• Cattle Losses, Tall Larkspur, and Their Control

      Cronin, E. H.; Nielsen, D. B.; Madson, N. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Correlation analyses of records of cattle poisoned by tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth.) on three similar and adjacent cattle allotments on the Wasatch Plateau produced low r2, indicating that losses are not related to annual fluctuations in environmental conditions or other factors shared by all three allotments. Control of the large, dense patches of tall larkspur with herbicides in one 2,000 acre subalpine pasture on the Manti Canyon Cattle Allotment dramatically reduced cattle losses. Small patches and scattered plants, which are difficult to locate and laborious to treat, apparently contribute very little to cattle losses. Examination of ruminal contents of calves found dead in the subalpine pasture in a 2-year period revealed large quantities of tall larkspur. None of the calves were orphans. All evidence suggests that the calves dying in the subalpine pastures were poisoned by tall larkspur. While mature cattle ingest lethal levels of tall larkspur in the large, dense patches, calves are apparently intoxicated by ingesting tall larkspur growing in small patches in the groves of trees scattered over the subalpine grazing units.
    • Cattle Use on Summer Foothill Rangelands in Northeastern Oregon

      Miller, R. F.; Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The importance of several plant communities for summer cattle range was evaluated. Based on understory production, eight communities were separated into three groups, i.e., bunchgrass, forested, and clearcut forested. Forested communities that had been clearcut and seeded to forage were the most productive. Soil depth and canopy cover were dominant environmental factors determining understory production on the study area. These two variables accounted for 96% of the variability in understory production. Clearcut forested communities seeded to forage provided 63% of the forage consumed by cattle and made up 31% of the study area. Seeded grasses accounted for 55% of the cattle diet. Environmental factors highly correlated with utilization by cattle during the summer were distance to salt and water, soil depth, and canopy cover. Relations of soil depth and canopy cover were a result of their influence on plant growth. There appeared to be no direct forage competition between big game and cattle when livestock were present during the last half of summer.
    • Contamination of Rumen Samples during Washing

      Pickard, J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
    • Diets of Wild Horses, Cattle, and Mule Deer in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

      Hubbard, R. E.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Diets of free-roaming wild horses, domestic cattle, and mule deer were estimated for three altitudinally different vegetation zones in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Wild horses and cattle ate mostly grasses and sedges in each of the vegetation zones. Mule deer diets consisted primarily of browse. Wild horse and cattle diets compared within a vegetation zone were more similar to each other than diets of a single herbivore compared between vegetation zones. The percentages of the diets of wild horses and cattle that were identical ranged from 59% to 75% in the three vegetation zones. Diet overlap of wild horses or cattle with mule deer was always less than 11%. The diversities of plants on the diets were lower for mule deer than for cattle or wild horses.
    • Effect of Repeated Herbicide Applications on Green Sagewort in North Central Nebraska

      Morrow, L. A.; McCarty, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Plots were established in 1971 to determine the effect of herbicides on stands of green sagewort (Artemisia campestris L.). Treatments were applied in 1971, 1972, and 1973 for one study and in 1972 and 1973 for another study. Visual estimates of green sagewort control were made in 1971, 1972, 1973, and 1974. Repeat applications of 2,4-D ester at 2.24 or 3.36 kg/ha effectively controlled green sagewort whether applied in 2 or 3 consecutive years. Dicamba or picloram, each in combination with 2,4-D ester, also effectively reduced the stand of green sagewort. Green sagewort was not controlled effectively by 2,4-D ester alone at rates less than 2.24 kg/ha or 2,4,5-T at rates of 1.12 or 2.24 kg/ha. Picloram, when applied alone, was not as effective as in combination with 2,4-D ester. Retreatment is necessary when attempting to control green sagewort. Two consecutive annual application of 2,4-D ester effectively reduced the stand. After reducing the stand of green sagewort, spraying every 2nd or 3rd year as a maintenance program may be adequate to keep populations of green sagewort plants at a minimum.
    • Effects of Grazing Management on Natural Pastures in a Marginal Area of Southeastern Australia

      Michalk, D. L.; Byrnes, C. C.; Robards, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The main reason for examining grazing management as a means of controlling barley grass (Hordeum leporinum) was that in marginal areas between reliable cropping and true semiarid rangeland areas, it is uneconomic to consider a chemical or mechanical eradication program, particularly as there is no desirable improved grass species which can be sown as a replacement. The study shows that in this environment the removal of barley grass by heavy grazing early in the autumn may result in crowfoot (Erodium spp.) dominant pastures, which although productive in winter-spring, does not carry over as dry feed and also produces seed which cause damage to stock. Alternatively, hard grazing in late winter increased the proportion of barley grass in the pasture and the number of seedheads per unit area. However, this pasture may be suitable for sheep grazing, since the seedheads were formed close enough to the ground to make the areas effectively seed free areas for livestock.
    • Forage Losses Caused by the Grasshopper Aulocara elliotti on Shortgrass Rangeland

      Hewitt, G. B.; Burleson, W. H.; Onsager, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      A field-cage study was conducted in 1973 and 1974 to determine the amount of forage (mainly grasses) destroyed by different population densities of the grasshopper Aulocara elliotti. The amount of forage consumed during the third instar and through the adult stage averaged 34.5 mg of forage per grasshopper per day. Thus, an estimated loss of 23.1 lb of forage per acre will result from a density of one Aulocara/m2 if the grasshopper lives for 75 days (45 days as a nymph and 30 days as an adult). Based on total available forage (standing dead and new growth), a 63% forage loss was recorded in 1973 at one site and losses of 26% and 29% at two sites in 1974 resulting from about 20 grasshoppers/m2. Severe grazing by grasshoppers also resulted in reduced production of forage during the subsequent (1974) season.
    • Granular herbicide applicator for brush control

      Flynt, T. O.; Bovey, R. W.; Meyer, R. E.; Riley, T. E.; Baur, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      An applicator was constructed and mounted on a tractor to accurately apply granular or pelleted herbicides in continuous narrow bands at various spacings to soils supporting infestations of brush. The metering mechanism consisted of a rotating disc suspended directly over an opening in the bottom of a hopper. Uniformity of granule output could be calibrated within < 5% error.
    • Influence of Fertilization and Supplemental Runoff Water on Production and Nitrogen Content of Western Wheatgrass and Smooth Brome

      Hanson, C. L.; Schumaker, G. A.; Erickson, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Simulated water spreading and nitrogen fertilization were studied on soils developed from Pierre Shales in western South Dakota. When both supplemental water and nitrogen fertilizer were applied, forage yields increased almost nine-fold. Western wheatgrass and smooth brome yields ranged from about 1,000 lb/acre on the untreated control to about 8,700 lb/acre with optimum supplemental water and 320 lb/acre nitrogen fertilizer. Forage yields increased with April and June supplemental water as compared with annual application in either April or June. Nitrogen content of harvested hay increased as nitrogen application rate increased above 80 lb/acre. Percent nitrogen decreased with increased supplemental water and ranged from about 1.2 to 2.2% in western wheatgrass and from about 1.0 to 2.3% in smooth brome. Least squares analysis, considering all nitrogen and water treatments, indicated that each lb/acre of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased the forage yield by about 19 lb/acre, and that each inch of additional water increased forage yields by about 50 lb/acre.
    • Orchardgrass Growth on Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilized Volcanic Ash Soil

      Geist, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Growth responses of orchardgrass to additions of N and S from various sources were studied in the greenhouse on a volcanic ash soil. Sources with soluble S were superior to those with elemental S in producing faster growth, greater growth, and greater N recovery. Results indicate fertilizers with formulae of 21-0-0-24, 30-1-0-6, 27-12-0-4, or 16-20-0-15 should effectively aid rapid establishment of new orchardgrass seedings. Rapid early growth will take optimum advantage of stored soil moisture prior to the onset of dry summers which typically occur in much of the Northwest. Grazing at late growth stages will maximize returns from applied fertilizers.
    • Plant Soil Microsite Relationships on a Salt Grass Meadow

      McGinnies, W. J.; Osborn, L. W.; Berg, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      At least one million acres of potentially productive meadows in the central great plains are dominated by low value saltgrass. Soil chemical and physical factors have been measured to establish a microsite classification of vegetation-soil relations. The microsites are "slickspot," "level," "mound," and "swale." The mound microsite is dominated by alkali sacaton and produces the highest basal area ground cover. The slickspots were dominated by saltgrass, but average basal area was less than 10%. The level sites produced a mixture of saltgrass, blue grama, and alkali sacaton. The swales contained a mixture of saltgrass, western wheatgrass, and threadleaf sedge. The greatest hindrance to the conversion of these meadows to high quality pasture is that they are on a solonetz soil. The A horizon was a favorable habitat for plant growth; it was neither saline nor alkaline. The B horizon was a serious problem to plant growth because it is hard when dry and impermeable when wet. The C horizon is saline, but it remains moist or wet throughout the growing season.
    • Precipitation, Temperature, and the Standing Crop of Some Southern California Grassland Species

      Hufstader, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      A strong relationship between precipitation (but not temperature) and standing crop is evident for the dominant species of a southern California grassland. The sub-dominant species showed no relationship to either precipitation or temperature. It was hypothesized that competition for light and variable germination times acts to limit the sub-dominant species. Differential success of sub-dominant species may account for much of the variability in California grasslands.
    • Range Improvement Following Chaining of South Texas Mixed Brush

      Scifres, C. J.; Mutz, J. L.; Durham, G. P. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Double chaining followed by raking and stacking heavy stands of south Texas mixed brush was more effective than double chaining alone or chaining one way, based on comparative degree of brush control, range forage production, and forage consumption by livestock. In a brush stand composed primarily of honey mesquite, spiny hackberry, and lime pricklyash, double chaining followed by raking and stacking reduced woody plant densities by 88%, increased oven-dry forage production by over 1,600 kg/ha, and increased forage consumption by 950 kg/ha as compared to untreated areas a year after treatment. Double chaining alone was less effective than double chaining, raking, and stacking in promoting forage production and consumption and did not improve management efficiency. Chaining one way was not considered an effective practice.
    • Reducing Bias in Dry Leaf Weight Estimates of Big Sagebrush

      Harniss, R. O.; Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The basic functional relation between foliage dry weight of big sagebrush plants and the independent variables, circumference and height of plant, was developed into a dry-weight prediction from prior knowledge and supporting information from a pertinent data set. Assuming the shape of the predictor's response surface is representative of similar plant populations elsewhere, scaler adjustment of the predictor to data from different locations, years, or subspecies would provide easy-to-use, unbiased estimators for these alternative applications. Also, the predictor can be used to improve consistency of the large-base estimates in double sampling with regression.
    • Selectivity of Range Grass Seeds by Local Birds

      Goebel, C. J.; Berry, G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      A study was completed in depleted semiarid Pacific Northwest range to determine types of seeds preferred by local roosting birds. It was found that of the species tested, the two small-seeded species of Sherman big bluegrass and sheep fescue were removed more frequently than the larger-seeded wheatgrasses. The introduced annuals, cheatgrass and medusahead, were least removed of all species tested. Local birds can thus contribute to continued degradation of range communities by their seed diet preferences.
    • Soil Compaction in Eastern Nebraska After 25 Years of Cattle Grazing Management and Weed Control

      McCarty, M. K.; Mazurak, A. P. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The effect of 25 years of weed control and grazing management on several physical properties of surface soil was measured. Bulk density of continuously grazed plots was 1.22 g/cm3 in the top 7.6 cm of soil as compared to 1.14 g/cm3 on deferred and rotationally grazed plots, and 1.02 g/cm3 on plots protected from grazing. Saturated hydraulic conductivities of 7.6 cm top soil cores from the protected plots were four times higher than from the two grazed plots. Those for warm-season grasses averaged 28.3 cm/hour, whereas mowed and smooth brome plots averaged 14.8 cm/hour. The value for the continuously grazed mowed plots was 3.0 cm/hour. The effect of long-term weed control and grazing management was reflected in the physical properties of soil which, in turn, influenced forage production by the increased water entry into soil.
    • Some Major Plant Toxicities of the Western United States

      James, L. F.; Johnson, A. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Poisonous plants rank high among the causes of economic loss to the livestock industry. Losses come not only through death and disability of livestock but through costs associated with interference with management programs such as additional fencing and altered grazing program. One of the best means of avoiding poisonous plant problems is by complete familiarity with poisonous plants likely to be encountered by livestock. Important plants causing congenital birth defects; plants containing cyanide, oxalate, nitrates, selenium, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids; as well as a few specific plants as larkspurs and hemlock and those producing photosensitization are reviewed briefly and results of more recent research are considered.
    • Steer Gains under Six Systems of Coastal Bermudagrass Utilization

      Hart, R. H.; Marchant, W. H.; Butler, J. L.; Hellwig, R. E.; McCormick, W. C.; Southwell, B. L.; Burton, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Steer gains on 'Coastal' Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), utilized by continuous, weekly rotation, or daily strip grazing, or green chop, dehydrated hay, or pellet feeding, were studied for 3 years. Previous studies had included fewer methods of utilization, or had run for only a short time. Average daily gains and gains per hectare were: continuous, 594 g and 600 kg; rotation, 449 g and 469 kg; strip, 392 g and 487 kg; green chop, 369 g and 647 kg; hay, 671 g and 971 kg; and pellets, 800 g and 967 kg. Differences among grazing methods in average daily gain were largely accounted for by differences in grazing pressure. Differences among feeding methods reflected differences in forage intake and lignin content of the forage. Seasonal changes in gain and forage intake were influenced by seasonal changes in lignin content and increasing steer weights.
    • Stratification of Bitterbrush Seeds

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The influence of temperature and moisture availability during stratification on the subsequent germination of bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) seeds was investigated. The threshold for adequate stratification temperatures was abrupt. Temperatures above 5 degrees C were too warm and below 0 degrees C, too cold for stratification; 2 degrees C was optimum for the longest duration. Prolonged stratification resulted in decreased viability, apparently from microbial activity and early germination. Stratification in osmotic solutions produced with polyethylene glycol was totally ineffective. Soil water stress reduced the effectiveness of stratification, especially with sand as a substrate. Any departure from optimum temperature and moisture regimes prolonged the time required for stratification or negated any effect of the stratification treatment.