Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

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Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Yearly Variation in Germination in Three Subspecies of Big Sagebrush

    Harniss, R. O.; McDonough, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
    Yearly variation in germination between individual plants of three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was examined. The subspecies vaseyana germinated less than tridentata or wyomingensis. Only tridentata showed a significant difference in year-to-year variation. In all years, germination rates of the three subspecies were high enough to exclude seed germination as a limiting factor in sagebrush reinvasion.
  • Woody Plant Invasion of Unburned Kansas Bluestem Prairie

    Bragg, T. B.; Hulbert, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Postsettlement invasion of trees and shrubs on the bluestem prairie of Geary County in the Kansas Flint Hills was assessed using aerial photos, General Land Office survey data, and field observations. Tree cover increased 8% from 1856 to 1969 throughout the county, although on regularly burned sites combined tree and shrub cover was effectively maintained at presettlement amounts. On unburned sites, aerial photographs showed that combined tree and shrub cover increased 34% from 1937 to 1969; section-line data showed that tree cover alone increased 24% from 1856 to 1969. Data from two sites suggested that herbicide spraying only slowed the invasion rate. Woody plants increased only slightly on shallow, droughty clay loam soils located on level uplands, ridgetops, and upper slopes. On deeper and more permeable middle- and lower-slope soils, woody plants increased more than 40% from 1937 to 1969. In 1937 trees covered 64% of the unburned, deep, permeable, lowland soils; by 1950 they had increased to 89%; change was slight thereafter. The increase in coverage of the lowland soils from 1856 to 1937 suggests that these soils are rapidly invaded. We conclude that on the Flint Hills bluestem prairie rangeland, (1) burning has been effective in restricting woody plants to natural, presettlement amounts and (2) soil type and topography affect the rate of woody-plant invasion.
  • Water Quality Implications of Cattle Grazing on a Semiarid Watershed in Southeastern Utah

    Buckhouse, J. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
    During 1973 and 1974 wildland water quality analyses were performed on a semiarid, chained and seeded, pinyon-juniper site in southeastern Utah. The area was treated in 1967 and protected from grazing until 1974. In 1974 livestock grazing was introduced and investigations continued to determine if any deleterious land use effects were present from fecal contamination by cattle. No significant changes were noted in fecal and total coliform production (fecal pollution bacterial indicators) from grazing use. There is an element of risk involved whenever data generated from a small area are projected to larger land areas. However, it appears that this level of livestock grazing (2 ha/AUM) did not constitute a public health hazard in terms of fecal pollution indicators on the semiarid watershed.
  • Vegetation of a 25-Year Exclosure on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Smeins, F. E.; Taylor, T. W.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    An evaluation was made of current species composition, production and 25-year vegetation trends within an exclosure on the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Station at Sonora, Texas. Community composition was variable and most species responded individually to soil variables, particularly soil depth and degree and kind of stoniness. Common curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri) was the most characteristic and widespread species of the area. Communities dominated by Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea), on soils greater than 25 cm in depth, produced 4,330, 2,235, and 504 kg/ha in June and August 1972 and January 1973, respectively. Wright threeawn (Aristida wrightii) dominated communities with soil depths of 15 cm, produced 1,318, 1,349, and 413 kg/ha for the same dates; and hairy tridens (Erioneuron pilosum) sites with soil depths of 10 cm yielded 970, 1,456, and 84 kg/ha. Vegetation change over the past 25 years has been primarily adjustment in relative dominance of species rather than addition or loss of species. Following establishment of the exclosure some species adjusted to previous grazing history, and thereafter primary changes followed precipitation variation.
  • Toxicity of Introduced Nitro-containing Astragalus to Sheep, Cattle, and Chicks

    Williams, M. C.; James, L. F.; Bleak, A. T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Thirteen introduced Astragalus and one Swainsona species were analyzed throughout the growing season for presence and concentration of toxic nitro compounds. Sicklepod milkvetch (A. falcatus) contained high levels of nitro compounds and acutely poisoned sheep, cattle, and 1-week-old chicks. A. siliquosus contained small amounts of nitro compounds that were slightly toxic to 1-week-old chicks. Other species tested contained little or no nitro compounds and were nontoxic to 1-week-old chicks.
  • Three-Dimensional Chlorophyll Concentrations in a High Biomass Blue Grama Canopy

    Tucker, C. J.; Garratt, M. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
    The three-dimensional chlorophyll variation in 50-cm high blue grama canopy was investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the vertical dimension and a quadratic relationship between chlorophyll density and height. Maximum canopy chlorophyll concentrations occurred in the 12.5-25.0 cm vertical region with the lowest concentrations occurring in the 0.0-12.5 cm and 37.5-50.0 vertical region.
  • Spiny Hopsage Germination

    Wood, M. K.; Knight, R. W.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Germination of spiny hopsage seeds was studied in relation to constant and alternating temperatures and moisture stress. Seeds germinated and developed rapidly with 70% germination at optimum temperatures in 1 week. Optimum germination after 2 weeks of incubation occurred with 5 degrees C nights and 10 to 30 degrees C days. The rapid germination permitted growth on soils that were dried from field capacity to low matric potentials. One seed source from Mojave, California, had unusually high germination at low osmotic potentials in solutions of polyethylene glycol. Nominal seedling establishment occurred when bracted seeds were broadcast on loose seedbeds. Seedlings were not established when threshed or bracted seeds were broadcast on compacted soils.
  • Site Relations, Regrowth Characteristics, and Control of Lotebush with Herbicides

    Scifres, C. J.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
    Regrowth following top removal of lotebush (Condalia obtusifolia (Hook.) Weberb.) seedlings and field transplants followed a typical apical dominance pattern. When 2.5 cm of the stem segments were left intact, sprouting occurred from stem tissues. When stems were completely removed, sprouts originated from root tissues. Lotebush densities on the Texas Experimental Ranch were greater on shallow redland than on deep upland, rolling hill, rocky hill or valley range sites. Aerial application of 2,4,5-T at 1.12 kg/ha was ineffective for control of lotebush, regardless of range site. Basal sprays containing 4 or 8 g/liter of 2,4,5-T + picloram in a diesel oil:water emulsion (1:4) effectively controlled lotebush. Basal sprays of dicamba were less effective than 2,4,5-T + picloram; and 2,4,5-T was ineffective in the emulsion carrier. However, 2,4,5-T in diesel oil reduced the canopies by an average 50 to 70% at 2 years after treatment. At rates greater than 5 g (active ingredient)/m of canopy diameter, monuron pellets reduced lotebush canopies by 85 to 100%. At the same rate, dicamba granules completely reduced the brush canopy and resulted in 86% root kill at 2 years after application. Two g/m of canopy diameter of picloram pellets completely controlled the lotebush.
  • Shrub and Herbaceous Vegetation after 20 Years of Prescribed Burning in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Lewis, C. E.; Harshbarger, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Twenty years of prescribed burning at different seasons and different frequencies altered the condition of shrub and herbaceous vegetation in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The six treatments consisted of annual winter, annual summer, periodic winter, periodic summer, and biennial summer burning, and a no-burn control. Percentage of ground cover increased with most burning treatments, and herbage yields increased with all burning treatments. Annual summer burning eliminated most shrubs; however, dense stands of sprouting shrubs persisted on the periodic summer and on both the annual and periodic winter treatments. The number of herbaceous species and the density of herbaceous plants increased with burning, especially on the annual and biennial summer treatments where grasses became the dominant plants. Most of these changes appear beneficial for wildlife or grazing.
  • Sediment Production and Infiltration Rates as Affected by Grazing and Debris Burning on Chained and Seeded Pinyon-Juniper

    Buckhouse, J. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Sediment production and infiltration rates were measured in conjunction with an analysis of burning and grazing treatments in a chained pinyon-juniper study in southeastern Utah. While high natural variability was present among sites, no significant changes in sediment production were detected following our prescribed burning or grazing treatments. Following treatment, however, both the burned and grazed sites exhibited significantly depressed infiltration rates during certain time intervals in comparison to the "undisturbed, natural" woodland control location.
  • Seasonal Response of Macartney Rose and Huisache to Herbicides

    Meyer, R. E.; Bovey, R. W.; Riley, T. E.; Flynt, T. O. (Society for Range Management, 1976-03-01)
    Picloram granules and sprays were applied to Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata Wendl.) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) in the claypan area of Texas. Monthly granule applications to Macartney rose were generally least effective in the summer. Rates of 1, 2, and 3 lb/acre of picloram as granules reduced the canopy 53, 68, and 86% and killed 14, 32, and 57% of the plants, respectively. Foliar sprays of picloram were about equally effective as granules. Huisache was not as highly responsive to picloram as to either granules or soil sprays at rates up to 4 lb/acre. However, picloram at 2 lb/acre as a foliage spray in May or September killed 90% or more of the plants. A 1 lb/acre foliage spray of picloram combined with a 1 lb/acre spray of 2,4,5-T, dicamba, or picloram in the soil also killed 53% or more of the huisache plants.
  • Sampling Shrub Ranges with an Electronic Capacitance Instrument

    Morris, M. J.; Johnson, K. L.; Neal, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Electronic capacitance meters can provide a rapid, accurate, and nondestructive means of estimating the total aboveground and herbaceous dry matter yields in low-shrub lands of the western United States and other parts of the world. A double sampling technique is necessary to obtain reliable yield estimates, maximum cost reduction, and the most efficient use of the meters.
  • Sampling Herbaceous Native Vegetation with an Electronic Capacitance Instrument

    Neal, D. L.; Currie, P. O.; Morris, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Dry matter yields of herbaceous native vegetation were effectively estimated with electronic herbage meters. Yields were estimated on vegetation types varying from a low-elevation annual type to a high-elevation alpine type. Phenology, dead organic matter, plant stature, composition, and meter placement within the vegetation affected efficiency of yield estimates. Double sampling techniques are necessary. Optimum sample size for either a fixed-cost or fixed-variance estimate should be determined for each vegetation type.
  • Responses of California Annual Grassland Species to Variations in Moisture and Fertilization

    Hull, J. C.; Muller, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    The responses to fertilization and moisture of several of the principal grass species of the California annual type were measured in a field study in Southern California. Treatment plots were established in the grassland to examine the responses to a complete fertilizer. Comparisons were also made of grassland samples obtained in 2 years with different precipitation regimes. Fertilization increased the shoot weight of all species, but yield was increased for the brome species only. Oat species decreased in yield and numbers of shoots/m2. In shoot weight the bromes had a similar but lesser response to additional moisture than to fertilization. With additional moisture the oat species increased in yield and numbers of shoots/m2, but decreased in shoot weight. It is suggested that range management policies which increase nutrients or moisture might lead to an alteration of the composition of the annual grasslands.

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