• Stripmining for Western Coal: Not Necessarily Bad

      Dietz, Donald R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
    • Soil-Moisture Stress as Related to Plant-Moisture Stress in Big Sagebrush

      Branson, F. A.; Shown, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Seasonal variation in internal-moisture stress in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is significantly related (correlation coefficient +0.68**) to the lowest soil-moisture stresses in the soil profile. Seasonal values for internal-plant stresses range from 15.3 to 59.8 bars; for lowest soil stress the range was 0.2 to 36.4 bars. Hour of day, wind, and net radiation are also significantly related to internal-moisture stress in plants. The results presented support the hypothesis that inexpensive internal-plant stress measurements may be used to estimate soil-moisture stress and soil-moisture storage.
    • Soil Texture and Planting Depth Influence Buffelgrass Emergence

      Mutz, J. L.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Seedling emergence and vigor of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), an introduced species with widespread adaptability for revegetation in South Texas, were regulated by soil texture and planting depth. Seedling establishment rate generally was highest from surface plantings and decreased with increasing planting depth to 24 mm. Percentage emergence was lower in clay than in clay loam or sandy clay loam. Based on total emergence and seedling vigor, optimum planting depths in clay loam and sandy clay loam soils were 6 to 12 mm. In clay soil, the optimum depth was 6 mm. The probability of successful seedings may be increased by considering the specific planting requirements of buffelgrass based on soil characteristics rather than a generalized depth disregarding edaphic factors.
    • Seedling Growth of Three Big Sagebrush Subspecies under Controlled Temperature Regimens

      Harniss, R. O.; McDounough, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Seedlings of three subspecies of big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata, (tridentata, vaseyana, and wyomingensis) were grown for 10 weeks under temperature regimens programed to simulate below-average, average, and above-average conditions during late spring to early summer in the native habitat. Growth of seedlings of all subspecies was reduced under the below-average temperature regimen; but no difference in growth occurred between subspecies under any one regimen.
    • Seed Destruction in Indigobush Amorpha by a Seed Beetle

      Rogers, C. E.; Garrison, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The seed pods of indigobush amorpha (Amorpha fruticosa L.) in Knox County, Texas, are heavily infested with a bruchid (Acanthoscelides collusus Fall). Although A. collusus may destroy about half of the amorpha seeds, its potential for maximum seed destruction is lowered by a parasitoid, Horismenus productus (Ashmead). About 5% of the immature seed beetles are parasitized.
    • Seasonal Yield and Chemical Composition of Crested Wheatgrass in Southeastern Wyoming

      Rauzi, F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Herbage yields, crude protein levels, and mineral concentrations of crested wheatgrass were influenced by phenological development and distribution of spring precipitation at the Archer Substation near Cheyenne, Wyo. Crude protein levels and mineral concentrations in the crested wheatgrass declined with plant maturity. Amount and distribution of the precipitation enhanced or retarded phenological development. Calcium uptake per acre by the crested wheatgrass was greater during a wet spring, but calcium concentration per unit of dry matter was higher during a dry spring.
    • Response of Shortgrass Plains Vegetation to Clipping, Precipitation, and Soil Water

      Eck, H. V.; McCully, W. G.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Clipping shortgrass range in Texas at 2-week intervals gave 94% more forage yield than fall harvest. Clipping treatments had little effect on ground cover and plant composition. Yield was shown to be a function of current season precipitation, while plant composition and ground cover were more closely related to previous season precipitation. In the one of seven seasons when stored soil water was available at the beginning of the growing season (4.91 inches of plant-available water), it was depleted by June 15.
    • Response of Honey Mesquite to Method of Top Removal

      Ueckert, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Shredding stimulates regrowth of honey mesquite in the Rolling Plains of Texas compared to spraying the foliage with 2,4,5-T, burning, and basal application of diesel or diesel + 2,4,5-T. Regrowth of shredded trees was 4.7 times greater than that of trees sprayed with 2,4,5-T and 6.6 times greater than that of trees previously burned. This information should aid ranchers in choosing initial control practices for honey mesquite which will maximize the time period before follow-up treatments will be necessary.
    • Rate and Pattern of Vigor Recovery in Idaho Fescue and Bluebunch Wheatgrass

      Mueggler, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The rate and pattern of vigor recovery of protected individual Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) were studied for 5 years after heavy and extreme clipping. Bluebunch wheatgrass was not only more sensitive to clipping, but recovered vigor more slowly than Idaho fescue. Idaho fescue of moderately low vigor required approximately 3 years and bluebunch wheatgrass a projected 6 years to approach normal vigor. Recovery from very low vigor may take more than 6 years of protection for Idaho fescue and 8 years for bluebunch wheatgrass. Maximum leaf length can be used as a reliable index of Idaho fescue vigor. Flower stalk numbers combined with maximum lengths indicate vigor in bluebunch wheatgrass.
    • Range Vegetation and Mima Mounds in North Texas

      Collins, B. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Mima mounds are found in many areas west of the Mississippi River. The polygenetic origin of mounds in different areas is commonly accepted. The formation of these mounds in the Blackland Prairie may be associated with past climatic changes in the area, and resultant erosion and vegetational changes.
    • Potential for Game Ranching in Boreal Aspen Forests of Western Canada

      Telfer, E. S.; Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Portions of western Canada, which include the boreal mixedwood, aspen parklands, lower foothills, and the montane forest regions, contain large expanses of aspen. These regions are favorable for consideration as game ranching areas because of a shallow snow cover, productive soils, variety of vegetative types, and a variety of native wild ungulates, including bison (Bison bison), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Those parameters discussed, which are relevant to game ranching, include range carrying capacity, sex ratio, management during winter, scale of operation, interspecific competition, and behavioral intolerance, disease and parasites, harvesting, and multiple use management.
    • Influence of Soil-Water Potential on the Water Relationships of Honey Mesquite

      Easter, S. J.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Thermocouple psychrometry was used to measure soil and plant water potentials of honey mesquite growing under irrigated and nonirrigated field conditions. The trees growing on the irrigated area experienced more internal stress (average minimum water potential, -30.9 bars) than trees growing under nonirrigated conditions (average minimum water potential, -19.4 bars). The water potential in the trees and transpiration rates adhered to a very distinct daily pattern. Minimum water potential occurred about noon in the trees growing on both sites. During the growing season, the average transpiration rate of the trees on the irrigated area was 9.59 X 10^-5 g cm-2 min-1, while the average transpiration rate for those trees growing on the nonirrigated area was 7.15 X 10^-5 g cm-2 min-1. The trees growing under irrigation produced 2 times more foliage than the trees growing without irrigation. Consequently, the greatest amount of soil water depletion occurred under irrigation. The results of this study indicated that water loss via transpiration in honey mesquite growing in shallow soils or on upland sites (relatively dry situations) is not as great as the amount lost from trees growing on bottomland and on riparian sites.
    • Grazing Marginal Ranges in the Southwest

      Hanrahan, M. P. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The sensitive rangelands of the Southwest are a delicately balanced arrangement of thin soils, sparse vegetation, and limited precipitation. Grazing must be carefully regulated in order to protect the delicate ecosystem. Steep slopes and rugged terrain require special consideration.
    • Germination Characteristics and Chemical Control of Horehound

      Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Less than 35% of the seed collected in October from mature plants of horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) would germinate. Seventy-eight percent of the seeds germinated after 1 month of west storage at 0°C. From 20 to 25% of the seeds were still dormant after 4 months of storage at the three conditions tested. Better than 90% control of the existing horehound plants was possible with both 2,4-D and silvex at a rate of 2 lb/acre.
    • Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Late-Spring Burning of Bluestem Range on Diet and Performance of Steers

      Woolfolk, J. S.; Smith, E. F.; Schalles, R. R.; Brent, B. E.; Harbers, L. H.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Cattle were used to evaluate the effects of late-spring burning and nitrogen fertilization alone and in combination on a typical True Prairie range in the Flint Hills near Manhattan, Kans. Diet quality was improved by higher protein and hemicellulose, and by lower acid-detergent fiber (lignocellulose) of burned than nonburned pastures. Hemicullulose and neutral detergent fiber (cell-wall constituents) increased when 40 lb N/acre was applied. Cellulose and lignin were not affected by either treatment. Average daily gain and gain per acre were higher by steers on burned pastures than by those on nonburned pastures. Daily gain waa highest for steers on pastures burned and fertilized. Gain per acre on fertilized pastures exceeded gains from nonfertilized pastures primarily from heavier stocking rate rather than increased individual performance. Apparent dry-matter digestibility did not differ among treatments, but decreased June through August, then increased in October.
    • Early Range Readiness with Nitrogen Fertilizer: An Economic Analysis

      McCormick, P. W.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Application of ammonium nitrate stimulated early spring growth initiation of Utah crested wheatgrass pastures. Application rates of 25 to 30 lb N per acre hastened spring range readiness by 11 to 13 days. During 1973, the initial year studied, ranchers could have profitably substituted crested wheatgrass fertilization for purchased hay.
    • Dynamics of Blue Grama within a Shortgrass Ecosystem

      Uresk, D. W.; Sims, P. L.; Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The dynamics of standing crop for live, dead, and litter compartments of blue grama were studied for 2 years to formulate equations useful for predicting growth rates over 2-week intervals. During the period of rapid vegetative growth, 54% of the variation in rates of changes for live herbage was accounted for by the amount of live herbage present at a given time. During the declining period, the amount of live herbage, leaf moisture, and air temperature accounted for 58% of the variation in net changes. The transfer rate from live to dead herbage was 0.22% of the live herbage per day during the growing season, while litter accumulated from the dead herbage at a rate of 0.31% per day. This transfer rate became 0.086% per day during the non-growing season. Litter decomposed during the growing season at a rate of 0.35% per day.
    • Control of Gambel Oak Sprouts by Goats

      Davis, G. G.; Bartel, L. E.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      A high degree of Gambel oak control can be attained with a combination of mechanical treatment followed by a system of goat grazing. This type of control program can result in significant increases in the amount of forage available for livestock production. Mechanical treatment of the oak is necessary to attain maximum benefit from goats. High stocking rates and the proper time of browsing are important management considerations.
    • Control of Aspen and Prickly Rose in Recently Developed Pastures in Saskatchewan

      Bowes, G. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Two consecutive yearly applications of 2,4-D and 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T (2:1) at 2 lb/acre gave good control of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) for 5 years in Saskatchewan. There was virtually no regeneration of new shoots from parental root stocks by the third year after the initial treatment. Control of prickly rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.) was erratic with 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T at 2 lb/acre, but the mixture was needed when both woody plants were present.