• A Low Cost Machine for Separation of Roots from Soil Material

      Brown, G. R.; Thilenius, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      An efficient machine which uses water spray and agitation to separate the roots contained in soil samples from the soil material was constructed from readily available, commercial components for less than $400.
    • A Method of Determining Utilization for Wet Mountain Meadows on the Summit Allotment, Sequoia National Forest, California

      McDougald, N. K.; Platt, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Height-weight data were systematically collected to provide a basis for determining utilization for wet mountain meadows occurring on the Summit Allotment of the Sequoia National Forest. Comparison of utilization measurements using the height-weight tables generated from the data with measurements using the current grazed plot method of the California Region, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, showed the inadequacy of using the present grazed plot method to determine utilization and percentage of allowed use on that allotment. New standards were devised which allow for more accurate determination of utilization and percentage of allowed use, which will thus allow these mountain meadows to be more effectively managed.
    • Coordinating Beef Cattle Management with the Range Forage Resource

      Vavra, M.; Raleigh, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Seasonal changes in forage production and quality occur due to climatic factors, principally precipitation. Increased efficiency of livestock production could occur if livestock management were coordinated to the changes that occur in forage quality. Traditionally, calves are born in the spring in much of the western United States. Weaning then occurs sometime in late fall. Management practices of early weaning, supplementation on the range, time of calving, and length of the breeding period can be incorporated into a livestock system to take advantage of forage at its highest quality and therefore to maximize beef production from the existing forage resource.
    • Diets of Steers on a Shrub-Steppe Rangeland in South-Central Washington

      Uresk, D. W.; Rickard, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Botanical composition of steers' diets on a shrub-steppe rangeland in south-central Washington was examined by inspection of finely ground fecal samples viewed through a microscope. Four species, Cusick bluegrass, Thurber needlegrass, hawksbeard and bluebunch wheatgrass, comprised 92% of the total diet. Grasses accounted for 73% of the diet and forbs and half shrubs contributed 26%. Botanical composition of the diets changed throughout the spring grazing season with changing availability and maturation of herbage. Preference indices in decreasing order were: Cusick bluegrass > Thurber needlegrass > hawksbeard > bluebunch wheatgrass, but bluebunch wheatgrass was the most abundant species in the pasture. The second most abundant grass, Sandberg bluegrass, was not selected by steers.
    • Effect of Fire on Honey Mesquite

      Wright, H. A.; Bunting, S. C.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Based on this research and other work that has been reported, honey mesquite is very difficult to kill with fire on the High Plains and along river bottoms in the Rolling Plains. On upland sites in the Rolling Plains, 27% of the mesquite trees were killed following single fires. Using repeated fires on upland sites at 5 to 10 year intervals, the potential exists to kill 50% of the older mesquite trees. Seedlings of honey mesquite were easy to kill with moderate fires until they reached 1.5 years of age, severely harmed at 2.5 years of age, and very tolerant of intense fires after 3.5 years of age.
    • Habitat Use and Fecal Analysis of Feral Burros (Equus asinus), Chemehuevi Mountains, California, 1974

      Woodward, S. L.; Ohmart, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Between January and March burros spent from 60 to 78.7% of their time on the interfluves. In April, habitat use was predominantly in washes, with a high of 58.5% in July. During the summer months, when daily maximum ambient temperature approached 48°C, much of their time was spent in densely shaded pockets of vegetation along the Colorado River. Thirty-nine plant species comprised the diet in 1974, desert Indian-wheat (Plantago insularis) and palo verde (Cercidium floridum) being the most common. These two species, combined with mesquite (Prosopis spp.) and arrowweed (Pluchea sericea) formed over 50% of the annual diet. The 1974 diet consisted of 3.9% grasses, 30.1% forbes, and 61.1% browse. Population increases of 20-25% every 13-18 months and little predation bespeaks the need for unceasing management and possible control to prevent deterioration of the native flora and fauna.
    • Logging Impacts on Bitterbrush in the Lodgepole Pine-Pumice Region of Central Oregon

      Stuth, J. W.; Winward, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      The effect of logging on factors influencing production of bitterbrush in the lodgepole pine forest of central Oregon was evaluated. Production of bitterbrush in logged areas was approximately the same or greater than in adjacent nonlogged areas even though an average of 43% of the bitterbrush plants were lost during the logging operation. Bitterbrush plants growing in logged areas had leaders 2.5 cm longer than plants in nonlogged areas with 71% of their production in terminal and lateral leaders. Plants in nonlogged areas had only 45% of their production in the developed leaders. Plants taller than 40 cm were more frequently destroyed during logging operations than smaller plants. Plants 20-40 cm in height accounted for the greater production response after logging. Densities of germinated rodent caches of bitterbrush were much lower in logged areas. Percent canopy cover and density of lodgepole pine were highly correlated with cache densities of bitterbrush in logged areas.
    • Nitrogen Fixation in Honey Mesquite Seedlings

      Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Roots of honey mesquite seedlings produced nodules readily in the growth chamber. The nodulated seedlings contained more nitrogen than nonnodulated seedlings. Large plants had the largest nodules. West Texas soils were found to possess inoculum that caused nodulation in mesquite. The nodulation frequency was closely associated with soil texture and water at the time of collection of the soil inoculum source. Moist sandy soils produced the best nodulation, while dry clay soils produced the poorest nodulation.
    • Palatability of Douglasfir Foliage to Mule Deer in Relation to Chemical and Spatial Factors

      Tucker, R. E.; Majak, W.; Parkinson, P. D.; McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Relative preference of Douglasfir needles from eight environmental conditions was determined in a feeding trial with penned tame deer of mixed age and sex. Relative preference (percent fresh weight ingested) varied between 0 and 74%, with significant differences between open (16%) and gully (9%) sites, between old (20%) and young (4%) trees, and between tops (16%) and bottoms (8%) of trees. Shading was found to be responsible for some difference in palatability, unshaded being preferred (22%) over shaded needles (4%). Relative preference was found to be correlated with moisture content (r = -0.57). Relative preference was also found to be correlated with chlorogenic acid (r = 0.41), a naturally occurring phenolic ester which was quantified by fluorometric scanning after being observed in a thin layer chromatography (TLC) screening experiment. Crude protein was not significantly correlated with preference.
    • Predation Losses of Domestic Sheep in Alberta

      Dorrance, M. J.; Roy, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      This paper provides estimates of predation losses of domestic sheep in Alberta in 1974. These estimates were obtained from personal interviews. Unlike the United States, Alberta had a predator control program which emphasized the use of toxicants. Province-wide predation losses averaged 1.6% of the ewes and 2.8% of the lambs. However, predation losses varied widely among five major ecosystems; i.e., between 0.8% of the lambs and ewes in the southern parkland and 3.2% of the ewes in the northern parkland and 6.8% of the lambs in the mixed forest. Predation accounted for 24 and 18% of the total annual mortality of lambs and ewes, respectively. Thirty-nine percent of the flocks had no predation losses and another 31% of the flocks had predation losses of 3% or less. Larger flocks tended to be more susceptible to predation than smaller flocks. Coyotes, dogs, and other large predators were reported to have caused 88, 8, and 4% of predation losses, respectively.
    • Preference and Daily Intake of Five East African Grasses by Zebras

      Ngethe, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Three captive zebras were fed five common East African grasses-Themeda triandra, Eragrostis caespitosa, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria milanjiana, and Cymbopogan pospischilii-to determine rates of voluntary forage intake and species preference. Forage intake averaged 43 g dry matter per kg body weight (41 lb/1,000 lb body weight). Digitaria milanjiana was the most preferred species.
    • Recovering of Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass Ranges through Grazing and Herbicide or Fertilizer Treatments

      Currie, Pat O. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Protection from grazing, alternate rest, or seasonal spring or fall grazing did not promote recovery of pine-bunchgrass range in Colorado which had been grazed heavily for more than 23 years. Application of 2,4-D herbicide or NPK fertilizer significantly changed vegetative composition and increased herbage yields of these rangelands under all grazing treatments. The herbicide reduced competition from forbs and permitted the grass species to increase in basal area and produce more herbage than plants on unsprayed, unfertilized control plots. Addition of NPK fertilizer stimulated production of all species and increased yields an average of 500 lb per acre. A combination fertilizer-herbicide treatment increased average yields a comparable amount, with the increase coming mostly from grasses and a few forbs not killed by the herbicide.
    • Redberry Juniper Control with Picloram

      Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Individual-plant treatments with picloram at 0.5 lb/100 gal controlled redberry juniper when applied as wetting sprays to foliage from April through September. Picloram pellets as an individual plant treatment effectively controlled redberry juniper at rates equivalent to 2 and 4 lb/acre.
    • Reseeding Trials on Columbia Basin Rangelands Dominated by Winter Annual Grasses

      Robocker, W. C.; Schirman, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      From 1960 to 1975, a series of trials on the eastern side of the Columbia Basin north of the Snake River was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing crested wheatgrass on rangelands now dominated by downy brome and medusahead. Excellent annual grass and annual broadleaf weed control was obtained with several herbicides, with atrazine at 1:1 kg/ha as a fallow treatment before seeding being the most satisfactory. Seeding in late autumn or early spring with a rangeland drill, modified to give some seedbed preparation in the row, combined with annual weed control, generally provided favorable conditions for germination and emergence of crested wheatgrass seedlings. However, seedlings failed to become established in most experiments. Trials with a soil fumigant, methyl bromide, resulted in excellent stands of established plants and presented strong evidence that with seedling plants under environmental stress, microbiological factors may be a primary cause of seedling failure.
    • Short Term Effects of Mowing and Burning on Soil Nutrients in Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park

      Christensen, N. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Soil concentrations of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and potassium were measured before and following burning and mowing in two vegetational types in Big Meadows Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Burning with or without mowing resulted in significant increase in concentrations of all nutrients except phosphorus. Mowing per se had no effect on nutrient concentrations. The potential use of fire to control hardwood invasion in these meadow areas is discussed.
    • Some Ecological Relationships Between Creosotebush and Bush Muhly

      Welsh, R. G.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Some ecological relations between creosotebush and bush muhly were observed and measured to determine the influence of bush muhly on creosotebush environment and vigor when the bush muhly is growing within the creosotebush canopy. Bush muhly growing within the creosotebush canopy significantly reduced the light intensity reaching the lower limbs of creosotebush. Shade screens used for simulating bush muhly shading did not significatly reduce the light reaching the creosotebushes but still appeared to influence the new growth of creosotebush leaves. Evidently, surface reflection under the screens still permitted sufficient light for some plant growth. No new basal stem growth was observed in creosotebushes where bush muhly was removed after occupying more than half of the aerial space of the creosotebush. There were more dead stems (50%) in creosotebushes growing with bush muhly present than in those without (20%). The amount of moisture in leaves and stems of creosotebush was significantly less when bush muhly was present.
    • Successional Classification of Plants on a Desert Grassland Site in Arizona

      Schmutz, E. M.; Smith, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Vegetative cover, composition, and frequency studies on protected and grazed desert grassland ranges in Arizona provided quantitative data on the reaction of plants to protection and grazing. These data were used to classify plants as decreasers, increasers, and invaders on a deep upland desert grassland site. In the absence of fire or mesquite control, velvet mesquite, Arizona cottontop, sideoats grama, cane beardgrass, and poverty threeawns reacted as decreasers; Wright buckwheat, red threeawn, and Rothrock grama acted as increasers; and burroweed, sticky snakeweed, and Lehmann lovegrass were classified as invaders. Annuals were not measured, and perennial forbs were too limited in abundance to classify. Under climax conditions with recurring fires, all native species apparently reacted as above except mesquite, which reacted as an increaser on bottomlands and an invader of uplands.
    • The Stage of Maturity and Its Effect upon the Chemical Composition of Four Native Range Species

      Cogswell, C.; Kamstra, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Prairie range forage plants can provide needed energy and protein for grazing ruminants, particularly in an era of grass fattened animals. Nutritive value and, therefore, animal performance, are directly related to stage of plant maturity at the time of cutting or grazing. The effect of maturity of four native species in this study was accompanied by a decline in in vitro dry matter digestibility and protein content, and by an increase in fibrous fractions and lignin. Laboratory analyses of prairie species showed seasonal chemical and digestibility changes similar to those of cultivated grasses. A significant date-by-class interaction suggests that cool-season species did not respond differently to maturity changes than did the warm-season species. The neutral sugars found in hemicellulose were xylose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose. Xylose was the predominant structural sugar in all species studied. It would appear that laboratory analysis could serve to estimate nutritive value of various prairie grasses.
    • The Use of Sesquiterpene Lactones as Taxonomic Markers in the Shrubby Species of Artemisia (Section Tridentatae) in Montana

      Kelsey, R. G.; Morris, M. S.; Shafizadeh, F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      The aerial parts of sagebrush contain many interesting natural products. The sesquiterpene lactones are a class of compounds that can be easily extracted from these plants and then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. When used in combination with the morphological characteristics, the sesquiterpene lactones can provide useful taxonomic markers that aid in separating various sagebrush taxa.