• Cultural Energy Expended in Range Meat and Fiber Production

      Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Range livestock production requires more cultural energy than commonly believed. However the cultural energy expended for range meat and fiber is considerably less than that required in confined fattening procedures. Complementing rangelands with dryland forages offers great promise in decreasing the cost of fossil fuel to produce a pound of red meat for human consumption, compared to feedlot fattening.
    • Effect of Prescribed Burning on Sediment, Water Yield, and Water Quality from Dozed Juniper Lands in Central Texas

      Wright, H. A.; Churchill, F. M.; Stevens, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Prescribed burning was applied to six miniwatersheds that were each paired with an unburned watershed. Erosion losses, runoff, and water quality were unaffected on level areas, but adverse effects lasted for 9 to 15 months on moderate slopes and for 15 to 30 or more months on steep slopes. Rates of erosion losses stabilized within 18 months on all slopes when vegetative cover reached 63 to 68%.
    • Effects of Cattle Grazing and Wildfire on Soil-Dwelling Nematodes of the Shrub-Steppe Ecosystem

      Smolik, J. D.; Rogers, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A comparison was made between nematode density and biomass values in grazed, ungrazed, and burned areas within a shrub-steppe community located on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve in south-central Washington. Highest total population biomass values on grazed, ungrazed, and burned areas were 405, 502, and 400 $mg/m^{2}$, respectively. There were not consistent differences in density or biomass values between treatments, resulting in the conclusion that short-term effects associated with cattle grazing and burning had little impact on soil-dwelling nematodes.
    • Estimating Potential Downy Brome Competition after Wildfires

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Weaver, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      To plan for revegetation and management of big sagebrush communities burned in wildfires, wildland managers need guidelines for estimating potential downy brome competition. A bioassay technique was used to determine the density of viable downy brome caryopsis in relation to burn and seedbed characteristics. The amount of unburned organic matter was found to be the characteristic most highly correlated with potential populations of downy brome. By determining the relative cover of ash and unburned organic matter, land managers can estimate potential reinfestation of downy brome and thus determine best weed control-seeding techniques in wildfire rehabilitation.
    • Expressing the Competitive Relationship between Wyoming Big Sagebrush and Crested Wheatgrass

      Rittenhouse, L. R.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Crested wheatgrass production was negatively correlated with Wyoming big sagebrush crown cover. Each 1% increase in sagebrush crown cover was associated with a decline in crested wheatgrass production equivalent to 3.3 to 5.2% of its potential within the range of cover measured. Expression of this relationship in the above manner may enable sounder economic analysis than conventional methods now used.
    • Fast Filter for In Vitro Studies

      Dietz, D. R.; Messner, H. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A crucible for filtering plant material is made by modifying an aluminum 35-mm film canister to hold the filter, composed of glass wool fiber and nylon curtain mesh. Cleaning and preparation of the conister for a new test is simplified by disposing of the used filter and inserting a new one. Comparison with sintered glass crucibles showed no significant differences in in vitro digestible dry matter values.
    • Foods of Free-Roaming Horses in Southern New Mexico

      Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Seasonal foods of free-roaming wild horses were determined in southern New Mexico by microhistological analyses of fecal samples. The most important forages consumed annually by wild horses were Russianthistle (29%), dropseed (21%), mesquite (16%), and Junegrass (12%). Seasonal differences in the percentages of the diets were found for mesquite, Junegrass, and saltbush.
    • Grazing and Debris Burning on Pinyon-Juniper sites—Some Chemical Water Quality Implications

      Buckhouse, J. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      During 1973 and 1974 a water quality study was conducted in San Juan County, southeastern Utah. Water quality data were collected from the study location which had been chained to remove pinyon-juniper vegetation six years earlier. Debris burning and livestock grazing treatments were studied. An "undisturbed, natural" woodland was left adjacent to the treatments in order to serve as a control area. Following burning, significant increases in potassium and phosphorus were observed in overland flow from infiltrometer plots. No significant treatment changes were detected for sodium, calcium, or nitrate-nitrogen. No treatment differences due to grazing were detected at the soil surface following cattle use (stocking rate was 2 ha/AUM).
    • Impact of Wildfire on Three Perennial Grasses in South-Central Washington

      Uresk, D. W.; Cline, J. F.; Rickard, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      In a south-central Washington sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass community, bluebunch wheatgrass responded to burning by increased vegetative and reproductive performance. Burning decreased the vegetative and reproductive vigor of Cusick bluegrass and Thurber needlegrass.
    • Remote Sensing for Optimum Herbicide Application Date for Rabbitbrush

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Tueller, P. T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Color infrared photography was used to predict the occurrence and duration of the optimum period for applying herbicides for control of green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus). Color infrared reflectiveness increases as shoot elongation approaches the optimum length for herbicide application provided the plants are not in moisture stress.
    • Responses of Herbage, Pines, and Hardwoods to Early and Delayed Burning in a Young Slash Pine Plantation

      Grelen, H. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Early burning in slash pine plantations on southern forest ranges did not prevent herbage yields from dropping sharply as the overstory developed. Unburned plots and plots burned initially at ages 5, 9, or 12 had 90% less herbage at age 13 than at age 6. Early burning prevented most scrub hardwoods and shrubs from reaching a size uncontrollable by fire, kept browse accessible to cattle and deer, and prevented pine litter from eliminating herbaceous plants from the understory. Burning had no effect on pine survival and growth.
    • The Effects of Weather Modification on Northern Great Plains Grasslands: A Preliminary Assessment

      Perry, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Possible effects of weather modification on Northern Great Plains Grasslands are examined using published reports on community-water relations. It is concluded that (1) long-term incremental forage production will be governed by the effect of added water on nutrient cycling rates; (2) community composition will change, but the nature of the change will depend on the timing of added precipitation; and (3) increased forage in the absence of increased nitrogen may have a neutral or negative effect on livestock weight gains.
    • Subsurface Herbicide Applicator for Brush Control

      Bovey, R. W.; Flynt, T. O.; Meyer, R. E.; Baur, J. R.; Riley, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A tractor-drawn machine was designed to apply soil-active herbicides subsurface to experimental brush control plots. The applicator was constructed with a large coulter, 32 inches in diameter, to penetrate soil to a depth of 0 to 8 inches and to cut through woody vegetation. An injector-knife immediately behind the coulter supported a spray nozzle to apply herbicide into the bottom of the slice made by the coulter. The injector applies herbicides in continuous narrow bands spaced on 6-inch centers at 3- to 6-ft intervals and requires low energy input to operate. Spacing of herbicide bands depends upon type and size of brush being treated.
    • The Abortifacient and Toxic Effects of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) on Domestic Sheep

      Johnson, A. E.; James, L. F.; Spillett, J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) fed to sheep by stomach pump to study its abortifacient properties during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy produced no reproductive difficulties. However, big sagebrush was lethal when 3/4 lb was fed by this method daily for 1, 2, or 3 days. Sagebrush fed 1/4 lb daily and slowly increased to 3/4 lb daily was not toxic. These findings confirm many general reports of suspected sagebrush toxicity and indicate the need for caution in moving sheep rapidly onto big sagebrush areas. Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) fed to sheep in 1 lb daily amounts in an interrupted series of feedings totaling 30 days in the 2nd and early 3rd trimester of pregnancy caused abortion in 2 sheep and birth of a weak lamb from a 3rd sheep. Attempts to confirm these findings by feeding juniper to other sheep during gestation days 60 to 90 were unsuccessful.
    • The Effect of Rainfall on Columbia Milkvetch Toxicity

      Majak, W.; Williams, R. J.; Ryswyk, A. L. Van.; Broke, B. M. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Daily precipitation patterns were compared to the variation in miserotoxin concentration of Columbia milkvetch (timber milkvetch) sampled sequentially during the spring and summer of 1973 and 1974. On rough fescue grasslands, the substantial increase in rainfall during the April-to-August period of 1974 not only extended toxicity intervals but also increased miserotoxin levels during the prebud growth stage. A large-scale rain storm induced miserotoxin synthesis during the pod stage. Greater soil moisture-holding capacity at one grassland experimental plot prevented a rapid decline in miserotoxin levels when drought conditions developed. In contrast, the toxicity trends on Douglasfir forest sites did not show a response to variations in precipitation and toxin differences between local sites were not significant. Consequently, a predictability equation was developed for Columbia milkvetch toxicity in Douglasfir forests on Gray Luvisolic soils.
    • A Supporting Device for Use with Stepwise Thermal Sensors

      Probasco, G. E.; Bjugstad, A. J.; Pierce, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A mechanical supporting device is described for use with stepwise thermal sensors. The sensor stand was used for estimating temperatures at various levels below, within, and above the burning fuel.
    • Botanical Composition of Eland and Goat Diets on an Acacia-grassland Community in Kenya

      Nge'the, J. C.; Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      A study of goat and eland diets on the Kiboko Range Research Station, Kenya, showed that diets of both animal species consisted of leaves from relatively few plant species. Six of the 41 species available consistently provided the bulk of the diets of both goats and elands. Although elands utilized a wide variety of plants, they consumed a larger proportion of grasses than goats. Elands are mixed feeders (grazers and browsers), grazing both during the wet and dry period. The diets of both kinds of animals were more diverse during the growing season (February through May), compared to the dry season (July through October). This reflected the greater variety of available forage during the wet season.
    • Caloric Content of Rocky Mountain Subalpine and Alpine Plants

      Andersen, D. C.; Armitage, K. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Caloric equivalents for aboveground parts of Rocky Mountain subalpine and alpine herbaceous plants averaged 4,859 cal/g ash-free oven-dry weight. Ash content averaged 9.8% for 17 forbs. Both caloric content and ash content ranged higher than values for alpine species from New Hampshire.
    • Twenty Years of Changes in Grass Production Following Mesquite Control and Reseeding

      Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Production of native perennial grasses and seeded Lehmann lovegrass was measured periodically for 21 years on a semidesert area where velvet mesquite was controlled by 2,4,5-T aerial spray and on an adjacent unsprayed area to determine how mesquite control would affect grass production and how long the effect would last. Grass production on the sprayed area increased dramatically during the first 5 years in a time-dependent relationship in response to the higher levels of available soil moisture. During the last 12 years, changes in lovegrass production were associated with changes in summer rainfall of the current and previous summers and of the intervening winter (2 separate variables). Because of the strong competition from lovegrass, native grass production during the last 12 years did not show its usual relationship with summer rainfall, but decreased gradually and consistently on both the sprayed and unsprayed areas. At the end of the study period, native grasses provided only 10% of the total perennial grass production on the sprayed area and 20% on the unsprayed. Increased grass production, resulting from the mesquite control treatment and seeding, paid for the treatment within 4 years, and the sprayed area was still producing more grass than the unsprayed area 20 years later.
    • Variable Germination Response to Temperature for Different Sources of Winterfat Seed

      Moyer, J. L.; Lang, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Superior sources of winterfat seed for range revegetation should be sought, but a clearer concept of what constitutes a "superior" type is necessary. Laboratory germination temperature response of seed collected from three sources was determined. Some positive reactions to 5 degrees C prechilling were observed 13-16 weeks after collection. When the same seedlots were subjected to constant temperatures of 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, seed from plants originating at the lower elevations (Simla, Colorado and Pine Bluffs, Wyoming) germinated best at the lower temperatures, unlike seed collected from a Laramie, Wyoming source. Kinetic studies of germination verified that rates varied among the seedlots, but were not associated with differences during any particular stage of germination. Different temperature responses between seedlots could have practical implications regarding stand establishment.