• A Rapid Method of Browse Biomass Estimation in a Forest Habitat

      Bobek, B.; Bergstrom, R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      The accuracy and efficiency of the browse biomass estimation for a young forest plantation in central Sweden was compared using two different methods. Using the traditional harvest plot technique, the amount of browse was determined as 40.4 g dry weight/m2; while the new technique gave a similar result, i.e., 36.4 g dry weight/m2. The new method employs the relationship between the height-diameter index of trees and the total biomass of browse per tree as well as the regular twig count. It was found that the new technique is approximately 11 times more efficient than the regular browse harvest technique. The possibility of application of the new method in forest habitats is discussed.
    • Ages of Big Sagebrush Following Brush Control

      Bartolome, J. W.; Heady, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Six stands of big sagebrush, which had been plowed or sprayed earlier to remove brush and enhance understory vegetation, were sampled in southeastern Oregon to determine age structure of the shrubs and to evaluate rates of reinvasion. Five of the six stands contained big sagebrush older than the treatment. In three project areas plants established the first year following treatment formed the largest age class, 12 to 24% of the stand, indicating that reinvasion begins immediately after treatment. Most reestablishment occurred in the first several years after treatment for all locations. Establishment occurred either from seeds present in the soil at the time of treatment or from seeds produced as the plants became established and seed bearing. Treated sagebrush/grass ranges should remain highly productive under proper grazing use despite reinvasion of big sagebrush.
    • Development of Multi-Camp Grazing Systems in the Southern Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa

      Howell, L. N. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      The evolution of multi-camp schemes from nonselective grazing to short duration grazing management on Hillside Ranch in the False Karoo in the Southern Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa, is described. The grazing system resulted in the return and increase of rare and unknown grasses. The conclusion is reached that grazing management with multi-camp schemes is useful in counteracting varying climatic conditions and producing a grass cover under adverse growing conditions. In addition it is shown that livestock can produce well under such systems.
    • Diets of the Black-tailed Hare in Steppe Vegetation

      Uresk, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Thirteen species of plants were identified in fecal pellets of black-tailed hares collected from sagebrush and bitterbrush communities in southcentral Washington. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that yarrow was the most common food item in the diet, making up 25% of the overall diet. Other food items in decreasing order of importance were: turpentine cymopterus > hoary aster > needleandthread > and Jim Hill mustard. Preference indices indicated that needleandthread was the most preferred plant in the sagebrush community, while yarrow was the most preferred plant in the bitterbrush community. Although the communities were not similar in plant species frequency of occurrence and cover, the hare diets were quite similar in both communities, indicating that hares were actively seeking preferred foods.
    • Effect of Burning on Infiltration, Sediment, and Other Soil Properties in a Mesquite-Tobosagrass Community

      Ueckert, D. N.; Whigham, T. L.; Spears, B. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Burning had a minimal effect on rainfall infiltration and sediment load in runoff from a mesquite-tobosagrass community on slopes less than 1%. Most soil physical properties that affect infiltration on these heavy clay soils were not altered significantly by burning. Potential soil loss in runoff can be minimized by burning under relatively moist conditions. Larger soil aggregates were broken down by burning and had not returned to equilibrium on 5-year-old burns. Trends in levels of soil organic carbon, salinity, sodium, and potassium following burning varied with degree of soil cracking, which is a function of soil moisture.
    • Effect of Grasses and Soil Properties on Wind Erosion in Sand Blowouts

      Malakouti, M. J.; Lewis, D. T.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Many areas where wind erosion has been severe exist on the sandy rangeland in northcentral and western Nebraska. These areas are called "blowouts," and because of their large number and sometimes large size, forage production in the area is significantly reduced. It is necesary to reestablish vegetation on the blowouts in order to effectively manage the rangeland where they occur. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of eight species of grass in revegetating the blowouts and in controlling wind erosion in them. The major factors related to stabilizing the soil surface in the blowouts were the amount of vegetative cover produced by the grasses and the length of time required for the protective cover to become established. In most cases the more vigorous rhizome producing grasses were most effective in becoming rapidly established and controlling wind erosion. However, none of the grasses studied were as effective in controlling wind erosion as was a mulch of prairie hay. A significant negative correlation existed between soil organic matter content and movement of sand by wind.
    • Effects of Cattle Grazing on Shore Vegetation of Fluctuating Water Level Reservoirs

      Hoffman, G. R.; Stanley, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Shore vegetation around Lakes Oahe and Sakakawea, mainstem Missouri River reservoirs, is a mosaic of shifting plant populations that responds to a combination of limiting factors including water level fluctuations and cattle grazing. Shore vegetation is important as it provides some wildlife habitat and spawning habitat for certain fish species, reduces erosion, adds to the aesthetic value of the shore environment, and provides forage for cattle grazing. The present study was done in 1976 to document the effects of cattle grazing on shore vegetation at seven sites that were inundated for a prolonged period in 1975. Some of the dominant shore species were Horedeum jubatum, Agropyron smithii, A. repens, Chenopodium album, Iva xanthifolia, Kochia scoparia, Melilotus ssp., Polygonum achoreum, P. lapathifolium, Rumex crispus,, and Xanthium strumarium. Solanum rostratum and Grindelia squarrosa along with several other species were favored by grazing. Floristically, ungrazed plots were more similar than grazed plots when pairs of sites were compared. Total plant coverages inside exclosures at three sites on Pierre Shale-derived soils ranged from 54% to 97% and biomass values ranged from 458 g m-2 to 720 g m-2, while outside exclosures at the same sites total plant coverages ranged from 11% to 82% and biomass values were 19 g m-2 to 259 g m-2. At one site, on loess-derived substrate, total plant coverages inside and outside the exclosure were 116% and 77% respectively, and biomass values were 606 g m-2 inside and 210 g m-2 outside the exclosure. All three sites on Lake Sakakawea are on glacial till-derived substrates, and plant coverages ranged from 128% to 155% inside exclosures where biomass values were 478 g m-2 to 1,766 g m-2. Outside the exclosures the total plant coverages were 24% to 144% and biomass values were 15 g m-2 to 474 g m-2. Shore vegetation develops between periods of high water; thus annual fluctuations in water levels, along with cattle grazing as limiting factors, keep shore vegetation in an early seral stage. Minimizing both water level fluctuations and cattle grazing for a given reservoir during a given year, preferably a 2-year period, would permit considerably more shore vegetational development. This regimen, if rotated among the six reservoirs, would over a period of years, benefit development of shore vegetation.
    • Effects of Picloram and Tebuthiuron on Establishment of Ryegrass Winter Pasture

      Baur, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. (including L. multiflorum Lam.)] was established in plots 75 days (and 16 cm rainfall) after treatment with spray and granule formulations of picloram at a rate of 3.4 kg/ha. Tebuthiuron spray and granule formulations applied at the rate of 1.1 kg/ha 261 days (and 68 cm rainfall) before planting provided effective weed control and allowed successful grass establishment. Tebuthiuron spray and granules at 3.4 kg/ha, however, prevented both weed growth and ryegrass establishment when applied 261 days before planting. Sufficient residues from this rate of tebuthiuron were present after 499 days (and 116 cm rainfall) to prevent revegetation by johnsongrass on 95% of the treated area. The soil type in the plot area was a black clay loam classified as udic pellustert.
    • Forage Intake by Grazing Livestock: A Review

      Cordova, F. J.; Wallace, J. D.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      A wealth of experimental data has been accumulated on quantitative intake of pen-fed livestock; such information has been widely employed to develop a keener nutritional knowledge of such animals. Data of this type are, however, distressingly lacking for grazing livestock. The procedures used for measuring intake by animals under grazing conditions have often been disappointing, and many have provided unreliable data. Forage intake measurements with grazing livestock are more commonly expressed as g DM or OM/W kg^0.75 or simply as a percent of body weight. Most estimates of intake for cattle and sheep grazing ranges in Western United States fall within the range of 40 to 90 g OM/W kg^0.75 or from 1 to 2.8% of body weight. Intake usually decreases with advancing plant maturity.
    • Growth Rates and Phenology of Some Southern California Grassland Species

      Hufstader, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Growth rates of southern California grassland species showed significant correlation with rainfall from November 1972 to June 1973. Maximum growth for the species ripgut grass, foxtail chess, wild oats, black mustard, and geniculate mustard occurred during winter and early spring. Plant development for these species began in late fall and ceased by mid-spring. It was hypothesized that species characteristics and slope exposures are important factors in plant development subsequent to germination, whereas, rainfall is critical to germination and growth rates.
    • Patterns of Natural Revegetation in Arid Southeastern Utah

      Jaynes, R. A.; Harper, K. T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Current and pending legislation will require that lands disturbed by mining activities be revegetated. Since few adapted species are now available for reclamation of such lands in the arid zone, this study was initiated to identify native species that are successful colonizers of disturbed sites. The native vegetation of bladed roadways in the Kane County, Utah, was sampled to identify natural colonizer species. Sixteen successful colonizers have been identified and studied to determine (1) their relative colonizing efficiency, and (2) their individual responses to elevational, soil textural, and other environmental gradients. The species fall into two natural groups: one group is well adapted to lower benchlands with sandy clay loam soils and the other is adapted to upper benchlands with sandy loam soils. Some of the species that appear to be most successful in initially revegetating disturbed areas include: (1) upper benchlands-Indian ricegrass, galleta grass, sand aster, pepperweed, broom snakeweed, small-leaf scarlet globemallow, and blue locoweed; (2) lower benchlands-shadscale, desert molly, cut-leaf globemallow, and pink locoweed.
    • Plant and Soil Water Potentials Following Fire in a Northern Mixed Grassland

      Redmann, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Leaf water potential, osmotic potential, and soil moisture were measured in mixed grassland during the growing season following an October fire. Plant and soil water stress increased near the end of the May-August period in both burned and control sites. Potentials in nothern wheatgrass and junegrass become lower in burned than in control plots as the growing season progressed. Increased plant water stress was judged sufficient to account for the reductions in productivity which have been observed after fire.
    • Prescribed Burning of a Festuca-Stipa Grassland

      Bailey, A. W.; Anderson, M. L. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      The Festuca-Stipa grassland community was found to be well adapted to surviving a single prescribed burn. Coverage of rough fescue was reduced from one to three growing seasons after fire depending upon season burned and stage of growth. Spring burning benefited the production of seed heads in western porcupine grass but fall burning reduced its cover and production of seed heads. Annual herbage production was neither increased nor decreased if burning occurred when plants were dormant. Species composition shifted in favour of perennial forbs for at least 3 years after a burn.
    • Propagation of Nevada Shrubs by Stem Cuttings

      Everett, R. L.; Meeuwig, R. O.; Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Stem cuttings of 54 Nevada shrub species varied in rooting capacity. Among those species most easily propagated were Artemisia spinescens, Atriplex lentiformis, Ceratoides lanatu, Grayia spinosa, Lepidospartum latisquamum, Prunus andersonii, Rosa woodsii, Salvia dorrii, and Vitis arizonica. Semihardwood cuttings were superior to either softwood or hardwood cuttings in rooting success. Differences in rooting potential among cuttings of the same species taken from different sites were also apparent.
    • The Effect of Fire on Woody Plant Selection by Nesting Nongame Birds

      Renwald, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Selection of woody plants by nesting nongame birds was investigated in burns of several different ages in a honey mesquite-tobosagrass community in central Texas. Lotebush and honey mesquite were the most important plants used with nesting activity recorded in 30.3% of all lotebushes inspected. The average volume of 97 occupied lotebushes was 1.6m3. Above-ground age of the smallest plants used averaged 6.1 years. The majority (68.6%) of the lotebushes counted in density plots were resprouts following fires and only 3.0 plants/ha were actually available as nest sites.
    • The microhistological technique: testing two central assumptions in south-central New Mexico

      Havstad, K. M.; Donart, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1978-11-01)
      Two central assumptions of the microhistological technique were tested for their accuracy. The estimation of particle density by relative frequency proved to be accurate for equal-sized plant fragments. Ratios of identifiable to nonidentifiable fragments were neither equal to one nor equal between grass and forb fragments.