• Influence of Grazing on Age Yield Interactions in Bitterbrush

      McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Significant relationships were found between yield and age of bitterbrush. Individual plants that were heavily grazed during the spring and early summer produced more forage than plants that were moderately grazed during late summer and fall. Under the heavy grazing treatment, however, plant longevity was sharply reduced and fewer plants survived until the age of maximum production. As a result, only 88 kg/ha of air-dry forage was produced under heavy early-season grazing compared with 172 kg/ha under moderate late-season grazing.
    • Herbicides and the Range Ecosystem: Residues, Research, and the Role of Rangemen

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Increasing sophistication in application techniques, herbicide chemistry, and related technology in conjunction with intensified public awareness of herbicide use on rangeland has provided the impetus for research on the fate of herbicides in the range ecosystem. The complexity of the range ecosystem in comparison to monocultural systems dictates that persons versed in range ecology and herbicide technology conduct necessary research and play a dominant role in interpretation of results. The role of the atmosphere, ecosystem surfaces, vegetation, soil, and water in herbicide transfer and dissipation from the range ecosystem are reviewed. Properly applied, herbicides applicable to range improvement programs provide excellent levels of weed and brush control without undue hazard to sensitive crops; do not endanger man, his livestock or wildlife; and, in most cases, are dissipated from the ecosystem during the growing season in which they are applied.
    • Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) Propagation Techniques

      Wiesner, L. E.; Johnson, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt] is cross-pollinated and therefore has a wide genetic base. This characteristic makes it impossible to establish genetically similar research plots from seed. Consequently plots must be established from cuttings taken from desirable parent plants. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for rapid propagation of fourwing saltbush and to outline procedures for handling the propagules after rooting. Highest percentage of rooted cuttings was obtained when green succulent cuttings were soaked for 24 hours in a complete nutrient solution before being dipped in a woody species rooting compound and placed in a mist-bench for 5 weeks. Rooted cuttings should be transplanted into flats containing 75% sand and 25% peat and watered every 4-5 days to obtain maximum growth.
    • Forage Production in a Five-Year-Old Fertilized Slash Pine Plantation

      White, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Forest management companies in Florida currently fertilize approximately 10,000+ hectares of pine plantation annually. This paper reports excellent yields of bluestems with reduction in pineland threeawn 5 years after fertilization and establishment of slash pine on an Olustee-Mascottee-Leefield soil complex. Neither total understory live biomass nor total grass production was changed by fertilization. As much as a 250% increase in bluestem forage, preferred by cattle, was produced with several fertilizer combinations. In addition, understory plant responses in relation to the fertilized tree row indicate significant movement of fertilizers to adjacent unfertilized areas. Pineland threeawn, generally undesirable for cattle forage, was reduced with fertilization. The overall increase in bluestem forage resulting from plantation establishment and fertilization for increased tree yields is a complementary benefit valuable to forest landowners and cattle producers.
    • Forage Availability and Cattle Diets on the Texas Coastal Prairie

      Durham, A. J.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Forage availability was determined at six intervals from December through April on the Texas Coastal Prairie. Warm-season perennial grasses were the dominant class of available forage. Forbs were not present in significant amounts. Cattle diets were also determined at six intervals using esophageally cannulated cows. Some Macartney rose, the only browse species available, was consumed by the cows from December through February. Warm-season grasses constituted the major portion of the diet throughout the study period. Cows showed the highest preference for brownseed paspalum and rattail smutgrass during the winter when other forage was dormant and these species contained green material. As each grass species initiated new growth in the spring, diet content of that species increased accordingly. Leaf:stem ratio of the diets was lowest from December to February and increased significantly in mid-March. The increase of leaf: stem ratio in the spring paralleled the availability of new forage growth.
    • Foods of Wild Horses, Deer, and Cattle in the Douglas Mountain Area, Colorado

      Hansen, R. M.; Clark, R. C.; Lawhorn, W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      The foods of wild horses, cattle, and mule deer were determined from 10 widely separated areas in the Douglas Mountain Area, northwest of Craig, Colo. The major foods of wild horses and cattle were needlegrasses, wheatgrasses, and brome; those of mule deer were sagebrush and mountainmahogany. The dietary overlap for wild horses and deer was 1%, cattle and deer 4%, and wild horses and cattle was 77%. Wild horses and cattle selected foods in a significantly similar order.
    • Evaluation of Deer Habitat on a Nutritional Basis

      Wallmo, O. C.; Carpenter, L. H.; Regelin, W. L.; Gill, R. B.; Baker, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Protein and energy requirements of deer and supplies of these nutrients in native forage are synthesized into a model to estimate carrying capacity of seasonal ranges of a migratory mule deer population in north central Colorado. The model indicates that summer forage will support many times the number of deer present, but winter forage will not sustain deer at any population level. Instead, duration and severity of winter determine the length of time deer can survive on these ranges. Habitat evaluation based on quantification of nutrient supplies and their availability offers a more logical alternative for evaluating deer winter ranges than traditional methods based on measurements of twig lengths of so-called "key" species.
    • Effects of Aqueous Artemisia Extracts and Volatile Substances on Germination of Selected Species

      Hoffman, G. R.; Hazlett, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      The present study was done to determine the effects of Artemisia substances, both water-soluble and aromatic, on the germination of selected grassland species. Aqueous extracts of Artemisia tridentata litter inhibited germination of such species as Agropyron smithii, Euphorbia podperae, Hedeoma hispida, Parietaria pennsylvanica, and Thlaspi arvense. Aqueous extracts of A. tridentata and A. cana leaves inhibited germination of Achillea millefolium, Artemisia cana, A. tridentata, Bromus inermis, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, and Thlaspi arvense. Germination of these same six species was inhibited by volatile substances from leaves of A. tridentata and A. cana. Aqueous extracts of leaves of Artemisia tridentata, A. cana, A. absinthium, A. frigida, and A. dracunculus all inhibited germination of Haplopappus spinulosus and Thlaspi arvense. Germination of Echinacea pallida was inhibited by leaf extracts of all the Artemisias tested except A. dracunculus. Germination of Plantago patagonica was inhibited by leaf extracts of only A. tridentata and A. dracunculus. Germination of Stipa viridula and S. comata was stimulated by leaf extracts of A. frigida and A. dracunculus. Aqueous leaf extracts of A. absinthium strongly inhibited germination of Stipa comata, but stimulated germination of Stipa viridula. Germination of certain species, such as Lepidium virginicum, Rumex crispus, and R. occidentalis, were not at all inhibited by leaf extracts of any Artemisias tested. Results of this experiment suggest possible influences of Artemisia chemicals on species distributional patterns in Artemisia-dominated vegetation, though further studies are required to verify whether the influences are valid under field conditions.
    • Drip Irrigation to Revegetate Mine Wastes in an Arid Environment

      Bengson, S. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Drip irrigation may be an efficient and effective technique for revegetation of steep slopes in an arid environment. Where supplemental irrigation may be necessary for plant establishment, drip irrigation offers many advantages. There is less hazard of runoff and erosion on steep slopes; excessive salts and phytotoxins can be leached from the root zones; it is adaptable to remote areas without pressurized water systems; it conserves water where water is costly or scarce; and it helps to promote deep root growth and better plant development. Drip irrigation may be a very valuable tool for the reclamation engineer to select as a technique needed to meet his particular revegetation needs.
    • Comparison of In Vivo and In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Mule Deer Forages

      Urness, P. J.; Smith, A. D.; Watkins, R. K. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      pIn vivo digestibility percentages from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) digestion-balance trials were usually higher than in vitro determinations obtained from the same experimental forage species. Linear regression analysis suggested a correction factor could be applied to in vitro estimates to make them more nearly correspond to in vivo dry matter digestibility values. Forages with in vitro digestibility values below 35% often varied markedly from in vivo estimates. It raises the question whether deer consume species lower than this in digestibility given reasonable choice.
    • Yield and Nutritional Quality of Intermediate Wheatgrass Infested by Black Grass Bugs at Low Population Densities

      Malechek, J. C.; Gray, A. M.; Haws, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Black grass bugs (Labops hesperius) at a population density of 156 bugs per square meter did not affect herbage yields of intermediate wheatgrass but depressed seedhead production 56%. They caused a small but significant increase in concentrations of crude protein and a slight decrease in cellular contents.
    • The Effect of Selected Presowing Seed Treatments on Germination of Lehmann Lovegrass Seeds

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Jordan, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Samples of Lehmann lovegrass seeds were treated with various presowing seed treatments, oven drying, mechanical scarification, moistening, and moistening plus oven drying. The pretreated seeds were then allowed to germinate with adequate moisture at 24 degrees C for 24 and 48 hours. Germination was significantly increased by mechanical scarification, oven drying, moistening plus oven drying, and certain moistening treatments of warm-vapor or cold-water imbibition.
    • Shrub Transplanting for Range Improvement in Iran

      Nemati, N. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Of three saltbushes tested under the harsh environment of the Central Plateau of Iran, fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) was the most adapted. Transplanting in October and November when transplants were about 20 to 30 cm high was the most promising practice. Although the cost of transplanting when compared with other revegetation practices is high, the chances of success are also high, and production per hectare can be increased at least three-fold within a 4-year period.
    • President’s Address: Still Growing and Developing in '76

      Ragsdale, B. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    • Population Reactions of Selected Game Species to Aerial Herbicide Applications in South Texas

      Beasom, S. L.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Aerial spraying 80% of a mature honey mesquite brushland in alternating strips with 2,4,5-T + picloram (1:1) at 1.12 kg/ha did not adversely affect populations of white-tailed deer, nilgai antelope, wild turkeys, or feral hogs. Complete treatment (100% sprayed) apparently exceeded the threshold of suitability for all game species surveyed except nilgai antelope. White-tailed deer densities were inversely correlated with production and species diversity of forb populations following aerial spraying. With restoration of the forbs at 27 months after treatment, there were no differences among treatments in deer numbers. Javelina populations, apparently as a result of controlling pricklypear, were significantly reduced by both spray treatments. Reductions in javelina densities were apparent at the final census, 27 months after herbicide application.
    • Perenniality and Development of Shoots of 12 Forage Species in Montana

      White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      A study was conducted to determine the perenniality and development of shoots of two sedges, four grass species of temperate origin, and six grass species of tropical origin. Floral shoots of sedges were at least 3 years old and had remained vegetative the first 2 years. Floral shoots of temperate-origin grasses varied between 2 and 3 years old, and those of tropical-origin, between 1 and 2 years old. By knowing the perenniality of floral shoots, it may be possible to develop management practices to change the ratio of floral to vegetative shoots.
    • Lupine-induced Crooked Calf Disease and a Management method to Reduce Incidence

      Keeler, R. F.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.; Van Kampen, K. R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Crooked calf disease is produced when pregnant cows between the 40th and 70th days of gestation graze certain members of the genus Lupinus that contain the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine. Calves born to these cows may have twisted or bowed limbs (arthrogryposis), twisted or bowed spine (scoliosis or kyphosis), twisted neck (torticollis), cleft palate, or a combination of any of these. The concentration of the teratogen anagyrine in these lupines is very high early in growth, decreases to a low level during flowering, rises abruptly in mature seeds, and decreases to a very low level after seeds have dropped. Data collected from 6 ranches for 8- to 25-year periods showed no consistent correlation between incidence of the disease and the free-choice feeding of a variety of mineral supplements. Marked variation in incidence did occur, however, during these periods. The variation was related to the period of gestation at which the cows grazed the lupine and to the stage of growth of the lupine-in other words, the amount of anagyrine ingested. Management programs that prevent pregnant cows from eating highly teratogenic early growth or seed-stage lupine plants between gestation days 40 and 70 will reduce crooked calf disease incidence.
    • Locating Random Points in the Field

      Awbrey, F. T. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      A compass and a measuring tape can be used to locate random points in an area of any practical size by employing a pocket calculator to convert rectangular grid coordinates to polar coordinates.
    • Livestock Deer Relations in the Lodgepole Pine-Pumice Region of Central Oregon

      Stuth, J. W.; Winward, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Utilization by cattle, sheep, and deer on meadow communities and logged and nonlogged lodgepone pine/bitterbrush/western needlegrass communities was studied during the summer grazing season of a dry (1973) and a wet (1974) year in the pumice region of Klamath County, Oregon. Deer had a forb-dominated diet in the meadows while sheep and cattle had a grass-grasslike-dominated diet. Only six forb species of the 34 meadow species utilized were found to constitute any substantial degree of overlap between the diets of deer and livestock. Bitterbrush gradually replaced the maturing forbs in the diets of deer during July. Bitterbrush was the most important forage species in the diets of all three herbivores using the lodgepole pine/bitterbrush/western needlegrass communities. Logged areas received the bulk of utilization from all three herbivores. Sheep and deer utilized 2.5 and 7-10 times more forage, respectively, in logged areas, while cattle used only the fringes of unlogged areas. Fall was the peak consumption period for bitterbrush by cattle and deer, while sheep consumed large quantities throughout the summer grazing season.