Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Your institution may also have access to current issues through library or institutional subscriptions.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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Recent Submissions

  • Toxicity of Saponins in Alfombrilla (Drymaria arenarioides)

    Williams, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Alfombrilla (Drymaria arenarioides H.B.K.) is a highly toxic short-lived perennial of the Caryophyllaceae family found in Mexico. The species has gradually spread northward through Chihuahua and Sonora and now threatens to invade the southwestern United States. Alfombrilla was analyzed for seven common poisonous compounds. Of these, only saponins, which assayed 3.0% of the plant dry weight, were present at toxic levels. Sheep were killed when fed dried alfombrilla at 0.5% of body weight and with saponin extracted from an equivalent weight of plant. When 1-week-old chicks were fed alfombrilla at 2 to 3% of body weight and with an equivalent weight of pure saponin extracted from the plant, they were acutely poisoned. Thin-layer chromatography showed that six saponins were present in alfombrilla.
  • Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates in the Vegetation Components of a Shortgrass Prairie Ecosystem Under Stress Conditions

    Bokhari, U. G. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) contents and its distribution in five above- and belowground compartments of the producer subsystem were studied under control, water, nitrogen, and water + nitrogen treatments on the native shortgrass prairie ecosystem. Results indicated that water and water + nitrogen treated plants accumulated significantly greater amounts of TNC (g m-2) in both the aboveground and belowground compartments than the control and nitrogen fertilized plants. Greater amounts of TNC in the water and water + nitrogen treatments were accumulated primarily because of greater biomass production and not as a result of greater TNC concentration (percent dry weight). Significantly greater amounts of TNc (50% and 80%) were channeled below ground than above ground in all four treatments. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated positive relationship between TNC (g m-2), TNC concentration (percent dry weight), and certain abiotic variables that appear to limit growth and TNC accumulation in different treatments.
  • Spring Forage Selection by Tame Mule Deer on Big Sagebrush Range, British Columbia

    Willms, W.; McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    A study was made on a spring range to determine forage selection by deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) during a critical period in their nutritive status. The period from mid-February to the end of May was characterized by a diet changing from shrub to grass to shrub and forb. Generally, selection favoured the most recently produced grass and forb species. Of the grass species, Sandberg bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) constituted the most bites in the diet but bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) was preferred. Considerable variation occurred in the diets among the deer. One deer preferred shrubs while the other two preferred grass.
  • Shredding and Spraying Honey Mesquite

    Boyd, W. E.; Sosebee, R. E.; Herndon, E. B. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Shredding and spraying honey mesquite is an effective method of control. Overall, the highest percent root mortalities were obtained from treatments applied in May, but shredding and spraying were effective when applied during other months of the year, even during the fall and winter. Root mortalities obtained from aqueous solutions of either 2,4,5-T amine or picloram plus 2,4,5-T during the year were dependent upon water content and temperature in the upper 15 cm of the soil (2,4,5-T, R=0.88; picloram plus 2,4,5-T, R=0.82). Average root mortalities for all months were consistently the greatest from picloram plus 2,4,5-T (57%), followed by dicamba (34%) and dicamba plus 2,4,5-T (31%). Root mortalities obtained from 2,4,5-T amine (26%) and 2,4,5-T ester (25%) were the lowest obtained in the study.
  • Range Improvements, Economics, and Financially Marginal Ranching Units—A Perspective

    Pitt, M. D.; Kerr, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Reseeding of spring ranges, development of wet meadows, and direct income transfers were compared as potential methods for maintaining financially marginal ranching units. Selection of the most appropriate method varied with decision-making levels, as society, governmental agencies, and individual firms all possess different evaluative criteria. If society wishes to encourage the ranching community and to increase rangeland productivity, then economists and biologists must combine their efforts to ensure that these two-fold objectives are achieved with a least-cost alternative.
  • Predicting Cattle Damage in First-Year Loblolly Pine Plantations

    King, D. R.; Bailey, R. L.; Walston, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Pine damage and survival were correlated with forage utilization. Damage can be predicted from forage utilization but survival is affected by many other factors and cannot be predicted precisely. A regression is presented which will allow a range manager to predict the amount of pine damage to expect in first-year loblolly pine plantations from forage utilization data.
  • Plants Emerging from Soils Under Three Range Condition Classes of Desert Grassland

    Dwyer, D. D.; V., E. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    This research was conducted to determine emergence of seedlings from surface soil collected on black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland sites in good, fair, and poor condition classes. The species that emerged and their numbers were compared to the species actually found on the field locations. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The fair condition site had more seedlings emerge than the other two and of these seedlings by far the most were grasses; (2) Mesa dropseed (Sporobolus flexuosus) was the most abundant grass species emerging from collected soil for all three condition classes, but it was much more abundant from fair condition soil; (3) Though black grama dominated the good condition range, emergence of black grama seedlings in the greenhouse from collected soil was much below expectations; (4) More plant species occurred in the field than emerged from collected soils; (5) Secondary successional patterns cannot be predicted accurately from techniques used in this study; (6) Mesa dropseed appears to be a key mid-successional species, filling a broad niche from low good to low fair range condition.
  • Persistent Atrazine Toxicity in Mohave Desert Shrub Communities

    Hunter, R.; Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Atrazine (11.2kg/ha active ingredient) was applied in 1967 and 1968 to three areas of the northern Mohave Desert to destroy perennial shrub cover. Of the 23 perennial species 12 were completely eliminated. Two species, Mohave Yucca (Yucca schidigera) and big galleta (Hilaria rigida) showed no effects. Plants of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Nevada Ephedra (Ephedra nevadensis), and range ratany (Krameria parvifolia) were severely damaged but many survived through crown sprouting. Scattered plants of the invading species shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), desertalyssum (Lepidium fremontii), and Russian thistle (Salsola paulsenii) became established by 1975 on the fertile mounds under killed shrubs. Glasshouse tests of seedling survival on soils sampled eight years after treatment showed 65 to 95% mortality, as compared to 3 to 8% mortality on control soils.
  • Moisture and Temperature Requirements for Adventitious Root Development in Blue Grama Seedlings

    Briske, D. D.; Wilson, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    The environmental requirements for adventitious root initiation and growth in 22-day-old blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) seedlings were determined under controlled temperature and soil moisture conditions. The seminal root was maintained in moist soil; but surface soil (in which adventitious roots may develop) was independently maintained at various degrees of drought. Drought treatments were imposed by controlling the relative humidity of air above the soil and around seedling crowns. In the 100% humidity treatment, elongation rates of the longest root per seedling at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 0.40, 0.74, 1.04, and 1.22 cm per day, respectively. In the 96% humidity treatment, elongation rates at these temperatures were 0.28, 0.36, 0.38, and 0.44 cm per day, respectively. When the seminal root is growing in moist soil, blue grama seedlings can initiate adventitious roots during severe drought conditions in the surface soil. However, adventitious root growth adequate for seedling establishment will probably not occur at moisture and temperature conditions of less than 96% humidity (-50 bars) and 15 degrees C.
  • Interrelations of the Physical Properties of Coppice Dune and Vesicular Dune Interspace Soils with Grass Seedling Emergence

    Wood, M. K.; Blackburn, W. H.; Eckert, R. E.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Vesicular soil surface horizons are found throughout the arid and semiarid areas of the world associated with sparse vegetation. In the Great Basin this horizon occurs in the surface 5 or 8 cm of dune interspace soil. Vesicular horizons are characterized by a high silt content, low organic matter, poor aggregation, and low infiltration rates. Our intent was to study the influence of organic matter removal on vesicular development and to determine the effect of a vesicular horizon on seedling emergence. Removal of organic matter from coppice dune soil resulted in a poorly aggregated vesicular soil with properties similar to those of the untreated interspace soil. Crested wheatgrass and squirreltail seedling emergence was poor and seedling stress was high in vesicular dune interspace soil.
  • Effects of Predator Control on Angora Goat Survival in South Texas

    Guthery, F. S.; Beasom, S. L. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Predator control was conducted in South Texas during January-July 1975 and 1976 to determine its effects on productivity and survival of Angora goats. The control effort, when compared to an area receiving no treatment, reduced activity of coyotes and bobcats by 80%. Predators, mainly coyotes, killed 33 and 16% of the known kid crop on untreated and treated pastures, respectively. Because predators apparently were responsible for most unknown losses, the true predation loss was as high as 95 and 59%, respectively, of the known kid crop. The net kid crop under intense predator control was 27 times greater than that under no control, but the crop under treatment was only 13.5% because predation losses were still high. Coyotes killed 49 of 204 nannies (91% of losses) in an untreated pasture. They killed none in a treated pasture, but 10% of 205 nannies succumbed to nonpredator mortality. The data indicate that, in regions of high coyote density, intense localized predator control with traps, snares, and M-44's could curtail predation on adult goats, but would be insufficient to prevent heavy losses of kids.
  • Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Practices Following Wildfire in a Degraded Big Sagebrush-Downy Brome Community

    Evans, R. A.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Alternative rehabilitation practices were evaluated on a big sagebrush/grassland community burned in a wildfire. One and two years after the fire, perennial grasses were seeded and sprouts of rabbitbrush and other sprouting species were sprayed with 2,4-D for control. Grazed and ungrazed conditions were compared. Results indicated the desirability of promptly rehabilitating burned rangeland communities by seeding crested or intermediate wheatgrass the first fall after wildfire before downy brome had an opportunity to dominate the site. Reestablishment of brush was by sprouting and by natural seeding. Brush encroachment after fire was lessened by occupying the site with perennial grasses. The effects of spraying brush sprouts was transitory, especially with rabbitbrush. Rehabilitation after fire without grazing management was unsuccessful.
  • Ecological Relationships between Pinyon-Juniper and True Mountain Mahogany Stands in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    Greenwood, L. R.; Brotherson, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Ecological relationships between true mountain mahogany and pinyon-juniper stands in the Uintah Basin, Utah, were measured to detect differences between the two community types. The mountain mahogany community is dominated by grasses and shrubs, while the pinyon-juniper vegetation consists primarily of trees and annual plants. Soil depth is greatest in the pinyon-juniper areas. Slickrock often covers as much as 80% of the mountain mahogany stands. Soil was sampled from beneath and between the mahogany shrubs and the pinyon and juniper trees. The pH of soil from beneath mahogany shrubs was significantly (P < 0.001) more alkaline than that from beneath pinyon and juniper trees. Soluble salt concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) less in soil from beneath mountain mahogany shrubs than in soil from between shrubs. A reverse situation occurred in the pinyon-juniper stands.
  • Control of Huisache with Soil Applied Herbicides

    Bovey, R. W.; Meyer, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Soil active herbicides were investigated for control of huisache. Tebuthiuron and bromacil were usually more effective than other herbicide sprays when applied to the soil surface or subsurface in bands spaced 4 ft apart. Karbutilate and prometone were intermediate in effect, whereas picloram, dicamba, 2,3,6-TBA, and diuron were relatively ineffective in the Houston black clay soil used in this study. Subsurface sprays were usually superior to surface treatment for all herbicides investigated. Spacing of tebuthiuron granules in bands at 6, 10, 15, or 20 ft apart showed little difference in control of huisache at 2 or 4 lb/acre. Placement of granular herbicides in bands was superior to broadcast application at 2 lb/acre, but not at 4 lb/acre.
  • Contributions to the Taxonomy of Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Astereae compositae) and Other Chrysothamnus Species Using Paper Chromatography

    McArthur, E. D.; Hanks, D. L.; Plummer, A. P.; Blauer, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Chromatographic patterns of phenolic compounds were determined for each of the common subspecies of the widespread range shrub Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (low rabbitbrush), some other Chrysothamnus taxa, and some related Compositae genera. Each subspecies of C. viscidiflorus exhibited variation across its geographical range, but within sites the patterns were consistent. Chromatographic pattern distributions suggest a predominance of self-pollination in C. viscidiflorus; however, the limited outcrossing has important genetic implications. Analysis of the chromatographic spot patterns revealed three groups or clusters within C. viscidiflorus. Surprisingly, C. greenei clustered more closely to some C. viscidiflorus subspecies than these subspecies clustered with other C. viscidiflorus subspecies. C. greenei clustered with ssp. lanceolatus and stenophyllus. Ssp. viscidiflorus clustered s > 0.70 with ssp. latifolius and a group of collections intermediate in morphology between viscidiflorus and lanceolatus. It shares some intense spots with these taxa. Subspecies puberulus did not cluster at s = > 70 with any other taxon. Chromatographic data supported the independent species status of C. linifolius and the internal integrity of the three large species complexes in Chrysothamnus-C. viscidiflorus, C. nauseosus, and C. parryi. The genus Petradoria had high a values with Chrysothamnus, as did Haplopappus bloomeri. Other shrubby Compositae (Xanthocephalum sarothrae and Lepidospartum latisquamum) had much lower s values with Chrysothamnus. Chromatography complements morphology in delimiting taxonomic rank. Each Chrysothamnus taxon should be evaluated on its merits.
  • Cattle Diets on Irrigated Pasture

    Yates, D. A.; Wallace, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility of grazed forages collected during June, July, and August were compared. Protein in grazed orchardgrass was usually higher than that from alta fescue and forages representing either orchardgrass or fescue were higher in protein than tall wheatgrass forage. During August, protein in grazed forages from all pastures was higher and fiber content lower than during June or July. Lignin content in grazed forage was highest for orchardgrass, intermediate for wheatgrass, and lowest for fescue. Digestibility favored orchardgrass over either fescue or wheatgrass. During the 7-day sampling periods of each month, the quality of diets selected by cattle decreased as sampling period progressed. Suggestions are offered as to when irrigated pasture might be more beneficially used in an integrated system with native range.
  • An Information Storage-Retrieval System for Resource Managers

    Rathbun, C. K.; Starkey, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    An effective information storage and retrieval system is described. The system is inexpensive, and allows convenient cross referencing. It is especially useful for filing reprints and articles, but can also be used for photograhs, microfiche, research data, and various other items.
  • A simple method of converting rangeland drills to experimental plot seeders

    Vogel, K. P. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
    Rangeland drills can be converted to experimental plot drills by mounting a cone seeder and a spinner divider over the seed box. The cone seeder feeds a uniform amount of seed over the length of a plot and the spinner divider splits the seed into fractions with each fraction going to a different planting unit of the drill. Only one packet containing the amount of pure live seed to plant a plot is needed. Converted drills are self-cleaning. Numerous forage species can be seeded in contiguous plots without modifying or recalibrating the planter.