• Eagles and Sheep: A Viewpoint

      Bolen, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The controversy regarding golden eagle predation on lambs in the Southwest was addressed using winter eagle population data from Texas and eastern New Mexico, eagle food habits information, and lamb mortality data. The sum of this review indicates that too few lambs are eaten as prey to justify presecution of golden eagles for the presumptive enhancement of livestock production. An inquiry concerning brush cover and carnivore food habits suggests that lagomorphs, a staple in golden eagle diets, decline as usable food for carnivores where brush prevails on lambing ranges.
    • Ecological Effects and Fate of N Following Massive N Fertilization of Mixed-Grass Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The response of range herbage and soils on mixed-grass range in southeastern Wyoming to single massive applications of N fertilizer was studied from 1969 to 1973. Herbage yields and N content of herbage were increased by fertilizer in all years of study. Peak responses occurred in 1970 and 1971. Most of the applied N was accounted for in 1970 in top growth and in mineral form. However, a substantial portion could not be accounted for in 1972-73. In early April, 1973, a significant part of the applied N was concentrated below the zone of main root activity in the soil and may be unavailable for future plant use. Several undesirable plants were increased by massive applications of N, and some desirable plants decreased. Massive applications of N on this rangeland produced both desirable and undesirable responses.
    • Foodniche of Coyotes in the Rolling Plains of Texas

      Meinzer, W. P.; Ueckert, D. N.; Flinders, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Coyote diets were determined from scat and stomach analyses over a two-year period in an area centered in the Rolling Plains region of Texas. Fruit from 9 species of native plants were the most important food for coyotes, making up 46% of the annual diet. Honey mesquite pods alone contributed 15.6% of the annual diet. Rodents contributed 24.5% of the coyote's annual diet, while leporids made up just 10.5%. The foodniche of coyotes varied seasonally as well as annually. The coyote's role as an agent of seed dispersal appears minimal since digestion of some seeds by coyotes significantly reduces percent germination. Late evening and pre-dawn hours seem the normal feeding period for most coyotes, and moon phase did not affect the timing of this activity. In this study there was no evidence of coyote predation on cattle.
    • Herbage Disappearance and Grazing Capacity Determinations of Southern Pine Bluestem Range

      Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Herbage disappearance per animal unit day in yearlong grazing on southern pine range averaged 38, 47, and 38 pounds on lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed range. Cattle intake accounted for only 36 to 47% of the disappearance; factors such as trampling, weather, and wildlife accounted for more than 50%. To sustain light, moderate, and heavy grazing intensities yearlong, about 115, 100, and 70 pounds of herbage were required per animal day. Seasonal grazing only required 75 and 40 pounds for moderate and heavy stocking.
    • Land Use, Ethics, and Property Rights—a Western View from the East

      Burch, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Changes in the nature of property rights regulate the survival potential of social systems. In our era the traditional market system no longer manages the property realities where former scarcities become abundant and former abundance becomes scarce. The experience of land-use in the arid West and John Wesley Powell's vision of the future provide essential lessons for both the dry and humid zones of modern America.
    • Legume Response Unrelated to Fuel Moisture at Time of Burning

      Harshbarger, T. J.; Perkins, C. J.; Martin, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The response of sensitive partridgepea and other legumes was unrelated to moisture content of fuels at the time a slash pine stand was burned.
    • Perspectives on Predator Management

      Johnson, J.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Too much adverse publicity has been given the sheep producer who struggles for existence in the face of rising costs, lower returns, and increasing numbers of predators. There seems to be adequate evidence that predator management is both necessary and practical on ranges used by either livestock or game. We cannot maintain the sheep industry in the United States without controlling predator populations. The lack of predator control in the past 2 years created economic crises in some sheep-producing areas of the West. Chemical control of coyotes under careful management and in selected areas appears to be biologically safe. At least this method should be utilized to reduce increasing coyote numbers until a perfected predator management system is devised. Man's influence on all ecosystems, whether private or public range, forest, shrub, or desert, nullifies the "balance of nature" concept. Our objectives in all areas of land management should be management oriented and designed for the uses desired, i.e., recreation, aesthetic value, wildlife, livestock, watershed, or a combination of these.
    • Presettlement Vegetation in the Sagebrush-Grass Area of the Intermountain West

      Vale, T. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Twenty-nine journals and diaries were reviewed for their vegetation descriptions of the sagebrush-grass area in an attempt to assess the relative importance of herbaceous plants and woody brush in the northern Intermountain West. The early writings suggest a pristine vegetation visually dominated by shrubs. Stands of grass apparently were largely confined to wet valley bottoms, moist canyons, and mountain slopes, with more extensive areas in eastern Oregon near the Cascade Range. The major area was apparently covered by thick stands of brush.
    • Salt and Specific Ion Effects on Germination of Four Grasses

      Ryan, J.; Miyamoto, S.; Stroehlein, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The effects of NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaSO4, CaSO4-2H2O, and MgSO4-7H2O at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, and 200 meq/l were studied on germination of the following range grasses: blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees.), Wilman lovegrass (E. superba Peyr.), and weeping lovegrass (E. curvula (Schrad.) Nees.). Increasing salt concentrations decreased germination. The extent of the decrease varied with the species and the type of salt. Inhibition was greatest with Mg and least with Ca salts. When MgSO4-7H2O was used, the effect was less than the equivalent concentration of MgCl2. At equal osmotic pressures the effect of specific ions varied. Wilman and weeping lovegrasses were found to be relatively salt tolerant.
    • Sheep-Raising in the 17 Western States: Populations, Distribution, and Trends

      Pearson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      To study the relationship between sheep and predators, chiefly coyotes (Canis latrans), current baseline information was needed on numbers and locations of domestic sheep in the 17 western states. Although sheep population estimates were available from published and unpublished sources for a number of areas, including all 1,059 counties in these 17 states, they varied in types of sheep counted and years covered. When the data were compiled, a few trends were evident. The 17 western states continue to raise about 80% of the United States stock sheep, but there has been a steady downward trend in sheep populations since 1960; in 1972 the 17 western states had only 58.5%, and the 31 eastern states only 44.2%, of the stock sheep present in 1960. Local management conditions vary greatly, and various data suggested a gradual shifting of sheep-raising from mountains to plains and a gradual conversion from sheep to cattle.
    • Some Economic Aspects of Western Rangeland Management and Conservation

      Saunderson, M. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
    • Steer Diets in Southeastern Colorado

      Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Hereford steers having continuous access to seeded, native, and old field pastures selected over 96% of their diet from six species of grasses and forbs. Changes in species preferences due to availability and maturation of plants caused shifts in summer grazing use made on the different pastures. A grazing proposal based on diets and the periods when steers preferred different forage species is to use old field pastures from mid-spring to early summer, seeded pastures in mid-summer, and native pastures in late summer through fall.
    • The Predator-Control Scene as of 1974

      Wagner, F. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Mounting public pressures against predator control, especially with toxicants, plus the information compiled by the Cain Committee led to the Executive Order banning the use of toxicants on federal land and by federal control agents. Reaction of the livestock industry has been to ask that control be moved into the state governments and to seek release of M-44 cyanide guns through an experiment clause in the Environmental Protection Agency order withdrawing toxicant registration. An accelerated research program under the aegis of a number of agencies is providing a great deal of information, but needed programs are falling between the cracks because of the lack of integrated analysis and attack on the overall predator problem. A multidisciplinary, federal predator commission is proposed which would have responsibility for analyzing the problem in concert, providing critical advice on proposed programs and available information, communicating with all interested parties, and advocating policy.
    • Waterfowl Production in Relation to Rest-Rotation Grazing

      Gjersing, F. M. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Duck production was compared in two rest-rotation cattle grazing systems and normally grazed areas in Phillips County, Montana, from 1968 to 1970. Pair populations generally increased in pastures excluded from cattle grazing the previous year and decreased in pastures grazed in the fall of the previous year. In eleven of twelve instances, complete rest or grazing only during spring and early summer, resulted in an increase of the number of broods the following spring. In five of eight instances grazing during summer and fall resulted in a decrease of broods the following spring.