Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Your institution may also have access to current issues through library or institutional subscriptions.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


Contact the University Libraries Journal Team with questions about these journals.

Recent Submissions

  • Woody Plant Invasion of Unburned Kansas Bluestem Prairie

    Bragg, T. B.; Hulbert, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Postsettlement invasion of trees and shrubs on the bluestem prairie of Geary County in the Kansas Flint Hills was assessed using aerial photos, General Land Office survey data, and field observations. Tree cover increased 8% from 1856 to 1969 throughout the county, although on regularly burned sites combined tree and shrub cover was effectively maintained at presettlement amounts. On unburned sites, aerial photographs showed that combined tree and shrub cover increased 34% from 1937 to 1969; section-line data showed that tree cover alone increased 24% from 1856 to 1969. Data from two sites suggested that herbicide spraying only slowed the invasion rate. Woody plants increased only slightly on shallow, droughty clay loam soils located on level uplands, ridgetops, and upper slopes. On deeper and more permeable middle- and lower-slope soils, woody plants increased more than 40% from 1937 to 1969. In 1937 trees covered 64% of the unburned, deep, permeable, lowland soils; by 1950 they had increased to 89%; change was slight thereafter. The increase in coverage of the lowland soils from 1856 to 1937 suggests that these soils are rapidly invaded. We conclude that on the Flint Hills bluestem prairie rangeland, (1) burning has been effective in restricting woody plants to natural, presettlement amounts and (2) soil type and topography affect the rate of woody-plant invasion.
  • Vegetation of a 25-Year Exclosure on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Smeins, F. E.; Taylor, T. W.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    An evaluation was made of current species composition, production and 25-year vegetation trends within an exclosure on the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Station at Sonora, Texas. Community composition was variable and most species responded individually to soil variables, particularly soil depth and degree and kind of stoniness. Common curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri) was the most characteristic and widespread species of the area. Communities dominated by Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea), on soils greater than 25 cm in depth, produced 4,330, 2,235, and 504 kg/ha in June and August 1972 and January 1973, respectively. Wright threeawn (Aristida wrightii) dominated communities with soil depths of 15 cm, produced 1,318, 1,349, and 413 kg/ha for the same dates; and hairy tridens (Erioneuron pilosum) sites with soil depths of 10 cm yielded 970, 1,456, and 84 kg/ha. Vegetation change over the past 25 years has been primarily adjustment in relative dominance of species rather than addition or loss of species. Following establishment of the exclosure some species adjusted to previous grazing history, and thereafter primary changes followed precipitation variation.
  • Toxicity of Introduced Nitro-containing Astragalus to Sheep, Cattle, and Chicks

    Williams, M. C.; James, L. F.; Bleak, A. T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Thirteen introduced Astragalus and one Swainsona species were analyzed throughout the growing season for presence and concentration of toxic nitro compounds. Sicklepod milkvetch (A. falcatus) contained high levels of nitro compounds and acutely poisoned sheep, cattle, and 1-week-old chicks. A. siliquosus contained small amounts of nitro compounds that were slightly toxic to 1-week-old chicks. Other species tested contained little or no nitro compounds and were nontoxic to 1-week-old chicks.
  • Spiny Hopsage Germination

    Wood, M. K.; Knight, R. W.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Germination of spiny hopsage seeds was studied in relation to constant and alternating temperatures and moisture stress. Seeds germinated and developed rapidly with 70% germination at optimum temperatures in 1 week. Optimum germination after 2 weeks of incubation occurred with 5 degrees C nights and 10 to 30 degrees C days. The rapid germination permitted growth on soils that were dried from field capacity to low matric potentials. One seed source from Mojave, California, had unusually high germination at low osmotic potentials in solutions of polyethylene glycol. Nominal seedling establishment occurred when bracted seeds were broadcast on loose seedbeds. Seedlings were not established when threshed or bracted seeds were broadcast on compacted soils.
  • Shrub and Herbaceous Vegetation after 20 Years of Prescribed Burning in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Lewis, C. E.; Harshbarger, T. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Twenty years of prescribed burning at different seasons and different frequencies altered the condition of shrub and herbaceous vegetation in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The six treatments consisted of annual winter, annual summer, periodic winter, periodic summer, and biennial summer burning, and a no-burn control. Percentage of ground cover increased with most burning treatments, and herbage yields increased with all burning treatments. Annual summer burning eliminated most shrubs; however, dense stands of sprouting shrubs persisted on the periodic summer and on both the annual and periodic winter treatments. The number of herbaceous species and the density of herbaceous plants increased with burning, especially on the annual and biennial summer treatments where grasses became the dominant plants. Most of these changes appear beneficial for wildlife or grazing.
  • Sediment Production and Infiltration Rates as Affected by Grazing and Debris Burning on Chained and Seeded Pinyon-Juniper

    Buckhouse, J. C.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Sediment production and infiltration rates were measured in conjunction with an analysis of burning and grazing treatments in a chained pinyon-juniper study in southeastern Utah. While high natural variability was present among sites, no significant changes in sediment production were detected following our prescribed burning or grazing treatments. Following treatment, however, both the burned and grazed sites exhibited significantly depressed infiltration rates during certain time intervals in comparison to the "undisturbed, natural" woodland control location.
  • Sampling Shrub Ranges with an Electronic Capacitance Instrument

    Morris, M. J.; Johnson, K. L.; Neal, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Electronic capacitance meters can provide a rapid, accurate, and nondestructive means of estimating the total aboveground and herbaceous dry matter yields in low-shrub lands of the western United States and other parts of the world. A double sampling technique is necessary to obtain reliable yield estimates, maximum cost reduction, and the most efficient use of the meters.
  • Sampling Herbaceous Native Vegetation with an Electronic Capacitance Instrument

    Neal, D. L.; Currie, P. O.; Morris, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Dry matter yields of herbaceous native vegetation were effectively estimated with electronic herbage meters. Yields were estimated on vegetation types varying from a low-elevation annual type to a high-elevation alpine type. Phenology, dead organic matter, plant stature, composition, and meter placement within the vegetation affected efficiency of yield estimates. Double sampling techniques are necessary. Optimum sample size for either a fixed-cost or fixed-variance estimate should be determined for each vegetation type.
  • Responses of California Annual Grassland Species to Variations in Moisture and Fertilization

    Hull, J. C.; Muller, C. H. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    The responses to fertilization and moisture of several of the principal grass species of the California annual type were measured in a field study in Southern California. Treatment plots were established in the grassland to examine the responses to a complete fertilizer. Comparisons were also made of grassland samples obtained in 2 years with different precipitation regimes. Fertilization increased the shoot weight of all species, but yield was increased for the brome species only. Oat species decreased in yield and numbers of shoots/m2. In shoot weight the bromes had a similar but lesser response to additional moisture than to fertilization. With additional moisture the oat species increased in yield and numbers of shoots/m2, but decreased in shoot weight. It is suggested that range management policies which increase nutrients or moisture might lead to an alteration of the composition of the annual grasslands.
  • Response of Big Game Winter Range Vegetation to Fertilization

    Bayoumi, M. A.; Smith, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Nitrogen and phosphorus, alone and in combination, were applied to bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and three herbaceous species, beardless wheatgrass (Agropyron inerme), prairie Junegrass (Koeleria cristata), and Pacific aster (Aster chilensis). Spring applications of nitrogen significantly increased forage production of the three herbaceous species; twig growth, seed production, and percent crude protein of the leaves and twigs of bitterbrush and sagebrush were increased also. Throughout the winters of 1972-73 and 1973-74, the nitrogen-fertilized bitterbrush and sagebrush plants were used more heavily by elk than the unfertilized plots. Neither yields nor utilization were increased by phosphorus.
  • Range Improvement Practices and Ferruginous Hawks

    Howard, R. P.; Wolfe, M. L. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    The implications of range improvement practices on ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) are discussed. During 1972 and 1973 the habitat requirements and breeding biology of 43 and 54 nesting pairs, respectively, were studied in northern Utah and southeastern Idaho. Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) provided sites for 95% of observed nests. Desert shrub types and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) seedings comprised the dominant vegetation around nest sites. Black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) comprised 88.7 and 79.4% (by weight) of prey items collected from nests in the 2 years of study. Jackrabbit abundance may be a major determinant of the raptors' reproductive success in a given year, as suggested by a 47% decline in the number of young fledged per occupied territory between 1972 and 1973, concurrent with an estimated 79% decrease in jackrabbit numbers. Suggestions for minimizing or ameliorating the impact of range improvement practices on the hawks' prey base are given.
  • Occupational Patterns of Wildlife on a Major East Kootenay Winter-Spring Range

    Hudson, R. J.; Hebert, D. M.; Brink, V. C. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Empirical descriptions of spatial overlap of coexisting herbivores are difficult to interpret in terms of functional interaction. In an attempt to obviate some of these difficulties, partial correlation analysis was applied to the study of habitat use behavior of whitetail deer, mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep on an important wildlife winter-spring range in southeastern British Columbia. A probe was made of the basic determinants of habitat selection in order to isolate the response of represented species to the physical and vegetational environment and to summer grazing by cattle. Distinct patterns of habitat utilization were exhibited by each species. Whitetail and mule deer habitat preferences were distinguished from one another by elevation, ruggedness of terrain, and openness of forest and shrub vegetation. Elk were most widely distributed and showed the least apparent response to measured environmental parameters, whereas bighorn sheep were most localized and specific in their response to environment. Distributions of all species were only weakly influenced by the activities of grazing cattle at the level and pattern found on the study area. Partial correlation techniques appeared to offer some potential for analyzing resource division in mixed grazing systems. However, a number of technical and conceptual difficulties may limit their value in systems where reciprocal feedbacks, thresholds, and optima exist in the response of animals to environment.
  • Measuring Fibrous Roots with a Leaf Area Meter

    Kemph, G. S. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    A commercial leaf area meter was tested for accuracy of measuring root area. The meter can accurately measure sample area with minimum length or width of at least 2 mm. All grass fibrous roots tested were smaller than 2 mm diameter and were not measured accurately by the meter.
  • Late Fall vs Spring Seeding in the Establishment of Crested Wheatgrass in the Zarand Saveh Region of Iran

    Moghaddam, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Seeding to adopted forage species is one of the most effective means for restoring Iranian rangelands to full forage production. Observation and study of native vegetation response to reduced grazing has indicated an unexpected potential for forage production. The severely deteriorated condition of much of the native rangeland, however, does not leave an alternative to reseeding. Fall seeding of crested wheatgrass is favored over spring seeding because (1) a higher percentage of seedling establishment is realized, (2) more vigorous seedlings are obtained, and (3) seeded stands can be utilized from the end of the second year.
  • Growth of Replacement Heifers on Shortgrass Ranges of Colorado

    Shoop, M. C.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    We examined records of young cattle produced on shortgrass range in Colorado to evaluate the problem of inadequate growth of replacement heifers-a problem that forces ranchers to delay first calving until heifers are 3 years old. Weaning weights of calves produced on 44 ranches did not increase from 1950 through 1970 in spite of improved breeding practices. Hence, summer range conditions may limit growth of heifer calves. Weaner heifers gained an average of only 0.4 lb/head/day during their first winter. Whereas, to be large enough for successful breeding, heifers should gain 1.2 lb/head/day. March, April, and May forage conditions were identified as critical to reproduction of cattle because of inadequate herbage, poor quality of old herbage, excessive energy expenditure in the search for scarce green herbage, teeth shedding by 2-year-old heifers, and increased nutritional needs for milk production and readiness to breed. The data identify two criteria for attaining a goal of successful breeding of yearling heifers raised on shortgrass range: (1) place all brood cows, especially 2-year-old heifers with first calf, on gain-promoting forage and feed in March, April, and May, and (2) increase winter daily gain of weaner heifers by at least 0.83 lb. Research is needed to determine if these criteria can be attained profitably.
  • Germinability and Seedling Vigor of Haloxylon salicornicum as Affected by Storage and Seed Size

    Clor, M. A.; Al-Ani, T. A.; Charchafchy, F. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    When newly collected in early spring, seeds of Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq.) Bge., an important range shrub in Iraq, attained 100% germination within 24 hours. As the summer months followed, a considerable loss of viability was observed in seeds stored at room temperature. By December, only about 50% of the seeds germinated. The seeds maintained their full germination capacity, with little difference between large and small size seeds when stored at 5°C. Under room temperature, the small size seeds lost their viability faster than the larger ones. Seeds stored at 5°C produced more vigorous seedlings than those stored at room temperature. Large seeds produced more vigorous seedlings than small seeds, regardless of method of storage. Seeds that germinated rapidly produced more vigorous seedlings than those that germinated slowly.
  • Effect of 2,4-D on Digestibility and Production of Subalpine Herbage

    Thilenius, J. F.; Brown, G. R. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)
    Treatment of forb-dominated subalpine cattle range in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming with 2,4-D did not change the in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients of the grasses or surviving forbs. Forbs and grasses were equally digestible throughout the growing season. Production of total and digestible dry matter was not influenced by 2,4-D, but the proportion of both supplied by grasses was increased.
  • Book Review: Natural Resources Measurement, Thomas Eugene Avery

    Driscoll, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1976-01-01)

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