• Perspectives on Predator Management

      Johnson, J.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Too much adverse publicity has been given the sheep producer who struggles for existence in the face of rising costs, lower returns, and increasing numbers of predators. There seems to be adequate evidence that predator management is both necessary and practical on ranges used by either livestock or game. We cannot maintain the sheep industry in the United States without controlling predator populations. The lack of predator control in the past 2 years created economic crises in some sheep-producing areas of the West. Chemical control of coyotes under careful management and in selected areas appears to be biologically safe. At least this method should be utilized to reduce increasing coyote numbers until a perfected predator management system is devised. Man's influence on all ecosystems, whether private or public range, forest, shrub, or desert, nullifies the "balance of nature" concept. Our objectives in all areas of land management should be management oriented and designed for the uses desired, i.e., recreation, aesthetic value, wildlife, livestock, watershed, or a combination of these.
    • Presettlement Vegetation in the Sagebrush-Grass Area of the Intermountain West

      Vale, T. R. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Twenty-nine journals and diaries were reviewed for their vegetation descriptions of the sagebrush-grass area in an attempt to assess the relative importance of herbaceous plants and woody brush in the northern Intermountain West. The early writings suggest a pristine vegetation visually dominated by shrubs. Stands of grass apparently were largely confined to wet valley bottoms, moist canyons, and mountain slopes, with more extensive areas in eastern Oregon near the Cascade Range. The major area was apparently covered by thick stands of brush.
    • Salt and Specific Ion Effects on Germination of Four Grasses

      Ryan, J.; Miyamoto, S.; Stroehlein, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The effects of NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaSO4, CaSO4-2H2O, and MgSO4-7H2O at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, and 200 meq/l were studied on germination of the following range grasses: blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees.), Wilman lovegrass (E. superba Peyr.), and weeping lovegrass (E. curvula (Schrad.) Nees.). Increasing salt concentrations decreased germination. The extent of the decrease varied with the species and the type of salt. Inhibition was greatest with Mg and least with Ca salts. When MgSO4-7H2O was used, the effect was less than the equivalent concentration of MgCl2. At equal osmotic pressures the effect of specific ions varied. Wilman and weeping lovegrasses were found to be relatively salt tolerant.
    • Sheep-Raising in the 17 Western States: Populations, Distribution, and Trends

      Pearson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      To study the relationship between sheep and predators, chiefly coyotes (Canis latrans), current baseline information was needed on numbers and locations of domestic sheep in the 17 western states. Although sheep population estimates were available from published and unpublished sources for a number of areas, including all 1,059 counties in these 17 states, they varied in types of sheep counted and years covered. When the data were compiled, a few trends were evident. The 17 western states continue to raise about 80% of the United States stock sheep, but there has been a steady downward trend in sheep populations since 1960; in 1972 the 17 western states had only 58.5%, and the 31 eastern states only 44.2%, of the stock sheep present in 1960. Local management conditions vary greatly, and various data suggested a gradual shifting of sheep-raising from mountains to plains and a gradual conversion from sheep to cattle.
    • Some Economic Aspects of Western Rangeland Management and Conservation

      Saunderson, M. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
    • Steer Diets in Southeastern Colorado

      Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Hereford steers having continuous access to seeded, native, and old field pastures selected over 96% of their diet from six species of grasses and forbs. Changes in species preferences due to availability and maturation of plants caused shifts in summer grazing use made on the different pastures. A grazing proposal based on diets and the periods when steers preferred different forage species is to use old field pastures from mid-spring to early summer, seeded pastures in mid-summer, and native pastures in late summer through fall.
    • The Predator-Control Scene as of 1974

      Wagner, F. H. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Mounting public pressures against predator control, especially with toxicants, plus the information compiled by the Cain Committee led to the Executive Order banning the use of toxicants on federal land and by federal control agents. Reaction of the livestock industry has been to ask that control be moved into the state governments and to seek release of M-44 cyanide guns through an experiment clause in the Environmental Protection Agency order withdrawing toxicant registration. An accelerated research program under the aegis of a number of agencies is providing a great deal of information, but needed programs are falling between the cracks because of the lack of integrated analysis and attack on the overall predator problem. A multidisciplinary, federal predator commission is proposed which would have responsibility for analyzing the problem in concert, providing critical advice on proposed programs and available information, communicating with all interested parties, and advocating policy.
    • Waterfowl Production in Relation to Rest-Rotation Grazing

      Gjersing, F. M. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      Duck production was compared in two rest-rotation cattle grazing systems and normally grazed areas in Phillips County, Montana, from 1968 to 1970. Pair populations generally increased in pastures excluded from cattle grazing the previous year and decreased in pastures grazed in the fall of the previous year. In eleven of twelve instances, complete rest or grazing only during spring and early summer, resulted in an increase of the number of broods the following spring. In five of eight instances grazing during summer and fall resulted in a decrease of broods the following spring.