• A Comparison of Four Distance Sampling Techniques in South Texas Live Oak Mottes

      Beasom, S. L.; Haucke, H. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Four distance sampling techniques; point-center-quarter (PCQ), random pairs (RP), nearest neighbor (NN), and closest individual (CI) were compared to total counts to determine accuracy of density and relative frequency approximations in a live oak (Quercus virginiana) motte vegetative type in South Texas. The PCQ method was the most accurate for estimating density, followed in decreasing order by RP, CI, and NN. Only the NN approximation was significantly different from the actual density. The PCQ method also provided the most accurate relative frequency approximations, followed in decreasing order by RP, NN, and CI.
    • Cattle Diets on Semidesert Grassland: Nutritive Content

      Rosiere, R. E.; Wallace, J. D.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      A study of chemical composition and organic matter digestibility of cattle diets was conducted on semidesert grassland in southern New Mexico during different seasons. Forage quality was highest in the spring. Fall diets were lower in digestibility, contained less crude protein and the least estimated digestible energy. Level of protein in fall diets was greater than requirements for dry cows but was less than recommended levels for lactating cows or growing calves. A stepwise regression equation showed that protein accounted for more variation in in vitro digestibility than did other components.
    • A Rangeland's Critique of the World Food Conference

      Thomas, Gerald W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      The World Food Conference held in Rome, Italy, November 5 to 16, 1974 was considered an important first step to confront the most important issue facing mankind-world hunger. The principal focus on the need for increased production at any cost to meet the needs of present populations, and about 76 million additional people each year, will result in an all-out effort to expand the cultivated area and maximize production from areas already under cultivation. Emphasis was mainly on grain production with little positive attention given to the possibilities of animal production and the great potential role of rangelands in meeting world food requirements. In spite of these deficiencies, positive steps included 1) setting up a World Food Council; 2) agreeing to establish a grain reserve; 3) approving the establishment of an international fund for agricultural development; 4) instituting a world-wide system of food information; 5) developing a systematic approach to world-wide fertilizer production and distribution; and 6) intensifying agricultural and weather research.
    • Deer, Brush Control, and Livestock on the Texas Rolling Plains

      Darr, G. W.; Klebenow, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were observed by spotlight in the Rolling Plains of Texas to determine deer use of habitats and how deer were influenced by brush control practices and grazing by livestock. Deer densities were greatest in the bottomland habitat. The sand shinnery oak habitat, the mesquite-juniper redland habitat, and the sandyland ecotone habitat supported moderate densities of deer. Influence of deer use from brush control practices varied in each habitat. Chaining bottomland habitat was detrimental to deer: the larger the area chained, the lower density of deer it contained. Herbicides had little detrimental effect and in some situations may have been beneficial. Grazing by sheep was negatively related to deer densities except in the bottomland habitat. In mesquite-juniper redlands and mimosa-erioneuron uplands, replacing sheep with cattle should increase deer populations.
    • Drip Pan for Field Plot Sprinkle Irrigation

      Lavin, F.; Knipe, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      The construction and use of the drip pan are described. It was developed for irrigating small field plots in remote locations by simulated rainfall and has a combination of advantages not found in other plot irrigators. The drip pan is inexpensive to build, easily operated by one man, sturdy, portable, clog resistant, and adaptable to a wide variety of treatment requirements and site conditions. It applies water uniformly over the plot area and requires minimum or no border barriers.
    • Evaluation of Winterfat (Eurotia Lanata) in Washington

      Hodgkinson, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Winterfat is high in nutritive quality and is especially suited for winter grazing. Improved techniques are needed before winterfat can be established on a practical basis. Winterfat withstood clipping well at intensities of use varying from 0 to 80%. Crude protein content was 17.41% from samples taken October 30, 1969. Strains from Utah proved inferior to native winterfat from Washington State. Cool temperatures seemed to hinder germination and survival of seedlings from Utah.
    • Evaluating Forage Quality of Pastures

      Campbell, I. S.; Dotzenko, A. D. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Ten irrigated pastures located in northeastern Colorado were evaluated for forage quality during the 1972 growing season. Most of the pastures used the center-pivot type of sprinkler system and consisted mainly of mixtures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in varying proportions. Thirteen factors for quality were evaluated from each pasture from samples obtained over a 5-month period Mg, P, K, crude protein, in vitro digestibility, cell wall constituents, cell contents, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and silica showed significant fluctuations during the growing season, while calcium and ash insoluble in neutral detergent remained fairly constant. Changes that occurred during the growing season could be accounted for by time of harvest, management practices, species, and other environmental factors such as differences in climate and soil. In spite of differences between pastures, satisfactory regression functions were developed to give good estimations of forage quality using in vitro dry matter digestibility as the dependent variable. By submitting the data to the stepwise regression calculation techniques, good predictive equations for IVDMD were developed that can readily be applied to pastures in northeastern Colorado regardless of location, management, or species composition.
    • Establishment of Russian Wildrye on Foothill Ranges in Utah

      Drawe, D. L.; Grumbles, J. B.; Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Seedings of Russian wildrye were made in Tintic Valley, Utah, to determine the effects of seeding method, seeding rate, season of planting, and seed type on stand establishment. After 3 years, more plants were established by commercial seed than by seeds of the improved Vinall strain. Initially the 12-pound rate of seeding established more plants than either the 6 or 9 pound rate, and drilling established more plants than broadcast seeding. However, by the third year little difference among seeding methods was evident. Use of a heavy seeding rate of 24 lb/acre in an attempt to have viable seed in the soil for more than one growing season was a failure.
    • Effect of Picloram on Cinquefoil and Forage Production at the Ya-Ha-Tinda Ranch, Alberta

      Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Grass production at the Ya-Ha-Tinda Ranch, Alberta, decreased during the last two decades and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) and forb production increased, probably as a result of overgrazing by elk and horses. In 1970, plots on three pastures on the ranch were sprayed with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 lb/acre of the herbicide, picloram, to determine its effect on shrubby cinquefoil, and on forb and grass production. In 1971, 1972, and 1973, the plots were examined for percent shrub kill, and they were clipped in 1971 and 1972 to determine forb and grass production. Fifty-six to 99% of all shrubby cinquefoil plants were killed following treatment with different levels of picloram. Total forb production on all three pastures decreased, although sweet-flowered androsace (Androsace chamaejasme Host) and old man's whiskers (Geum triflorum Pursh) showed some resistance to the herbicide. Following the 1970 spraying with picloram, grass production increased by 53% in 1971 and 77% in 1972. However, grasses and sedges also increased by 34% in control plots from 1971 to 1972 because of protection from grazing and favorable precipitation.
    • Improving Quality of Winter Forage for Elk by Cattle Grazing

      Anderson, E. W.; Scherzinger, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      The Bridge Creek Wildlife Management Area located in northeastern Oregon and owned by the Oregon Wildlife Commission, is a prime winter range for Rocky Mountain elk. On the average, about 120 head of elk were counted annually on the area during the winters of 1948 through 1960. When the Wildlife Area was established in 1961, cattle grazing was excluded. Elk numbers increased to about 320 head, but forage became increasingly rank and of low quality. A resource management plan was put into effect in 1964, which involved various range improvements and a cattle-grazing system designed to increase forage quality for wintering elk. In 1974, elk count increased to about 1,190. Concurrently during these years, the ecological condition of the range improved noticeably and animal unit months of cattle grazing were increased by 2.6 times. Success of the project is primarily attributable to improved quality of winter forage. The rationale used in designing the grazing system to achieve winter-forage quality is explained. Although emphasis is placed on using livestock grazing to improve the quality of winter forage for elk, it should be noted that the same technique also produces high-quality autumn and winter forage for cattle.
    • Chromatographic Recognition of Some Palatable and Unpalatable Subspecies of Rubber Rabbitbrush in and around Utah

      Hanks, D. L.; McArthur, E. D.; Plummer, A. P.; Giunta, B. C.; Blauer, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Paper chromatography is useful in identifying palatable and unpalatable subspecies of rubber rabbitbrush in Utah. Methanol extraction of dried foliar material followed by two-dimensional (n-butanol:acetone:water, 4:1:3; acetic acid:water, 15:85) ascending paper chromatography reveals distinctive patterns for Chrysothamnus nauseosus subspecies albicaulis, salicifolius, graveolens, and consimilis. Patterns for rarer subspecies junceus and hololeucus are not as well defined. Gene exchange between subspecies is demonstrated by chemical markers, the chromatographic spots, in putative hybrids and introgressents. Range utilization of current growth by browsing animals is highest for subspecies albicaulis and salicifolius, less for subspecies graveolens, and least for subspecies consimilis. Populations of other subspecies introgressed by consimilis receive limited browsing. Paper chromatography will make it possible to select palatable subspecies of rubber rabbitbrush for range improvement projects and nonpalatable subspecies for areas where animal use is to be discouraged.
    • Cattle Diets on Semidesert Grassland: Botanical Composition

      Rosiere, R. E.; Beck, R. F.; Wallace, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Botanical composition of cattle diets on semidesert rangeland was studied by microhistological techniques. Cattle consumed 56% of all species available. Dietary portions of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and unidentifiable plants averaged 45, 32, 19, and 6%, respectively. Composition of diets changed with seasons. Grass contents of diets were highest in summer and lowest in spring. Mesa dropseed was the most common species in diets. Perennial grasses represented dependable sources of forage, but never comprised more than 50% of the steers' diets in any season, and should not be used as the sole criterion for estimating forage production or determining stocking rates. Shrub portions were highest in spring when soaptree yucca was grazed almost exclusively. Forb fractions of diets varied little among seasons but were highest in winter. Forbs and shrubs comprised over one-half of the diets in certain seasons and should be grazed in these seasons if full benefit is to be derived from them. Preference ranking of forage plants evaluated selectivity and palatability but preference trends were inconsistent and most affected by species availability.
    • Sheep Production on Seeded Legumes, Planted Shrubs, and Dryland Grain in a Semiarid Region of Israel

      Eyal, E.; Benjamin, R. W.; Tadmor, N. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      During a period of 10 years in an area in which rainfall ranged between 170 and 413 mm, grain yields ranged between 0.8 and 3.6 tons per hectare. When grazing was combined with cropping, between 20 and 200 kg of lamb liveweight were produced per hectare at different stocking rates and in different years. Grazing the grain fields had left enough grain to be harvested only under stocking rates lower than 0.4 hectare per ewe in most years, and under stocking rates lighter than 0.2 ha/ewe only in a year in which ungrazed fields produced 3.5 tons of grain per hectare. Of several legume species tried in the same area, Medicago polymorpha and M. tribuloides (= M. truncatula) survived to form dense swards of 3-6 t/ha dry matter yields. After 5 years, legumes were largely replaced by ruderal annuals. This grass sward forms a highly palatable pasture with yields equaling those of the legumes, probably due to the high nitrogen build-up in the soil. At stocking rates of 0.4-0.6 ha/ewe, sheep could be maintained on this pasture without supplements the whole year round. Annual lamb yields ranged from 15 to 40 kg/ewe and from 40 to 80 kg/ha. Fertility disorders, apparently due to estrogenic activity in the medics, were recorded in one of the high legume years. Native saltbush (Atriplex halimus) was planted at a rate of 1600 shrubs/ha as a range improvement technique. Shrub development was excellent and the shrubs soon formed a dense, impenetrable stand, crowding out most of the annual herbaceous grass and vegetation. Sheep performance on this vegetation was poor in comparison with unimproved native pasture.
    • Winter Injury to Fourwing Saltbush

      Van Epps, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Winter hardiness of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) varies with its point of origin. Data indicate that factors other than temperature and origin affect the hardiness of these plants, since variations in winter hardiness occur between individual plants from the same source. The sex of a plant has no effect on hardiness. Generally, seed for reseeding should be obtained from the immediate vicinity of, or from an area colder than, the anticipated planting site.
    • Seasonal Weight Changes of Cattle on Semidesert Grass-Shrub Ranges

      Ward, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Average cow weights, on semidesert grass-shrub ranges of the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona, increased slightly following spring greenup, but major weight gains began with summer forage and continued into November. Major weight losses were at calving time in December and January.
    • Reproductive Characteristics of Redberry Juniper

      Smith, M. A.; Wright, H. A.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      A relatively high moisture level (0 to 4 atm) and a relatively low temperature (18°C) were found to be most favorable for germination of redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchoti) seeds. Shallow planting depths (0 to 2 cm) favored seedling emergence. Seed germination was not affected appreciably by passage through animals. Cutting of seedling tops above the axils of the cotyledons allowed 58% survival, while cutting 1- to 12-year-old plants at ground line, which removed the meristematic stem tissue, produced 99% mortality. Moderate and heavy blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) competition severely limited redberry juniper seedling growth compared to no competition. It severely reduced shoot length, root length, number of shoot and root branches, and plant dry weight. These results indicated that the maintenance of a good grass cover coupled with a top removal agent such as fire or cutting at ground level will prevent encroachment of redberry juniper, a resprouting species, on grassland.
    • Establishing Alkali Sacaton on Harsh Sites in the Southwest

      Aldon, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Because of critical establishment requirements, seeds of alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr.) must be planted when both soil moisture and probability of rain are high. Large seeds should be mulched to maintain moisture and darkness.
    • Effect of Acidity on Germination of Some Grasses and Alfalfa

      Ryan, J.; Miyamoto, S.; Stroehlein, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Germination of blue panicgrass, Lehmann lovegrass, buffelgrass, common bermudagrass, and alfalfa was studied in petri dishes containing sulfuric acid solutions ranging in pH from 7.0 to 1.0. Above pH 4.0 there was no significant decrease in percent germination. Lehmann lovegrass and common bermudagrass did not germinate at or below pH 3.0. Alfalfa and buffelgrass were the most acid tolerant species tested.
    • Initial Response of Bitterbrush to Disturbance and Slash Disposal in a Lodgepole Pine Forest

      Edgerton, P. J.; McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      The impact of logging and slash disposal on the bitterbrush understory in a lodgepole pine forest on easily disturbed pumice soils in central Oregon was evaluated. Soils were moderately to heavily disturbed on 75% of the area, and bitterbrush crown cover was reduced by 71%. Most of the damage resulted from slash disposal. Despite extensive damage, shrubs quickly responded to more favorable growing conditions in the postlogging environment. Current twig growth doubled, and large numbers of seedlings were established on disturbed soils.