• Number of Fistula Samples Needed for Determination of Sheep Diet on Sagebrush-Grass Range

      Harniss, R. O.; Price, D. A.; Tomlin, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Sheep diet was examined in the spring season on sagebrush-grass range in northeastern Idaho. Balsamroot and bluegrasses were the preferred plant species. The number of esophageal fistula samples needed for estimating the botanical and chemical components was determined. Botanical samples were more variable than chemical samples indicating a greater number of botanical samples for the same precision.
    • Plant Response and Livestock Weight Changes on Big Bluegrass Range Grazed during Late Fall, Winter, and Early Spring

      Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Yearling heifers grazing Sherman big bluegrass ranges in Colorado during the cold winter period gained weight during late fall with or without a protein supplement, but they gained less than animals that grazed native range and received 1/2-lb protein/day. During winter and early spring, animals lost weight in most pastures. Exposure as well as kind and quantity of forage and feed available evidently influenced livestock weights. Grazing was not detrimental to Sherman big bluegrass during any period from late fall to early spring, and stands improved during the study. For most effective use, big bluegrass should replace native range for fall grazing in a management system. More animals could be carried over winter, or a set number of animals could be overwintered on fewer acres.
    • Reducing Erosion Hazard on a Burned Forest in Oregon by Seeding

      Anderson, E. W.; Brooks, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      A burned private forest was revegetated by seeding to grasses, legumes, shrubs, and trees. The sequence of events in carrying out this stabilization program provides a guideline for others handling similar situations; timeliness and ecological adaptation of species used is important. A field study (1969-72) compared results obtained on three ecological sites. A satisfactory vegetational cover was established by seeded grass the first year after seeding on all three sites, whereas natural revegetation did not provide satisfactory cover on an unseeded area in 4 years. Common legumes seeded for deer forage did not survive, indicating the need for additional study of species adaptation. Broadcasting tree seed was a failure. Seeded grasses apparently suppressed development of some native shrubs, which was detrimental to wildlife habitat. Herbage production on seeded areas was about four times greater than on the unseeded area. Two years of soil loss from seeded watersheds totaled less than 5 tons per acre as measured by the amount of sediment in debris basins. Fire-killed ponderosa pine snags were most susceptible to windthrow; grand fir was the least.
    • Root-Herbage Production and Nutrient Uptake and Retention by Bermudagrass and Bahiagrass

      Beaty, E. R.; Tan, K. H.; McCreery, R. A.; Jones, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Studies were conducted to determine the effect of clipping and N fertilization practices on dry matter yield and macro-element uptake and retention of Bermudagrass and Bahiagrass grown on Inceptisols. Field experiments were conducted from 1963 to 1971 using a Montevallo soil sprigged with three varieties of Bermudagrasses and seeded with two varieties of Bahiagrasses. The results indicated that Bahiagrass outyielded Bermudagrass in root and herbage production. The root-herbage ratio of Bermudagrass increased with increasing N fertilization, whereas this ratio decreased for Bahiagrass. Bermudagrass differed from Bahiagrass in N, P, K, Ca and Mg content. The Ca and Mg content in both roots and herbage of Bermudagrass decreased with N fertilization, but similar N fertilization increased these nutrient elements in Bahiagrass. There was a positive correlation between N content and K/Ca molar ratio in Bermudagrass herbage.
    • Runoff and Reservoir Quality for Livestock Use in Southeastern Montana

      Soiseth, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Runoff and reservoir waters from the Pierre Shale Plains in southeastern Montana were fresh (< 1,000 mg/liter of TDS) to slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 mg/liter of TDS) and were rated good to fair for livestock use. However, as water levels drop, mainly through evaporation, waters in some reservoirs could become moderately saline (3,000 to 10,000 mg/liter of TDS) and should not be used if other waters are available.
    • S-Triazine Herbicides Combined with Nitrogen Fertilizer for Increasing Protein on Shortgrass Range

      Houston, W. R.; Van Der Sluijs, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Three s-triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine) applied annually at 1.1 and 3.4 kg/ha to shortgrass range in northcentral Colorado, consistently increased protein concentration in range herbage for 3 years, 1970-72. Overall, herbage yields were not affected. Spring applications were slightly more effective than fall applications. Atrazine and simazine were about equally effective. However, herbage treated with simazine retained protein better into fall and winter than that treated with atrazine. Cyanazine was the least effective. Increases in protein from the three herbicides were additive to increases from N fertilizer applied at 22 and 45 kg N/ha, except in a drought year. During drought, 3.4 kg of atrazine or simazine combined with 45 kg N reduced herbage yields and yields of protein. The most practical treatment was a combination of 1.1 kg simazine and 22 Kg N/ha. Averaged over 3 years, this combination increased protein concentration 43% and yield of protein 35% in September.
    • Sap Velocity Studies in Natural Stands of Pinyon and Juniper Trees

      Shaw, C. B.; Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Sap velocities in pinyon (Pinus edulis Engelm.) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) trees in southeastern and southwestern Utah were studied for 1 year using the heat-pulse technique. Measured velocities were related to nearby environmental factors and Dalton's simplified aerodynamic method for estimating evaporation from water. Sap velocity was independent of the dry weight of green biomass within both pinyon and juniper trees. From 90.5 to 99.0% and from 66.0 to 99.0% of the variability in diurnal sap velocities in pinyon and juniper trees, respectively, could be accounted for by using an 8-variable multiple regression equation. Dalton's equation accounted for 4.0 to 86.0% of the variability in diurnal sap velocities for both tree species on select days. Amount of variability in sap velocities explained by multiple regression equations was reduced markedly when sap velocities and environmental data were pooled over all sampling dates.
    • Seeding Rate-Cover Relationships of Annual Ryegrass Seeded on Burned Brushlands

      Papanastasis, V.; Biswell, H. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      The relationship between seeding rate and cover of reseeded annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was studied for 3 years on a burned brushland near Berkeley, California. Five seeding rates were compared: 6, 11, 22, 34, and 45 kg/ha. During the first winter the percentages of cover from the high seeding rates were greater than those from the lower rates; however, the differences were eliminated in the spring as a result of more tillering in the areas of low seeding rates. Percentages of cover declined in the second and third years even though seed supplies were, respectively, 32-fold and double that of the first year. It is suggested that high rates of seeding be used after wildfires, where the objective is to have a good cover to protect bare soil against erosion during the winter months.
    • Seedling Growth of Three Switchgrass Strains

      Perry, L. J.; Moser, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Seedlings of Pathfinder, Nebr. 28, and experimental ey switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) strains were grown in a growth chamber and harvested 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks following emergence for detection of seedling growth differences among strains. Leaf areas and dry weights of leaf blade and stem axis (stem and leaf sheath) generally increased significantly with each harvest from 4 to 10 weeks. Stem axis and leaf blade dry weights were significantly greater with Pathfinder and ey, respectively, than with Nebr. 28. Final leaf area was significantly greater with ey than with the other strains. Thus, Nebr. 28 (early-maturing) would be less competitive with weeds during establishment than Pathfinder or ey (both are late-maturing). Relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), and leaf area ratio (LAR) were similar for all strains, although at the first harvest Nebr. 28 had a lower LAR than the other two strains. RGR, NAR, and LAR generally declined with each successive harvest. The strains appeared to have the same capacity to produce above ground biomass but photosynthate partitioning differed as indicated by leaf and stem comparisons.
    • Thiourea Solution Temperature and Bitterbrush Germination and Seedling Growth

      Neal, D. L.; Sanderson, H. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC.) seed is commonly soaked in a solution of thiourea to break seed dormancy for spring planting. "Warm" thiourea solutions have been reported to cause seedling deformities. To determine what range of "warm" temperature solutions can cause deformities, four seed collections were treated at 18 temperatures (30 degrees F to 200 degrees F) in increments of 10 degrees F. Normal germination and seedling growth resulted between 60 degrees F and 140 degrees F. Below 60 degrees rate of germination declined slightly, but seedling growth was normal. Seedling deformities began to show up above 140 degrees F, and germination decreased rapidly. Deformities consisted of annular cracks around the hypocotyls and detached root caps. Solution temperatures between 60 degrees F and 140 degrees F are recommended.
    • Titratable Acids in Opuntia ficus-indica L

      Samish, Y. B.; Ellern, S. J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Accumulation of acidity in spiny and spineless Opuntia joints fluctuated daily due to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Golan Height and coastal plain. The acidity reached higher concentrations in the young joints, especially during early morning hours, before the plants were exposed to sunlight. Changes in acidity were more pronounced in the chlorenchyma than in the water-accumulating tissues. These findings provide information on the rate and time of photosynthesis of these plants and may enable the feeding of livestock on Opuntia, while acid levels taken in by livestock are kept low to reduce a cause of diarrhea. The acidity is lower on sunny warm days, during late afternoons, in shriveled, old joints which had been exposed to full sunlight or were excised and stored in light. It may, therefore, be better to let cattle feed on the shriveled Opuntia before the start of the rainy season and use shrubs such as Atriplex halimus, which is better suited after onset of the first rain, as complementary perennial feed.
    • Trends of Nonstructural Carbohydrates in the Stem Bases of Switchgrass

      Smith, D. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      Carbohydrate reserves in the stem bases of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) reached their minimum percent in the spring growth, and in the regrowth after cutting, when the young tillers began to initiate their elongation (jointing). Cutting or grazing at this stage would weaken the plants as compared with cutting at the flowering stage, or later, when carbohydrate reserves have been restored to a high level.
    • Variability of Miserotoxin Concentration in Timber Milkvetch

      Majak, W.; McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-09-01)
      The variability in miserotoxin concentration of 120 individual timber milkvetch plants was determined in the bud, flower, and pod stages of growth on rough fescue grassland, parkland, and Douglasfir zone locations. Although a broad dispersion in miserotoxin levels was evident within each sampling unit of ten plants, the grassland samples exhibited the greatest toxicity with an exceptional level (10.17 +/- 1.13%) occurring during the bud stage. The bud stage of the parkland samples yielded intermediate concentrations (5.22 +/- 1.18%) while forest plants contained lower miserotoxin levels (4.08 +/- 0.95% to 2.49 +/- 0.47%). A decline in miserotoxin levels occurred during the bud-to-pod interval at the grassland and parkland sites, but significant differences were not apparent between the progressive stages of growth at the forest locations. The timber milkvetch toxicity patterns based on the variability of individual plants confirmed previously described trends derived from composite sampling.