• Aerial Census of Wild Horses in Western Utah

      Frei, M. N.; Peterson, J. S.; Hall, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      The accuracy of aerial censuses in estimating absolute density of wildlife populations varies widely. Aerial censusing of wild horses was done to compare the effects of experience and aircraft type. The difference between aircraft types was not found to be statistically significant, while observer experience was significant at the 5% level. The variability caused by these factors places considerable uncertainty on projections of rate of increase based upon a comparison of two or more aerial censuses.
    • Brush Control on Sandy Rangelands in Central Alberta

      Bailey, A. W.; Anderson, H. G. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Balsam poplar, aspen, and willows that had invaded subirrigated sandy rangeland were treated with (1) prescribed spring burning, (2) the herbicide 2,4-D ester, and (3) prescribed burning followed by 2,4-D ester. After 5 years, burning and spraying had reduced brush the most. Brush reinvasion was occurring rapidly on all treated areas. Stand openings of about one quarter hectare in an 8 meter high poplar forest resulting from these treatments did persist for at least 5 years. Treatments were effective enough to lower the forest cover and in some cases increase forage production. Repeated burning and spraying substantially reduced the density of reinvading woody suckers.
    • Carbohydrate Levels and Control of Blackjack Oak and Winged Elm Treated with Tebuthiuron and 2,4,5-T

      Shroyer, J. P.; Stritzke, J. F.; Croy, L. I. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      The effects of tebuthiuron N-[5(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-triadiazol-2-yl]-N,N′ dimethylurea) and 2,4,5-T[(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] on total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in the roots of blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica Muench.) and winged elm (Ulmus alata Michx) were evaluated. Tebuthiuron was applied to the soil in February 1976 at 2.24 kg/ha and 2,4,5-T was foliar applied at 2.24 kg/ha in May 1976. Tree kill 1 year after treatment with tebuthiuron was 100% for both woody species. No tree kill resulted from treatment with 2,4,5-T, and canopy reduction after 1 year was 50 and 70% for winged elm and blackjack oak, respectively. The TNC content of both winged elm and blackjack oak roots was significantly reduced following application of 2,4,5-T and tebuthiuron. The TNC content of roots from trees growing in tebuthiuron-treated areas did not significantly increase after treatment (TNC contents of 6 and 7%, respectively for blackjack oak and winged elm on October 13). There was some increase in TNC content of roots from trees sprayed with 2,4,5-T, and by October the TNC content in blackjack oak and winged elm roots was 10 and 19%, respectively. This compared to TNC contents of 36 and 32%, respectively for untreated blackjack oak and winged elm.
    • Arrowleaf Balsamroot and Mules Ear Seed Germination

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      The germination of arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata) and mules ear (Wyethia amplexicaulis) was studied. Both species are important coarse forbs on sagebrush (Artemisia) rangelands in western North America. Germination of the seeds (achenes) of both species was enhanced by cool-moist stratification, 4 weeks at 2 or 5 degrees C for mules ear and 12 weeks for arrowleaf balsamroot. After stratification, mules ear seeds germinated at a wide range of constant and alternating temperatures. Germination of arrowleaf balsamroot seeds was greatly enhanced by stratification, but even after stratification, germination was restricted to comparatively low temperatures.
    • Botanical Composition of Central Texas Rangeland Influences Quality of Winter Cow Diets

      Stuth, J. W.; Kirby, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Winter diets of dry, pregnant cows were investigated on a Blackland range site in mid- and high-poor condition. Under similar amounts of available forage, an advanced successional stage, i.e. change in species composition within a range condition class, resulted in increased dietary protein (CP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and phosphorus (P). A slightly larger abundance of cool-season grasses on the pasture in higher poor condition allowed the animals to select a diet adequate in CP, DOM and P approximately 3 weeks earlier in spring than on the mid-poor condition pasture.
    • A Simple, Lightweight Point Frame

      Sharrow, S. H.; Tober, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      A simple, lightweight, yet rugged point frame is described. This frame can be easily constructed at a relatively low cost (1975 cost of materials=$6.00 per frame).
    • Soil Ingestion by Mule Deer in Northcentral Colorado

      Arthur, W. J.; Alldredge, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Soil ingestion rates calculated from titanium concentrations in feces from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) feeding in a grassland-shrub community in northcentral Colorado in g/day (mean +/- SD) were: spring, 29.6 +/- 20.1; summer, 7.7 +/- 10.2; fall, 8.8 +/- 6.5; and winter 18.3 +/- 10.8. Based on observations of feeding tame deer, intake in winter appeared to be primarily due to direct soil ingestion from pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) mounds, roads, and other areas of exposed soil. The greatest intake during spring was likely due to indirect consumption of soil adhering to ingested vegetation. Soils from locations where tame deer had consumed soil were analyzed for trace elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Na, and Zn) and compared to areas where no soil intake was observed. No significant differences (alpha=0.05) in mean levels of these elements was detected between areas. Most likely, deer at Rocky Flats were not selecting soils based strictly on mineral content, but instead were consuming soil indiscriminately. Ingested soil may provide a source of trace elements as well as a mode of entry for environmental pollutants.
    • The Western Harvester Ants: Their Density and Hill Size in Relation to Herbaceous Productivity and Big Sagebrush Cover

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Ant colony density decreased but the denuded disc area increased as big sagebrush crown cover increased and as herbaceous productivity decreased.
    • The Value of Fresh-stripped Topsoil as a Source of Useful Plants for Surface Mine Revegetation

      Howard, G. S.; Samuel, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Topsoil from nearby undisturbed areas was stripped and directly laid over regraded overburden to a depth of about 20 cm at Kemmerer, Wyo., and Oak Creek, Colo. Native plant response was determined after two growing seasons with only natural precipitation. Rhizomatous species were the most valuable for establishing the perennial plants. Plant density averaged 4.16 and 1.77 plants/m2 at Kemmerer and Oak Creek sites, respectively, but the density was too low to meet State and Federal revegetation standards without additional seeding. Plants established from fresh-stripped topsoil are a plus in revegetation as opposed to stockpiled topsoil where these plants are lost.
    • Occurrence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in North American Grasses

      Waller, S. S.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      A literature survey was made for the occurrence of C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in the United States Gramineae. Distinctive characteristics of the two photosynthetic pathways are discussed. Leaf anatomy, CO2 compensation point, net enhancement of photosynthesis in oxygen-deficient atmosphere, 13 C discrimination, and initial product labeling were criteria selected to evaluate data for 6 subfamilies including 25 tribes, 138 genera, and 632 species. The Arundinoideae, Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae, and Pooideae (Festucoideae) are composed of species with C3 pathways. All tribes within the Eragrostoideae have C4 pathways with the exception of Unioleae. Within the Panicoideae, the Andropogoneae and all of the Paniceae, excepting the genera Sacciolepus, Isachne, Oplismenus, Amphicarpum, and Panicum, have C4 pathways. The subgenus Dichanthelium within Panicum is C3 while the Eupanicum subgenus contains plants with both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways.
    • Response of Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. and Sporobolus flexuosus (Thurb.) Rybd. to Season of Defoliation

      Miller, R. F.; Donart, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Production, total nonstructural carbohydrates, and crown diameters were measured to evaluate the effects of season of clipping on black grama and mesa dropseed. Vegetative reproduction was also monitored for black grama. Early defoliation of both black grama and mesa dropseed had less impact on plant vigor than continuous defoliation or defoliation during the last half of the growing season. Black grama plants clipped during or after flowering, or continuously through the growing season, produced less herbage in the following year than those plants clipped during the vegetative stage. Removal of 65% of the current year's growth any time during the growing season significantly reduced stolon numbers on black grama. Mesa dropseed clipped during maturity, during flowering, or clipped continuously throughout the growing season was negatively affected on one or more of the plant parameters measured. Clipping during the vegetative state had little apparent effect on plant vigor.
    • Survival of Alfalfa in Five Semiarid Range Seedings

      Rumbaugh, M. D.; Pedersen, M. W. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Selected cultivars and strains of alfalfa were seeded at five locations in Northern Utah during 1953 and 1954. Average annual precipitation ranged from 20 to 36 cm. Observations and detailed plant counts showed a decline in alfalfa stand densities at four of the five sites. The reduction in plant density at two sites was attributed primarily to livestock grazing and to severe damage by rabbits. Moisture stress was an additional factor at two other sites. Plant density has remained high at the fifth location for 23 years.
    • Influence of Soil, Vegetation, and Grazing Management on Infiltration Rate and Sediment Production of Edwards Plateau Rangeland

      McGinty, W. A.; Smeins, F. E.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Terminal infiltration rates for one pasture in a 4-pasture deferred-rotation grazing system and a 27-year exclosure were found to be similar (10.40 and 10.24 cm/hr, respectively). A heavily, continuously grazed pasture exhibited less than one-half the infiltration rate (4.41 cm/hr) of the rotation pasture and exclosure. Grazed pastures were stocked at approximately the same rate (5.0 ha/AU/yr). The continuously grazed pasture also had greater sediment loss (211 kg/ha) than the rotation pasture and exclosure (134 and 160 kg/ha, respectively). Infiltration rate and sediment production were significantly influenced by plant biomass, bulk density, depression storage, and soil depth.
    • Forage Selection by Mule Deer on Winter Range Grazed by Sheep in Spring

      Smith, M. A.; Malechek, J. C.; Fulgham, K. O. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Late spring grazing by sheep altered the amount of several forage categories available to deer the subsequent autumn and winter. Total herbaceous plant material was much reduced by spring-time sheep grazing, but regrowth following fall precipitation increased the proportion of green herbaceous material available. Current year's growth of bitterbrush was also increased relative to the nongrazed situation due to the release of moisture and nutrients accompanying the removal of herbaceous plants by sheep. Subsequently winter diets of mule deer on the sheep-grazed area were higher in herbaceous components but lower in shrub components than on the adjacent area where sheep had not been previously grazed. Implications of these findings are that quality of deer diets was not detrimentally affected where sheep had grazed during the preceding spring and a much greater animal yield is possible through dual use.
    • Grazing System Identification

      Lacey, J. R.; Van Poollen, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Grazing system terminology is a problem in the range management field. The proposed dichotomous key standardizes terminology and facilitates communication.
    • Dry Matter Accumulation of Four Warm Season Grasses in the Nebraska Sandhills

      Gilbert, W. L.; Perry, L. J.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Grass development and seasonal growth patterns are used in making range management decisions. Plant development and dry matter accumulation of four warm-season grasses were studied in the Nebraska Sandhills. Development of the grasses were slowed during 1974 due to low precipitation. Plant, leaf blade, and stem dry matter accumulation per shoot increased with successive harvests and were considerably greater both years for the tall grasses, sand bluestem [Andropogon hallii Hack.] and switchgrass [Panicum virgatum L.], than for the mid-grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash.] and sand lovegrass [Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood]. Leaf blade to stem ratios decreased with successive harvests for all grasses. Dry matter accumulation of the tall grasses was affected more by the low rainfall in 1974 than that of the mid-grasses. At the last harvest, decrease in stem dry matter accumulation was considerably greater than the decrease in leaf blade dry matter accumulation in 1974 as compared to 1973.
    • Cattle Grazing Impacts on Small Cleared Areas in Dense American Elm Woodlands

      George, J. F.; Powell, J. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Removal of overstory canopy of American elm (Ulmus americana) greatly increased the utilization of understory herbaceous vegetation by cattle. Cattle browsing killed all the elm sprouts.
    • Evaluation of Fertilizer on Pronghorn Winter Range in Alberta

      Barrett, M. W. (Society for Range Management, 1979-01-01)
      Nitrogen (N) alone, and in combination with phosphorus (P), was applied to sagebrush (Artemisia cana)-grassland vegetation which formed part of a traditional winter range for pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) in southeastern Alberta. Fertilizer was applied once, in April of 1975, and forage quality, forage production, and pronghorn response were monitored for the next three growing seasons. Forage quality on fertilized plots increased initially, but by late summer of each year, nutritional content was essentially similar in fertilized and control areas. Forage production increased markedly in each of the 3 years. The application of P in addition to N had little impact on forage quality and production. In year two and three following fertilizer treatment, N levels of 84, 168, and 252 kg/ha resulted in progressively more forage produced with each increase in N. Pronghorns selectively utilized the fertilized plots more heavily than adjacent control areas. The inability to increase protein content in cured samples of sagebrush and pasture sage through fertilizer treatment detracts from the value of this procedure for improving pronghorn winter ranges. The general increases in total forage production and hence total protein production and the preference of pronghorns for treated areas, however, suggest that the procedure should be evaluated further.