• Range Improvement Following Chaining of South Texas Mixed Brush

      Scifres, C. J.; Mutz, J. L.; Durham, G. P. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Double chaining followed by raking and stacking heavy stands of south Texas mixed brush was more effective than double chaining alone or chaining one way, based on comparative degree of brush control, range forage production, and forage consumption by livestock. In a brush stand composed primarily of honey mesquite, spiny hackberry, and lime pricklyash, double chaining followed by raking and stacking reduced woody plant densities by 88%, increased oven-dry forage production by over 1,600 kg/ha, and increased forage consumption by 950 kg/ha as compared to untreated areas a year after treatment. Double chaining alone was less effective than double chaining, raking, and stacking in promoting forage production and consumption and did not improve management efficiency. Chaining one way was not considered an effective practice.
    • Reducing Bias in Dry Leaf Weight Estimates of Big Sagebrush

      Harniss, R. O.; Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The basic functional relation between foliage dry weight of big sagebrush plants and the independent variables, circumference and height of plant, was developed into a dry-weight prediction from prior knowledge and supporting information from a pertinent data set. Assuming the shape of the predictor's response surface is representative of similar plant populations elsewhere, scaler adjustment of the predictor to data from different locations, years, or subspecies would provide easy-to-use, unbiased estimators for these alternative applications. Also, the predictor can be used to improve consistency of the large-base estimates in double sampling with regression.
    • Selectivity of Range Grass Seeds by Local Birds

      Goebel, C. J.; Berry, G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      A study was completed in depleted semiarid Pacific Northwest range to determine types of seeds preferred by local roosting birds. It was found that of the species tested, the two small-seeded species of Sherman big bluegrass and sheep fescue were removed more frequently than the larger-seeded wheatgrasses. The introduced annuals, cheatgrass and medusahead, were least removed of all species tested. Local birds can thus contribute to continued degradation of range communities by their seed diet preferences.
    • Soil Compaction in Eastern Nebraska After 25 Years of Cattle Grazing Management and Weed Control

      McCarty, M. K.; Mazurak, A. P. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The effect of 25 years of weed control and grazing management on several physical properties of surface soil was measured. Bulk density of continuously grazed plots was 1.22 g/cm3 in the top 7.6 cm of soil as compared to 1.14 g/cm3 on deferred and rotationally grazed plots, and 1.02 g/cm3 on plots protected from grazing. Saturated hydraulic conductivities of 7.6 cm top soil cores from the protected plots were four times higher than from the two grazed plots. Those for warm-season grasses averaged 28.3 cm/hour, whereas mowed and smooth brome plots averaged 14.8 cm/hour. The value for the continuously grazed mowed plots was 3.0 cm/hour. The effect of long-term weed control and grazing management was reflected in the physical properties of soil which, in turn, influenced forage production by the increased water entry into soil.
    • Some Major Plant Toxicities of the Western United States

      James, L. F.; Johnson, A. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Poisonous plants rank high among the causes of economic loss to the livestock industry. Losses come not only through death and disability of livestock but through costs associated with interference with management programs such as additional fencing and altered grazing program. One of the best means of avoiding poisonous plant problems is by complete familiarity with poisonous plants likely to be encountered by livestock. Important plants causing congenital birth defects; plants containing cyanide, oxalate, nitrates, selenium, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids; as well as a few specific plants as larkspurs and hemlock and those producing photosensitization are reviewed briefly and results of more recent research are considered.
    • Steer Gains under Six Systems of Coastal Bermudagrass Utilization

      Hart, R. H.; Marchant, W. H.; Butler, J. L.; Hellwig, R. E.; McCormick, W. C.; Southwell, B. L.; Burton, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Steer gains on 'Coastal' Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), utilized by continuous, weekly rotation, or daily strip grazing, or green chop, dehydrated hay, or pellet feeding, were studied for 3 years. Previous studies had included fewer methods of utilization, or had run for only a short time. Average daily gains and gains per hectare were: continuous, 594 g and 600 kg; rotation, 449 g and 469 kg; strip, 392 g and 487 kg; green chop, 369 g and 647 kg; hay, 671 g and 971 kg; and pellets, 800 g and 967 kg. Differences among grazing methods in average daily gain were largely accounted for by differences in grazing pressure. Differences among feeding methods reflected differences in forage intake and lignin content of the forage. Seasonal changes in gain and forage intake were influenced by seasonal changes in lignin content and increasing steer weights.
    • Stratification of Bitterbrush Seeds

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      The influence of temperature and moisture availability during stratification on the subsequent germination of bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) seeds was investigated. The threshold for adequate stratification temperatures was abrupt. Temperatures above 5 degrees C were too warm and below 0 degrees C, too cold for stratification; 2 degrees C was optimum for the longest duration. Prolonged stratification resulted in decreased viability, apparently from microbial activity and early germination. Stratification in osmotic solutions produced with polyethylene glycol was totally ineffective. Soil water stress reduced the effectiveness of stratification, especially with sand as a substrate. Any departure from optimum temperature and moisture regimes prolonged the time required for stratification or negated any effect of the stratification treatment.
    • Summer Diets of Steers on a Deep Hardland Range Site of the Texas High Plains

      McClung, J. E.; Albin, R. C.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Botanical and chemical compositions of the summer diets of esophageal-fistulated steers were determined on a deep hardland shortgrass range site of the Texas High Plains. Consumption of belvedere summercypress was highest in June, but decreased to September; whereas, consumption of blue grama, buffalograss, and sand dropseed increased during this period. Belvedere summercypress was eaten in considerable quantities until it approached dormancy. Dietary crude protein and calcium percentages were highest in June, but declined to September. Daily forage consumption averaged 10.9 kg during June and July. A forage utilization of 17.4% was obtained during the summer grazing period and the steers gained an average of .45 kg/day.
    • Survival of Cool-Season Species under Texas-Pecos Conditions

      Kemph, G. S.; Schuster, J. L.; Welch, T. G. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Four cool-season species were grown for 1 year under controlled conditions simulating a dry, a typical, and a wet fall planting season in far west Texas. Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye had higher survival percentages than sideoats grama at the end of the study. Both species appear capable of reducing the cool-season forage shortage in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. Neither wintergreen hardinggrass nor burnet appear adapted to the Trans-Pecos. Seedling morphology did not affect plant survival.
    • Yields of Dissolved Solids from Aspen-Grassland and Spruce-Fir Watersheds in Southwestern Alberta

      Singh, T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Water quality samples representing various flow conditions were collected from the main creeks of Streeter and Marmot experimental watersheds in southwestern Alberta. Total dissolved solids were determined gravimetrically after evaporating aliquots of filtered samples. An excellent correlation between stream discharge and yield of dissolved solids was found in the two watersheds. The regression models thus established were used to estimate the yields of total dissolved solids from the streamflow data on a daily, monthly, and annual basis. The highest yield occurred in the month of June and the lowest during the low-flow months of winter. The yield of total dissolved solids transported annually amounted to 27 metric tons per square kilometer for aspen-grassland vegetation, compared to 69 metric tons per square kilometer for spruce-fir forest.