• A Method of Mounting Plant Specimens in the Field

      Burleson, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      A technique is described for mounting green succulent plant specimens in the field. Fresh plants can be sealed between plastic sheets, thus producing a long-lasting, well-protected, relatively inexpensive plant mount which eliminates the time-consuming drying and pressing process.
    • A Tool for Estimating the Financial Returns on Forage Grasses Seeded in Thinned Ponderosa Pine

      Sassaman, R. W.; Fight, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      A method is described for determining the approximate internal rate of return from seeding forage grasses in thinned ponderosa pine stands. Although this method is applicable to an array of forage production costs, market-based forage values, and forage production levels, it is most useful to public land administrators for scheduling forage-seeding investments on both forested and open rangeland.
    • Agency Coordination, State and Public Involvement in Resource Planning

      Schneider, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The early years of this country's development were years in which relatively little interplay was exercised in the exploitive endeavors of society, whether these were in range resources, wood products, minerals, or water. It is questionable whether the present generation, given the same set of circumstances, would manage these endeavors any differently; yet each generation would be operating on a common base of facts. These facts consist of some simple but fundamental environmental truths having to do with soil, water, and vegetation-how and for what they are used, their capacity for yielding the needs of society, and their integrity for future use. The immutable interrelationship between this environmental trinity-soil, water, vegetation-and between on-site and off-site interests, are the genesis of the absolute necessity for coordinated resource planning.
    • Comparison of Distance-Measurement Techniques for Sampling Tussock Grassland Species in New Zealand

      Laycock, W. A.; Batcheler, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Four distance-measurement techniques were tested in 1969 near the Craigieburn Research Station of the Forest and Range Experiment Station, New Zealand Forest Service. Two methods (closest individual and point-centered-quarter) are known to result in biased estimates of density in nonrandom plant populations, and the other two methods (angle-order and corrected-point-distance) have been reported to permit unbiased estimates in nonrandom populations. Sampled were two tussock grassland species in areas where true densities were determined by total counts. The corrected-point-distance method resulted in estimates within 20% of actual density for all populations, and appeared to be the most promising measurement method tested. The closest individual and point-centered-quarter methods gave badly biased (low) estimates of aggregated populations. Reasonably good estimates for some populations were obtained by the angle-order method, but it is time consuming. All methods appear to need additional theoretical work.
    • Control of Aspen and Prickly Rose in Recently Developed Pastures in Saskatchewan

      Bowes, G. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Two consecutive yearly applications of 2,4-D and 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T (2:1) at 2 lb/acre gave good control of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) for 5 years in Saskatchewan. There was virtually no regeneration of new shoots from parental root stocks by the third year after the initial treatment. Control of prickly rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.) was erratic with 2,4-D plus 2,4,5-T at 2 lb/acre, but the mixture was needed when both woody plants were present.
    • Control of Gambel Oak Sprouts by Goats

      Davis, G. G.; Bartel, L. E.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      A high degree of Gambel oak control can be attained with a combination of mechanical treatment followed by a system of goat grazing. This type of control program can result in significant increases in the amount of forage available for livestock production. Mechanical treatment of the oak is necessary to attain maximum benefit from goats. High stocking rates and the proper time of browsing are important management considerations.
    • Dynamics of Blue Grama within a Shortgrass Ecosystem

      Uresk, D. W.; Sims, P. L.; Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The dynamics of standing crop for live, dead, and litter compartments of blue grama were studied for 2 years to formulate equations useful for predicting growth rates over 2-week intervals. During the period of rapid vegetative growth, 54% of the variation in rates of changes for live herbage was accounted for by the amount of live herbage present at a given time. During the declining period, the amount of live herbage, leaf moisture, and air temperature accounted for 58% of the variation in net changes. The transfer rate from live to dead herbage was 0.22% of the live herbage per day during the growing season, while litter accumulated from the dead herbage at a rate of 0.31% per day. This transfer rate became 0.086% per day during the non-growing season. Litter decomposed during the growing season at a rate of 0.35% per day.
    • Early Range Readiness with Nitrogen Fertilizer: An Economic Analysis

      McCormick, P. W.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Application of ammonium nitrate stimulated early spring growth initiation of Utah crested wheatgrass pastures. Application rates of 25 to 30 lb N per acre hastened spring range readiness by 11 to 13 days. During 1973, the initial year studied, ranchers could have profitably substituted crested wheatgrass fertilization for purchased hay.
    • Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Late-Spring Burning of Bluestem Range on Diet and Performance of Steers

      Woolfolk, J. S.; Smith, E. F.; Schalles, R. R.; Brent, B. E.; Harbers, L. H.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Cattle were used to evaluate the effects of late-spring burning and nitrogen fertilization alone and in combination on a typical True Prairie range in the Flint Hills near Manhattan, Kans. Diet quality was improved by higher protein and hemicellulose, and by lower acid-detergent fiber (lignocellulose) of burned than nonburned pastures. Hemicullulose and neutral detergent fiber (cell-wall constituents) increased when 40 lb N/acre was applied. Cellulose and lignin were not affected by either treatment. Average daily gain and gain per acre were higher by steers on burned pastures than by those on nonburned pastures. Daily gain waa highest for steers on pastures burned and fertilized. Gain per acre on fertilized pastures exceeded gains from nonfertilized pastures primarily from heavier stocking rate rather than increased individual performance. Apparent dry-matter digestibility did not differ among treatments, but decreased June through August, then increased in October.
    • Germination Characteristics and Chemical Control of Horehound

      Stritzke, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Less than 35% of the seed collected in October from mature plants of horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) would germinate. Seventy-eight percent of the seeds germinated after 1 month of west storage at 0°C. From 20 to 25% of the seeds were still dormant after 4 months of storage at the three conditions tested. Better than 90% control of the existing horehound plants was possible with both 2,4-D and silvex at a rate of 2 lb/acre.
    • Grazing Marginal Ranges in the Southwest

      Hanrahan, M. P. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The sensitive rangelands of the Southwest are a delicately balanced arrangement of thin soils, sparse vegetation, and limited precipitation. Grazing must be carefully regulated in order to protect the delicate ecosystem. Steep slopes and rugged terrain require special consideration.
    • Influence of Soil-Water Potential on the Water Relationships of Honey Mesquite

      Easter, S. J.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Thermocouple psychrometry was used to measure soil and plant water potentials of honey mesquite growing under irrigated and nonirrigated field conditions. The trees growing on the irrigated area experienced more internal stress (average minimum water potential, -30.9 bars) than trees growing under nonirrigated conditions (average minimum water potential, -19.4 bars). The water potential in the trees and transpiration rates adhered to a very distinct daily pattern. Minimum water potential occurred about noon in the trees growing on both sites. During the growing season, the average transpiration rate of the trees on the irrigated area was 9.59 X 10^-5 g cm-2 min-1, while the average transpiration rate for those trees growing on the nonirrigated area was 7.15 X 10^-5 g cm-2 min-1. The trees growing under irrigation produced 2 times more foliage than the trees growing without irrigation. Consequently, the greatest amount of soil water depletion occurred under irrigation. The results of this study indicated that water loss via transpiration in honey mesquite growing in shallow soils or on upland sites (relatively dry situations) is not as great as the amount lost from trees growing on bottomland and on riparian sites.
    • Potential for Game Ranching in Boreal Aspen Forests of Western Canada

      Telfer, E. S.; Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Portions of western Canada, which include the boreal mixedwood, aspen parklands, lower foothills, and the montane forest regions, contain large expanses of aspen. These regions are favorable for consideration as game ranching areas because of a shallow snow cover, productive soils, variety of vegetative types, and a variety of native wild ungulates, including bison (Bison bison), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Those parameters discussed, which are relevant to game ranching, include range carrying capacity, sex ratio, management during winter, scale of operation, interspecific competition, and behavioral intolerance, disease and parasites, harvesting, and multiple use management.
    • Range Vegetation and Mima Mounds in North Texas

      Collins, B. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Mima mounds are found in many areas west of the Mississippi River. The polygenetic origin of mounds in different areas is commonly accepted. The formation of these mounds in the Blackland Prairie may be associated with past climatic changes in the area, and resultant erosion and vegetational changes.
    • Rate and Pattern of Vigor Recovery in Idaho Fescue and Bluebunch Wheatgrass

      Mueggler, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The rate and pattern of vigor recovery of protected individual Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) were studied for 5 years after heavy and extreme clipping. Bluebunch wheatgrass was not only more sensitive to clipping, but recovered vigor more slowly than Idaho fescue. Idaho fescue of moderately low vigor required approximately 3 years and bluebunch wheatgrass a projected 6 years to approach normal vigor. Recovery from very low vigor may take more than 6 years of protection for Idaho fescue and 8 years for bluebunch wheatgrass. Maximum leaf length can be used as a reliable index of Idaho fescue vigor. Flower stalk numbers combined with maximum lengths indicate vigor in bluebunch wheatgrass.
    • Response of Honey Mesquite to Method of Top Removal

      Ueckert, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Shredding stimulates regrowth of honey mesquite in the Rolling Plains of Texas compared to spraying the foliage with 2,4,5-T, burning, and basal application of diesel or diesel + 2,4,5-T. Regrowth of shredded trees was 4.7 times greater than that of trees sprayed with 2,4,5-T and 6.6 times greater than that of trees previously burned. This information should aid ranchers in choosing initial control practices for honey mesquite which will maximize the time period before follow-up treatments will be necessary.
    • Response of Shortgrass Plains Vegetation to Clipping, Precipitation, and Soil Water

      Eck, H. V.; McCully, W. G.; Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Clipping shortgrass range in Texas at 2-week intervals gave 94% more forage yield than fall harvest. Clipping treatments had little effect on ground cover and plant composition. Yield was shown to be a function of current season precipitation, while plant composition and ground cover were more closely related to previous season precipitation. In the one of seven seasons when stored soil water was available at the beginning of the growing season (4.91 inches of plant-available water), it was depleted by June 15.
    • Seasonal Yield and Chemical Composition of Crested Wheatgrass in Southeastern Wyoming

      Rauzi, F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Herbage yields, crude protein levels, and mineral concentrations of crested wheatgrass were influenced by phenological development and distribution of spring precipitation at the Archer Substation near Cheyenne, Wyo. Crude protein levels and mineral concentrations in the crested wheatgrass declined with plant maturity. Amount and distribution of the precipitation enhanced or retarded phenological development. Calcium uptake per acre by the crested wheatgrass was greater during a wet spring, but calcium concentration per unit of dry matter was higher during a dry spring.
    • Seed Destruction in Indigobush Amorpha by a Seed Beetle

      Rogers, C. E.; Garrison, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      The seed pods of indigobush amorpha (Amorpha fruticosa L.) in Knox County, Texas, are heavily infested with a bruchid (Acanthoscelides collusus Fall). Although A. collusus may destroy about half of the amorpha seeds, its potential for maximum seed destruction is lowered by a parasitoid, Horismenus productus (Ashmead). About 5% of the immature seed beetles are parasitized.