeds to germinate and initiate growth of the seminal root. A second moist period of 2 to 4 days was required some 2 to 8 weeks later in order for adventitious roots to initiate growth. If adventitious roots were not initiated, blue grama seedlings died during the winter. Seminal roots of blue grama grew 1 cm day-1 under favorable soil-moisture and temperature conditions, and only 0.6 cm day-1 under less favorable conditions. Adventitious roots grew 2.3 cm day-1 under favorable soil-moisture and temperature conditions, and only 0.7 cm day-1 under less favorable conditions.
• #### Seasonal Food Habits of White-tailed Deer in the South Texas Plains

From October 1972, through September 1974, rumen analyses were used to determine food habits of white-tailed deer on the H.B. Zachry Randado Ranch in south Texas. Sixty-nine plant taxa were identified in the diet. Year-round preferences for various forage classes were 21.1% cactus, 32.7% browse, 26.6% forbs, 8.3% grasses, and 11.3% unknown. Cactus was heavily selected from June through September, and was consumed less but still heavily during October through January. Highest forb consumption occurred during March, April, and May. Browse usually was an important part of the diet, and grass consumption on untreated range was constantly low. A direct relationship was found between frequency with which a plant species was eaten and variability in the amount of that species consumed. Perennial plant species were more important as forage than annual species. Application of 2, 4-D herbicide caused grass consumption to increase 30 times over nonsprayed areas.
• #### Productivity of Irrigated Tropical Grasses under Different Clipping Frequencies in the Semidesert Region of The Sudan

On irrigated pastures, buffel grass, rhodes grass, bambatsi panicgrass, and green panicgrass were generally more productive than para grass, blue panic, and switchgrass. Clipping at 4- and 6-week intervals during the summer resulted in greater total annual yield than clipping at 2-week intervals. However, percent crude protein in grasses clipped at 2-week intervals was double that in grasses clipped at 6-week intervals. Swtichgrass, para grass, and blue panic appeared least able to withstand clipping over the 2-year period of the study. The results suggested that buffel grass, green panic, bambatsi panic, and rhodes grass, harvested at 4-week intervals would be the best choice for production of nutritious forage on irrigated pastures in the semiarid region of the Sudan.
• #### Probable Impacts of Various Range Improvement Practices on Diffuse Salt Production

During 1976 a study of soil profile salt concentrations and probable salt loading by surface runoff was made on 73 range improvement sites in Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. The range improvement practices studied included gully plugs, contour furrowing, pitting, pinyon-juniper chaining, and various sagebrush-control treatments. Results of these studies indicated that the impact of gully plugs and contour furrows on potential diffuse salt production is somewhat variable and may in fact indicate that these treatments have only a minor potential impact, probably because the overland flow route is not a major source of diffuse salt movement, at least on lands sampled in this study. On pinyon-juniper sites and the various sagebrush treatments, the lack of difference in salt concentrations between treated and untreated sites was the only consistent trend. In general the measured salt concentrations in surface soils of either pinyon-juniper or sagebrush sites present a problem of little concern as related to salt production within the major river basins.
• #### Possible Impacts of the Expected Shift from Cow-Calf to Cow-Yearling Enterprises

Retention of weaner calves to be marketed as yearlings directly from range has been recently suggested as a possible means for the cow-calf operator to cope with the depressed calf market. Although it has been widely recognized that such an adjustment would decrease cow herd carrying capacity and reduce total beef production from range states, these impacts have not been quantified. The purpose of our study was to trace the impacts of shifting from the typical cow-calf operation to a cow-yearling enterprise, using two representative sizes of Utah cattle ranches as examples. Results are reported in terms of reduction in brood cow herd required to accommodate a larger yearling herd, projected impacts on total beef production in Utah, the 11 western states, and the nation, and possible effects on national consumer beef prices.
• #### Komondor Guard Dogs Reduce Sheep Losses to Coyotes: A Preliminary Evaluation

Four Komondor dogs were trained to attack captive coyotes and to stay within fenced sheep pastures. The dogs, used in pairs, were then evaluated on three ranches (65 to 330-ha pastures) to determine their potential in protecting sheep from coyote predation. Daily checks of sheep losses were made on each ranch for three consecutive 20-day periods: preceding placement of the dogs, during their time in pastures, and after their removal. Sheep kills by coyotes decreased significantly during and following use of the dogs, suggesting some potential for the deterrence of coyote predation-at least under fenced-grazing conditions.
• #### Huisache Control by Power Grubbing

Low-energy mechanical grubbing of huisache densities of 181 to 689 trees/ha, 1.8 to 2.6 m tall, reduced the canopy by 90 to 96% and killed 65 to 81% of the treated plants on the Coastal Prairie. Grubbing time was a linear function of huisache density and varied from 0.5 hr/ha for removal of 181 plants to 1.6 hr/ha for removal of 689 plants. Resprouting rapidly occurred from residual stem tissues if huisache stems were not grubbed to the first lateral root. Grubbing depth had to be increased as basal trunk diameter increased to ensure huisache mortality. Plants 1 to 4 cm in diameter were killed by grubbing 5 to 10 cm deep; plants with diameters of 6 to 15 cm required grubbing as deep as 20 cm for elimination. Soil disturbed by grubbing revegetated naturally within 15 months after treatment. Standing grass crop was unaffected 20 months after grubbing; but the relative proportions of cool-season grasses, Texas wintergrass and Canada wildrye, were increased, especially in the pits.
• #### Growth Rates of a Cheatgrass Community and Some Associated Factors

Abiotic and biotic factors were found to be related to growth rates of a cheatgrass sward using stepwise regression analyses. Soil temperature and plant tissue nitrogen showed a strong relation with growth rates from initiation of growth to peak production. After peak production, soil temperature was related to declining growth rates. Water stored in the soil profile had a weak relationship with growth rates and plant growth was completed before soil water became limiting. Equations were developed using soil temperature, nitrogen content of plant tissues, and live herbage production to estimate future production of cheatgrass.
• #### Forage Diversity and Dietary Selection by Wintering Mule Deer

During a 30-day grazing trial, six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) at pasture altered their food selection significantly as availability of forage changed. At the beginning of the trial when forbs and grasses were abundant, they comprised better than 50% of the diet; but by the end of the trial when these preferred forages were less abundant, grass and forb declined. Shrub use increased and forb and grass use decreased as snow depths increased. Results support the conjecture that big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis) in excess of 30% in the diet is detrimental to mule deer nutritional health.
• #### Feeding Ecology of Feral Horses in Western Alberta

Perennial shortgrasses were delayed in responding to removal of a dense broom snakeweed population ($387/{\rm m}^{2}$) because of low initial vigor. However, after 1 year, grass production increased by 107% (1,175 kg/ha) and after 2 years, by 324% (2,201 kg/ha) compared to undisturbed stands. Reducing snakeweed density by 25 or 50% did not affect forage production during the 2-year study. Estimated carrying capacity of the shortgrass rangeland was increased from 1 A.U./26 ha to 1 A.U./6.1 ha by the second year after complete removal of broom snakeweed. Juvenile broom snakeweed plants utilized soil water from the upper 15 to 45 cm. Soil water depletion was increased after perennial grasses regained vigor following complete removal of snakeweeds. Precipitation-use efficiency for production of usable forage was 2.1 and 4.3 times greater on broom snakeweed-free rangeland than on infested rangeland at 1 and 2 years, respectively, following removal of snakeweed.
• #### Effects of Picloram and Tebuthiuron Pellets on Sand Shinnery Oak Communities

Picloram and tebuthiuron pellets (10% a.e.) were broadcast onto fair to low-good condition range supporting sand shinnery oak in west Texas. The Sands range site has traditionally been overgrazed and soils are very susceptible to wind erosion. Picloram at 7 kg/ha (a.i) resulted in excessive oak control in 1971. In 1973, 1975, and 1976, herbage yields on the treated plots were the same as on untreated plots. Herbicide application on this site dramatically changed species composition. Applications of tebuthiuron at 1 kg/ha (a.i.), in late spring and winter killed most of the oak. Grass responses to this herbicide were good, but at rates higher than 1 kg/ha some of the better forages were killed allowing false buffalograss, an undesirable annual, to become dominant. Picloram pellets, at 3, 5, and 7 kg/ha, killed all the oak. However, picloram at 1 kg/ha only partially controlled the oak. Picloram pellets were not as detrimental to the plant community as the tebuthiuron. One kg/ha of tebuthiuron or 2 kg/ha of picloram totally controlled the sand shinnery oak on the Brownfield soil.
• #### Clipping of Water-Stressed Blue Grama Affects Proline Accumulation and Productivity

Water-stressed plants accumulate abnormally large amounts of free proline, a protein component. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) was clipped and water-stressed to test whether the degree of proline accumulation might be related to regrowth potential of range grass. Clipping of plants before stress reduced the accumulation of proline in bases of stressed shoots but increased herbage production; clipping after stress speeded the decrease of accumulated proline in shoot bases.
• #### Broom Snakeweed: Effect on Shortgrass Forage Production and Soil Water Depletion

Perennial shortgrasses were delayed in responding to removal of a dense broom snakeweed population (387/m2) because of low initial vigor. However, after 1 year, grass production increased by 107% (1,175 kg/ha) and after 2 years, by 324% (2,201 kg/ha) compared to undisturbed stands. Reducing snakeweed density by 25 or 50% did not affect forage production during the 2-year study. Estimated carrying capacity of the shortgrass rangeland was increased from 1 A.U./26 ha to 1 A.U./6.1 ha by the second year after complete removal of broom snakeweed. Juvenile broom snakeweed plants utilized soil water from the upper 15 to 45 cm. Soil water depletion was increased after perennial grasses regained vigor following complete removal of snakeweeds. Precipitation-use efficiency for production of usable forage was 2.1 and 4.3 times greater on broom snakeweed-free rangeland than on infested rangeland at 1 and 2 years, respectively, following removal of snakeweed.
• #### Broom Snakeweed Control with Tebuthiuron

Broom snakeweed was effectively controlled for at least 3 years with 0.6 kg a.i./ha (80% wettable powder) tebuthiuron on the Southern High Plains. Total herbage production decreased following broom snakeweed control, but grass yield generally increased when the snakeweed was removed. Broom snakeweed control was not affected by application time during the year. However, grass production was significantly reduced for three growing seasons by application of tebuthiuron in May. Grass yield was not affected by applications in either November or January.
• #### Assessing the Hazard of Picloram to Cutthroat Trout

Water concentrations of picloram, comparable with those reported from field investigations, were used to simulate field exposures of cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) to the herbicide. Picloram increased fry mortality in concentrations greater than 1,300 micrograms/liter and reduced fry growth in concentrations above 610 micrograms/liter. The chemical had no adverse effect on fry in concentrations below 290 μg/l. However, if persistent rainfall were to occur, resulting in continuous loss of picloram in runnoff, the maximum allowable concentration might be much lower than 290 micrograms/liter.
• #### An Explanation of the Bolivian Highlands Grazing-Erosion Syndrome

Highland Bolivia is naturally subject to heavy erosion. However the situation is exacerbated by the presence of denuded ranges. Apparently, the large bands of (mainly) sheep and goats, which are the cause of overgrazing, are on or close to the biological limit of the range resource. Why this should be so has been a mystery to outsiders, since all available grazing is subject to private or communal control. The notion that an adequate explanation can be found in free competition for a common property resource is rejected mainly because what appears to be common rangeland really is not. An explanation for overstocking is found in a complex of factors linked to culture and tradition as well as to agronomic forces. Typical pressure for families to maintain herd sizes is reinforced by little preception of erosion as a threat to subsistence and by lack of forage alternatives in bad years. Even at the community level, therefore, there appears to be little incentive voluntarily to reduce grazing. Three nonvoluntary control options are discussed, but all would be difficult to introduce. This "case study" is an illustration of the kind of background knowledge that must be developed in order to combat erosion in third-world settings.