• A Durable Esophageal Cannula for Sheep and Goats

      Taylor, C. A.; Bryant, F. C. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Problems often arise in the selection of a permanent esophageal cannula to be used in fistulated animals. A permanent cannula constructed from PVC pipe and Plexiglas is described which has strength, rigidity, and durability while keeping costs to a minimum.
    • A Technique for Measuring Rate of Fire Spread

      Britton, C. M.; Karr, B. L.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      An inexpensive technique is presented for photographically recording rate of spread of prescribed fires. This technique involves the use of infrared film and a split-field close-up lens. The infrared film enables the fire front to be photographed without interference from visible smoke. The split-field close-up lens provides for inclusion of a timing device in the lower part of the photograph.
    • Comparative Palatability of Atriplex canescens

      Nemati, N. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      An Atriplex canescens introduced to Iran and two native species, Artemisia herba alba and Kochia prostrata, were fed to sheep throughout a year to determine the comparative palatability of the Atriplex. The Kochia has the highest and Artemisia has the lowest palatability when provided at two amounts on adjacent days. Atriplex is of intermediate palatability in comparison with the two native species.
    • Controlling Prairie Threeawn (Aristida oligantha Michx.) in Central and Eastern Kansas with Fall Burning

      Owensby, C. E.; Launchbaugh, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Prairie threeawn, an annual, weedy grass of little or no grazing value, was controlled effectively by fall burning. Burning on dates later than early December gave no control. Mowing and raking gave some control, so mulch removal appeared to be the primary causal factor in control. Seeding native grasses on abandoned fields infested with prairie threeawn after fall burning gave excellent stands, but subsequent winter heaving reduced the stands.
    • Deer Browsing and Browse Production of Fertilized American Elm Sprouts

      George, J. F.; Powell, J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Small blocks of land producing dense stands of American elm trees along streamcourses in north-central Oklahoma were fertilized after clearcutting in late summer, late winter, and spring. Twig tips of first-year elm sprouts were readily browsed by deer after succulent cool season, herbaceous plants had matured in May. Browsing and browse production were greater on fertilized sprouts if trees were cut and fertilized in the previous late summer or current late spring seasons. Fertilization and lateral branching after browsing increased total twigs per sprout which, in turn, increased browse production and use as the season progressed. These results indicate browse production from unproductive stands of elm trees can be increased greatly by different habitat management practices.
    • Digestibility of Tanoak

      Kirby, D. R.; Bryant, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Tanoak is considered a weed species in northwestern California. Dry-matter and cellulose digestibility trials were made with sheep to determine the possibility of using ground waste tanoak as an energy source in livestock rations. In vitro dry-matter and cellulose digestibility values were consistently higher than the in vivo values. The in vitro dry-matter digestibility averaged 12.7% for four sheep, while the in vivo dry-matter digestibility averaged 8.9%. The in vitro cellulose digestibility averaged 5.0%; the in vivo cellulose digestibility averaged 1.0%. It was concluded that tanoak residues can only have consideration as an energy source to ruminants when some form of pretreatment can release the wood carbohydrates from their association with lignin.
    • Economics of Carry Over Response to Nitrogen Fertilization of Rangelands

      Workman, J. P.; McCormick, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Prior to the recent increases in nitrogen prices fertilization of a Utah mountain loam range site was found to be profitable when increased forage was harvested as grass hay. however, that evaluation was based only on forage response during the initial growing season. we have since observed significant carry over response during the second and third years following fertilizer application. at the original nitrogen and hay prices studied, incorporation of carry over into the economic analysis increased both optimum application rates and per acre profits from fertilization. fertilization was found even more profitable at current nitrogen and grass hay prices. insufficient data were available to determine optimum reapplication schedules,although intuitive indications favor reapplication every 2 years for sites showing profitable initial and second year carry over response. spring application proved superior to fall application on both sites.
    • Effect of Mesquite Trees on Vegetation and Soils in the Desert Grassland

      Tiedemann, A. R.; Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Studies were conducted in the mesquite-desert grassland to assess effects of shade, roots, and litter of mesquite trees on understory vegetation and microenvironmental factors. Elimination of mesquite shade and root action increased foliar cover of understory vegetation in the canopy zone from 19% with intact mesquite to 24%. Replacement of mesquite shade with artificial shade screens further increased understory vegetative cover to 32%. Only forbs responded to elimination of mesquite roots in open areas. Vegetation responses indicated improved soil moisture in the canopy zone with both treatments, but there were no detectable soil moisture differences among treatments during the major part of the growing season. Greater vegetal cover with no-shade and artificial shade treatments was apparently associated with differential utilization of moisture compared with the mesquite shade treatment. Increased soil moisture made available by mesquite removal and in excess of that lost by evaporation was reflected in greater vegetative cover. With artificial shade, potential evaporation was similar to that for natural shade-thus increased moisture was utilized for growth of understory vegetation.
    • Effect of Winter Burning on Herbaceous Cover on a Converted Chaparral Watershed

      Pase, C. P.; Knipe, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Herbage production by weeping, Boer, and Lehmann lovegrasses was essentially unaffected by winter burning on a converted chaparral watershed in central Arizona. Burning opened up the stand and resulted in increased forb production, total herbage production, and frequency of some species.
    • Feral Burro Impact on a Sonoran Desert Range

      Hanley, T. A.; Brady, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Impact of feral burros on native desert vegetation was studied in the Havasu Resource Area, Lower Colorado River Valley, California-Arizona. Browse utilization ranged from heavy to light with increasing distance from the Colorado River. Overgrazing occurred near the Colorado River but decreased to light or moderate use at distances greater than 2.5 km from water. Overgrazing decreased the canopy cover of Ambrosia dumosa from about 2.26 to 0.04%, and decreased total canopy cover for all species from 8.64 to 2.80%. No plant species appear to act as increasers or invaders under grazing pressure by burros on the study area.
    • Forage Selection Comparisons for Mule Deer and Cattle under Managed Ponderosa Pine

      Currie, P. O.; Reichert, D. W.; Malechek, J. C.; Wallmo, O. C. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Cattle and mule deer competed very little for forage on a central Colorado ponderosa pine-bunchgrass range during the spring-summer-fall grazing season. Species they selected for the bulk of their diets were quite different. Diets overlapped most for fringed sagebrush and sunsedge. Fringed sagebrush was used heavily by both deer and cattle in April-May. Sunsedge was consumed in small amounts by both animals throughout most of the grazing season. Management of the timber stand increased forage for both types of animals. Also, timber stand improvement practices resulted in short-term availability of dried pine needles, a preferred deer food.
    • Management Practices to Manipulate Populations of the Plant Bug Labops hesperius Uhler

      Kamm, J. A.; Fuxa, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Nitrogen fertilization of wheatgrass significantly increased populations of the plant bug Labops hesperius Uhler; applications of potassium and phosphorus did not. Paraquat applied to wheatgrass to cure the herbage prematurely (in early May) also reduced the population of plant bugs by starving them. Mechanical removal of herbage also effectively reduced the bug populations both in the spring and the summer. Heavy spring grazing significantly reduced the bug population the first year and also thereafter. Wheatgrass pastures that are not fully utilized will provide oviposition material, winter protection, and a habitat that favors survival of the bugs.
    • Mineral Composition of Rumen Fistula Samples Compared to Diet

      Mayland, H. F.; Lesperance, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Forage sampling using fistulated grazing animals is a generally accepted technique to measure dietary forage quality and botanical composition, but is it a satisfactory technique to evaluate dietary mineral intake? Using a variety of diets which were fed to rumen-fistulated steers, the fistula samples had relatively larger concentrations of ash, Si, Na, P, Zn, and Co (P<0.05) than did diet samples. Small decreases in the Mg and Ca concentrations of the fistula sample, as well as the small increases in N, K, Mn, Fe, and Mo values, were not generally different from diet concentrations. Regression equations predicting diet-mineral concentrations of all diets, given the concentration in the fistula sample, were accompanied by errors of 8 to 37% of the true value. Smaller errors can be expected when similar diets like alfalfa hay are used throughout a given study.
    • Mixtures of Bottom Ash and Soil as a Growth Medium for Three Range Species

      Wester, D. B.; Trlica, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant was mixed with soil in varying proportions to determine its effects on germination, growth, and survival of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.), and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.). Five ash-soil growth mediums were developed, ranging from 100% ash-0% soil to 0% ash-100% soil (control). Bottom ash had no significant effect on the percentage germination of western wheatgrass and fourwing saltbush, but germination of blue grama seeds was reduced by the 100% ash-0% soil treatment. Percentage survival of all three species was not significantly affected by any of the ash-soil treatments. The treatments did, however, exert a significant effect on height growth of all three species. Plant height usually increased as the proportion of soil in the mixtures was increased. In addition, control plants produced significantly more biomass than did plants growing in any of the ash-soil treatments. Some of the physical and chemical properties of the bottom ash may account for its deleterious effects on the growth of these three species. High pH, lack of adequate plant nutrients such as nitrates and potassium, and unfavorable structural characteristics of the bottom ash may have caused reductions in plant growth.
    • Proper Burning Intervals for Tobosagrass in West Texas Based on Nitrogen Dynamics

      Sharrow, S. H.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      The time required for re-establishment of pre-fire nitrogen levels in tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica) communities in the Rolling Plains of West Texas was studied on five different ages of burns over a 2-year period. Time elapsed after burns varied from one to five growing seasons for both convex and concave topographic sites near Colorado City, Texas. Standing old growth-N returned to pre-fire levels by the end of the third growing season. However, litter-N on the soil surface took 5 years to reach pre-fire levels on concave sites and an estimated 8 years on convex sites. High variation prevented the recognition of any meaningful trends in root or soil nitrogen levels. Based on this data, tobosagrass should not be burned more frequently than 5 to 8 years, depending on the site.
    • Range Rehabilitation Problems of the Steppic Zone of Iran

      Nemati, N. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Difficulty in establishing vegetation on depleted and eroded lands in the Steppic Zone of Iran is the problem. This analysis of the range problems of Iran is intended to serve as a guideline for revegetation of the Steppic Zone of Iran. The Steppic Zone, which covers about 2/5 of Iran, is an area of 100-200 mm rainfall annually; temperature is highly variable and dependent on altitude and latitude. The Steppic Zone has been severely overgrazed and depleted since the dawn of history. The number of livestock grazed now exceeds the forage producing capacity of rangeland by at least 5 times and damage to watersheds is severe. Because of low precipitation and dry hot summers (at higher elevations extremely cold winters) and commonly saline alkaline soils with low amounts of or lack of organic matter, natural revegetation is extremely slow and reseeding of grasses and legumes has not shown success.
    • Seasonal Fluctuations in Nutrient Content of Feral Burro Forages, Lower Colorado River Valley, Arizona

      Hanley, T. A.; Brady, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Nutrient contents of wooly Indianwheat, white bursage, desertthorn, and foothills paloverde were determined seasonally during 1974 and 1975 in the Havasu Resource Area, California-Arizona. Gross energy content showed the least seasonal variation. Crude protein, phosphorus, and beta-carotene contents increased during the pulse of growth produced by winter precipitation, then slowly declined. Although the forage species analyzed appeared to be deficient in phosphorus, feral burros in the study area appear to be in excellent health.
    • Smudge Pot Lighter—an Effective Tool for Prescribed Burning in Pinyon-Juniper

      Bruner, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
    • Soil Nitrogen Levels in a Semiarid Climate Following Long-term Nitrogen Fertilization

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-09-01)
      Fertilizing crested wheatgrass for 14 years with 34 kg/ha or less did not significantly increase the NO3- N concentration in a semiarid soil. Fertilization rates of 56 kg/ha or more resulted in a significant accumulation of NO3- N just above the cemented caliche layer. Total N accumulation in the upper 61 cm of soil from N fertilization levels of less than 56 kg/ha did not exceed 30% of that normally occurring in the profile.