• An Economic Analysis of Retention of Yearlings on Range and Potential Effects on Beef Production

      Hewlett, D. B.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Optimum range livestock marketing schemes were developed for two typical Utah ranch sizes (150 and 300 head of brood cows) using linear programming analysis. based on average Utah cattle prices for 1970-75, the range livestock management alternative which maximized net ranch income for both ranch sizes was to reduce the cow herd 25% and use the released feed to retain all steer calves for sale as yearlings. optimum disposition of heifer calves was sale at weaning time. the reduction in breeding herd to accommodate retained yearlings would decrease the number of feeder livestock marketed. potential decreases in U.S. beef production from 1 to 4% were estimated if 25 to 100% of the ranches in the 11 western states adopted the optimum management alternative. these reductions would result in an increase in United States wholesale beef prices of 1 to 6%.
    • Development and Evaluation of Anti-coyote Electric Fencing

      Gates, N. L.; Rich, J. E.; Godtel, D. D.; Hulet, C. V. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      An electric fence with alternating ground and charged wires was tested for anti-coyote properties. Under the conditions tested, the fence was coyote proof. The fence may evolve as an effective, nonlethal method of preventing coyote depredation of domestic livestock.
    • Distribution of Food Reserves in Snowberry (Symphoricarpus oreophilus)

      George, M. R.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      A study was conducted in northern Utah in 1974 to determine the distribution of nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) and lipids in snowberry (Symphoricarpus oreophilus). Snowberry biomass was sampled and partitioned into small roots, large roots, root crowns, old stems, new stems, and leaves, which were analyzed for NC and lipids. The results showed a generally larger pool of NC in stems than in belowground biomass. Lipids in snowberry remained relatively stable throughout the growing season and included relatively small amounts of those lipids most likely to enter metabolism. Thus, lipids apparently do not contribute significantly to the carbon reserve pool.
    • Effect of Removal of Standing Dead Material on Growth of Agropyron spicatum

      Sauer, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Standing dead was clipped from clumps of bluebunch wheatgrass, with no other disturbance. Clumps without dead material, compared to those with, had less green material and shorter leaves but did not differ in height or number of flowering culms or head lengths. Standing dead appears to be beneficial to bluebunch wheatgrass.
    • Elemental Concentrations in Native Range Grasses from the Northern Great Plains of Montana

      Munshower, F. F.; Neuman, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      A study of elemental concentrations in five range grasses from the Northern Great Plains of Montana indicated levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese adequate for optimum performance of range cattle. Concentrations of copper and zinc were below established nutrient requirement levels. Concentrations of these two elements were usually highest in spring samples and decreased throughout the summer and fall. Year-to-year variation was small in spring grass collections for both elements, but summer and fall collections revealed wide fluctuations in elemental levels. For maximum performance of range cattle in the study area, copper and zinc supplements appear to be necessary during summer, fall, and winter grazing seasons.
    • Estimation of Plant Biomass from Quadrat Data Using the Lognormal Distribution

      White, G. C. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      This paper introduces a new method of estimating plant biomass from a series of randomly located quadrats. A mixture of the binomial and lognormal distributions provide a more realistic probability density function than the commonly used normal distribution. Point and interval estimators are derived using the method of Maximum Likelihood (ML). Example calculations illustrate the method.
    • Factors Influencing Productivity of Two Mule Deer Herds in Utah

      Pederson, J. C.; Harper, K. T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Doe-fawn counts show that the mule deer herd on the LaSal Mountains of southeastern Utah produced over 38% more fawns per doe than the Henry Mountain herd over a 9-year period. Carcass weights of animals from the LaSal herd were generally greater for all age classes. Observed reproductive differences appear to be unrelated to the incidence of diseases, parasites, or predation. Furthermore, winter ranges are nearly equal in forage quantity and quality on the two ranges. Summer range vegetation on the LaSal Mountains, however, produced more forage of better quality than did similar community types on the Henry Mountains. LaSal summer ranges produced 2,149 kg/ha fresh weight of available forage while similar ranges on the Henrys produced only 1,314 kg/ha. Forbs account for 52% of the forage on LaSal summer ranges but only 12% of the forage on ranges of comparable elevation on the Henrys. The data suggest that the characteristics of the forage found on the summer range, especially the quantity and quality of forbs, exert important influences on productivity of these herds.
    • Food Habits of the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in Western South Dakota

      Summers, C. A.; Linder, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Five major plant species were important in stomach and pellet samples of prairie dogs from two different "towns" in western South Dakota: buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea), threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii). Seasonal differences for spring and summer diets were not significant (P>0.05). During winter pricklypear cactus (Opuntia polyacantha) and western wheatgrass increased in importance in diets and the other major species declined in importance. Three species important in the range but not important in the diet were threeawn (Aristida fendleriana and A. longiseta), prairie dogweed (Dyssodia papposa), and horseweed (Conyza ramosissima).
    • Food, Fiber, Fuel, and Fun from Rangelands

      Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
    • Frequency of Endomycorrhizal Infection in Grazed and Ungrazed Blue Grama Plants

      Reece, P. E.; Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      The frequency of mycorrhizal infection in blue grama roots was determined from two criteria: (1) occurrence of any mycorrhizal element, and (2) occurrence of fungal vesicles. No significant differences were observed with respect to grazing using the first frequency criteria. However, roots of previously grazed plants had significantly higher frequencies of vesicles than those collected from exclosures. Frequency of vesicles was found to increase linearly with increase in rooting depth of blue grama. Significant grazing effects on the frequency of vesicles were observed primarily in the first sample depth, 0-10 cm.
    • Germination Responses of Three Forage Grasses to Different Concentrations of Six Salts

      Miller, T. R.; Chapman, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Both total germination and rate of germination of three species of perennial grasses were affected by concentration of six salts. A significant salt by species interaction was detected, and species differed in their response to concentrations, but both the salts and specific cations and anions affected all three species in the same way.
    • Longevity of Leafy Spurge Seeds in the Soil Following Various Control Programs

      Bowes, G. G.; Thomas, A. G. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Although picloram provided adequate control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) for a minimum of 3 years, from 3,500 to 11,000 viable seeds remained in the soil, providing a source for rapid reestablishment of the infestation. Continuous sheep grazing for 8 years prevented annual seed set and reduced the size of the soil seed bank from > 3,500 to 15 seeds/m2, greatly reducing the chance of reestablishment from seed. Combining the data from the various treatments indicated that the average annual loss from the soil seed bank is 13% of the original population. This means that even though an initial application of picloram kills most of the vegetative portion of the plant, a repeat treatment is necessary to greatly reduce the number of seeds in the soil seed bank to prevent reestablishment by seed.
    • Nutrition and Production of Domestic Sheep Managed as Manipulators of Big Game Habitat

      Malechek, J. C.; Kotter, K. J.; Jensen, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Weight gains of ewes and lambs, forage intake, and dietary quality of ewes were evaluated from mid-May to early July on foothill ranges under two intensities and durations of grazing management. Dietary quality was poorer and forage intake was lower under heavy than under moderate stocking. Individual lambs gained somewhat less weight under heavy stocking but ewes were not affected. A short-term, rotational grazing scheme, as compared to season-long grazing, did not appear either beneficial or detrimental to sheep. Response of the plant community will be a major factor determining which grazing system provides the best winter range for big game, but heavy stocking was decidedly superior when lamb production was considered on a land area basis.
    • Predation on Range Sheep with No Predator Control

      McAdoo, J. K.; Klebenow, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      A Great Basin band of open range herded sheep was monitored intensively for losses between June 8 and September 29, 1976, in an area where organized predator control had not been employed for the preceding 9 years. Verified losses due to all causes totalled 69 (4.4% of the band), of which 59 (86%) were due to predation. Forty-eight of the predator losses were lambs, a 6.3% loss of the lambs in the herd. Eleven adults were killed by predators. Ninety percent of the predator losses were attributed to coyotes (Canis latrans), 2% to bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 8% to predators of undetermined species. Physical condition was determined for 41 of the sheep attacked by predators: 93% were healthy and 7% were in poor condition. Predation intensity varied from approximately one loss every 6 days in June to almost one per day in August and September.
    • Range Management Theses 1968-1975

      Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
    • Relationships of Soil Salinity, Ash, and Crude Protein in Atriplex canescens

      Welch, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      The relationships of soil salinity, ash, and crude protein were determined in seven natural populations of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). The correlation coefficient between soil salinity and ash was -0.31 and between ash and crude protein, -0.33. Ash content ranged from 11.9% to 18.7%; the overall mean was 14.8%. Soil salinity directly beneath the plants varied from 234 parts per million (ppm) to 4,229 ppm. Crude protein ranged from 8.9% to 22.4%; the overall mean was 14.9%. Some of the populations contained significantly higher levels of crude protein than others. Also discussed is the difference in ash accumulation of Atriplex spp. growing in soil as opposed to those growing in nutrient solutions.
    • Sprouting and Carbohydrate Reserves of Two Wildland Shrubs Following Partial Defoliation

      Willard, E. E.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Two wildland shrubs, little rabbitbrush and snowberry, were subjected to three intensities of defoliation at each of four distinct stages in the carbohydrate reserve cycle. These treatments, comparable to browsing and other forms of natural defoliation, were designed to determine the effects on sprouting and associated carbohydrate reserve levels the following spring. Little rabbitbrush plants had reduced carbohydrate reserves, shorter sprouts, and more sprouts following most defoliation tretments. In contrast, carbohydrate reserves increased in snowberry plants with all intensities of defoliation, but there were no significant variations in their sprouting characteristics. Most dormant buds on the root crowns of little rabbitbrush and snowberry plants that were protected from defoliation were prevented from developing as basal sprouts because of apical dominance. Removal of twig tips, however, stimulated more of these buds to produce sprouts. Once a sprout began to grow, a direct relationship seemed to exist between its elongation and the amount of carbohydrate reserves available to it.
    • Taxonomic Determination, Distribution, and Ecological Indicator Values of Sagebrush within the Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands of the Great Basin

      West, N. E.; Tausch, R. J.; Rea, K. H.; Tueller, P. T. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      Various sagebrush taxa are major understory components of most Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodlands. Improved understanding of their identification, distribution, and ecological indicator significance is necessary to interpret site differences for these ranges. Morphology within sagebrush taxa is so variable that chromatographic determination is more easily and objectively relied upon for identification. Big sagebrush is so widespread and likely genetically diverse that sub-specific designations are more helpful in reading site conditions. The various sagebrush taxa are found in particular situations in Great Basin woodlands. Climatic differences explain the basin-wide distributions much more than geologic, landform, or soil conditions. Soils and exposure become more important on the local scale. Presence of a particular sagebrush taxon within pinyon-juniper woodlands can be used for comparisons of site favorableness provided one understands the general distribution of the other sagebrush taxa.
    • The State Land Trust, Its Retention or Elimination

      Burnett, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)