• An Analysis of Range Conservation Academic Training

      Cook, C. W.; Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      A survey of range professionals employed by federal agencies was found to be an effective means for determining educational needs of range managers. Eighteen western universities produce essentially all Range Conservationists employed by federal agencies and two of these universities combined produce more than one-third of these professionals. Only 57.5% of the Range Conservationists in 1969 had BS degrees in range science, while 42.5% received sufficient course credits in range to qualify them for Civil Service appointments. Most Range Conservationists believed that ecology was the most important basic subject matter, while range management courses were most important for training as Range Conservationists. Respondents indicated that experience was helpful but not as essential as proper academic training.
    • Beef Production on Native Range, Crested Wheatgrass, and Russian Wildrye Pastures

      Smoliak, S.; Slen, S. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Weight gains per acre of yearling steers on continuously grazed Russian wildrye were 96.2 lb, or six times the gain of 16.0 lb on native range over a 6-year period. Crested wheatgrass, native range, and Russian wildrye grazed in a rotation or free-choice system reduced the acreage requirement to 15 acres per animal-unit for 6 months from 28 acres required for native range and increased beef production per acre by 55 to 66%. The vegetation on each of the three pasture types was maintained in a more productive condition when they were grazed in rotation in individually fenced fields than when they were grazed free-choice as a single unit. Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye effectively extended the grazing season.
    • Biology and Impact of a Grass Bug Labops herperius Uhler in Oregon Rangeland

      Todd, J. G.; Kamm, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Wintering eggs of a univoltive plant bug Labops hesperius Uhler in rangeland seeded to intermediate wheatgrass hatched in late March. The subsequent nymphs stayed in the litter during the day and crawled on the leaves to feed at night. Adults began to appear in late April. Females had a 2-week preoviposition period and thereafter laid diapausing eggs in dry culms of various grasses. The feeding injury produced by a density of 120 bugs per 0.96 ft2 reduced the nutritive value of intermediate wheatgrass about 18% midway through the growing season, but by the time the grass matured, the reduction due to feeding injury was only 2%. However, the impact of feeding injury on rangeland productivity varies with the time of utilization, annual rainfall, and drought. Management practices that reduce the food supply of the bugs and the availability of the straw preferred for oviposition seem a promising method of reducing the impact of feeding injury and the density of bugs.
    • Contour-Furrowing and Seeding on Nuttall Saltbush Rangeland of Wyoming

      Fisser, H. G.; Mackey, M. H.; Nichols, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      A Nuttall saltbush (Atriplex gardneri) site in the Big Horn Basin of Wyoming was contour-furrowed and seeded to crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) by the Bureau of Land Management in 1957 as part of a range improvement and watershed management program. In 1962 total herbage production on the treated area was 972 lb/acre compared to 412 lb/acre for untreated range. Greater production was due to both the yield of crested wheatgrass and improved vigor of Nuttall saltbush. By 1972 total production of the treated area declined to 590 lb/acre but was still 54% greater than the control. Coincident with decreased production, foliage cover of crested wheatgrass decreased by 74% and Nuttall saltbush 50%, part of which can be attributed to reduced waterholding capacity of the furrows by about 30% from their original capability. The untreated native range produced 384 lb/acre in 1972, which was not appreciably different from production 10 years previously. Likewise, foliage cover percentages remained relatively stable.
    • Diurnal Variations of Nonstructural Carbohydrates in the Individual Parts of Switchgrass Shoots at Anthesis

      Greenfield, S. B.; Smith, D. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was harvested at early anthesis in the field at Madison, Wisconsin, during 1972. Shoots were separated into the inflorescence, individual green leaf blades, green leaf sheaths, and internodes at 6 am, 12 noon, 6 pm, and 12 midnight during 3 days: All tissues were analyzed for percentages (dry wt) of reducing and nonreducing sugars, total sugars, starch, and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Diurnal trends were clearest in the inflorescence, leaf blades, and the upper sheaths and internodes, but they were not always statistically significant. The trend was an increase of nonreducing sugar, total sugar, and starch percentages from 6 am to 6 pm and then a decrease to 12 midnight. Diurnal change in reducing sugar percentage was small in all plant parts. Basal sheaths and internodes tended to increase in percentage of starch and TNC from 6 am to 12 midnight. These are storage parts, and presumably carbohydrates were being translocated continuously from upper parts to these lower sinks for storage, especially after 6 pm. These data indicate that pasturing in the evening might provide advantages insofar as energy concentration in herbage is concerned. The highest content of energy occurred in the inflorescence of all the individual shoot parts. Diurnal trends of elemental concentrations in the shoot parts also were determined and were found to be largely nonsignificant.
    • Effect of Burning and Mowing on Composition of Pineland Three Awn

      Kirk, W. G.; Davis, G. K.; Martin, F. G.; Hodges, E. M.; Easley, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      The object of the experiment was to determine the effect of burning and mowing treatments on the composition of Pineland threeawn (Aristida stricta Michx) over a 5-year period. Treatments were control; burning annually; burning in alternate years; and mowing annually and in alternate years both with clippings removed or left on. Annual treatment dates varied from February 20 to March 6. Threeawn samples were analyzed for protein, ether extract, fiber, ash, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus (P). The grass from all treatments improved in nutritional quality from March to June and decreased from July to the following March. There was a highly significant difference among collection dates in level of all seven nutritional factors, indicating strong seasonal trends. Effect on new growth was greater for protein than for the other factors. Samples collected from all plots 35 days after treatment averaged 5.9% protein, while grass collected 289 days after treatment had 3.8% protein, a reduction of 36%. Forage from threeawn plots either mowed or burned was higher in protein and lower in fiber and P than the control with no differences between the burned or mowed plots. Grass growth after burning approached the recommended minimum protein level for a nursing cow in only a few instances. Ash was lower in grass from the control than from the treated plots. Burning increased P compared to mowing. Threeawn from all treatments lacked sufficient P for good cattle production.
    • Effect of Fire on Southern Mixed Prairie Grasses

      Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      The long-term effect of fire was studied on the major grass species of west Texas when the winter-spring precipitation was 0 to 40% above normal. This and other studies indicate that sideoats grama and Texas wintergrass are harmed by fire. Buffalograss, blue grama, and sand dropseed were neither harmed nor benefited by fire. Vine-mesquite, Arizona cottontop, little bluestem, plains bristlegrass, and Texas cupgrass increased after burning for 1 or 2 years.
    • Elk and Bison Management on the Oglala Sioux Game Range

      Cole, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      The Oglala Sioux Indians have recently instituted a range management program involving the production of native game animals for fee hunting. The unique combination of natural habitat, native game animals, and American Indian guides has attracted hunters and resulted in returns that compare favorably with domestic livestock operation.
    • Forage and Cattle Responses to Different Grazing Intensities on Southern Pine Ridge

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Over a 10-year span, grazing intensities of 35, 49, and 57% use of the current year's growth did not affect total forage yields on southern pine range. However, yields started to decline when the young pines were about age 9. Calf crops were highest from cows grazing lightly and lowest with heavy stocking; calf weaning weights and daily gains did not differ because of stocking rates. Highest total returns per calf were received from cows grazing lightly. Greatest returns per acre were from herds grazing heavily.
    • Infiltration Rates and Sediment Production of Selected Plant Communities in Nevada

      Blackburn, W. H.; Skau, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Infiltration rates and sediment production of 29 plant communities and soils on five rangeland watersheds were studied in central and eastern Nevada. Three inches per hour of simulated rainfall was applied to soil initially dry and to soil initially at field capacity. Infiltration rates and sediment production for the various plant communities and soils varied considerably within and between watersheds. Highest infiltration rates and lowest sediment production occurred on sites with well-aggregated surface soils free of vesicular porosity.
    • Influence of Cattle and Big Game Grazing on Understory Structure of a Douglasfir-Ponderosa Pine-Kentucky Bluegrass Community

      Krueger, W. C.; Winward, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      A Douglasfir-ponderosa pine-Kentucky bluegrass community was studied 14 years after grazing by cattle and big game, by big game, and no cattle or big game grazing. Heavy season-long use by cattle and big game resulted in apparent retrogression. The herbaceous component of the community was substantially changed by cattle and big game grazing but not by big game grazing alone. Grazing by cattle and big game and big game only had similar effects on the browse components of the community.
    • Influence of Nitrogen on Irrigated Buffalograss Yield and Protein Content

      Pettit, R. D.; Fagan, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), a shortgrass dominant in many plant communities throughout the Great Plains, was irrigated and fertilized with four rates of ammonium nitrate. Yield and crude protein were determined on six dates throughout the growing season. The highest nitrogen level (120 kg/ha) increased dry matter yield 130% while 30 kg/ha of nitrogen only increased yield 23% over the control. Peak crude protein concentration (16.71%) of herbage from the 120 kg of N/ha treatment was observed on July 8, while maximum crude protein (9.26%) in nonfertilized herbage was found a month earlier. In all fertilized treatments, peak protein yield preceded peak herbage yields by at least 1 month. Loss of proteins from herbage was greater in those plots receiving the higher rates of nitrogen than on those plots receiving lower nitrogen applications. It is important that grassland managers be aware of the "quality vs quantity" interaction when making management decisions. Based on results from this study, we can not recommend fertilization and irrigation of buffalograss range.
    • Management Practices to Minimize Death Losses of Sheep Grazing Halogeton-Infested Range

      James, L. F.; Cronin, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Data concerning the ecology of Halogeton glomeratus are reviewed. Information collected in a number of experiments in which halogeton was fed to sheep is summarized to formulate a management program for the prevention of halogeton poisoning in sheep.
    • Nutritive Quality of Nitrogen Fertilized and Unfertilized Blue Grama

      Pieper, R. D.; Kelsey, R. J.; Nelson, A. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Fertilization with 40 lb of nitrogen per acre generally increased crude protein content of blue grama plants during the growing season but not during the dormant season. However, because of increased dry matter yield under fertilization, total protein on the fertilized area exceeded that on the unfertilized area by 37 lb/acre during the dormant season. Fertilization decreased content of ash, silica and acid detergent fiber and had little effect on ether extract, cell wall constituents, acid detergent lignin, carotene content or in vitro dry matter digestibility or content of individual mineral elements of blue grama. Results indicated very little improvement in nutritive quality of blue grama during early spring stress period when cows are lactating and forage quality and quantity are low.
    • One Ranch Family's Adaptation to Changing Resource Demands and Social Values

      Stanley, Gordon (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Southwest Oregon was quite primitive when Mr. Stanley's grandfather began ranching there in 1880. Grazing was the primary use of the land, and the pioneer ranchers resented all government regulation. When Stanley and his brother took over in the 1940's they began to feel the pressure of increased demands on the land. Recently they actively participated in the development of the Big Butte Coordinated Management Plan involving federal grazing land, private timber company land and their base property. Through this type of planning their grazing is planned so as to avoid conflict with other uses and to enhance some uses.
    • Plant and Sheep Production on Semiarid Annual Grassland in Israel

      Tadmor, N. H.; Eyal, E.; Benjamin, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      A stocking rate experiment with sheep was carried out over a 12-year period, 1962-1973, in a semidesert area with 250 mm rainfall. Four pasture types were investigated. Site and experimental conditions are described in this paper as well as grazing results on the unimproved native grassland. This is a herbaceous sward composed entirely of annuals. It yielded between 2 and 4 ton/ha dry matter per year in accordance with rainfall fluctuations. These yields are high in comparison with records from other parts of the world. It was shown that this area could give unsupplemented year round support to Mutton Merino sheep at stocking rates of 0.6-1.0 hectare per sheep per year. Annual lamb production ranged between 20-30 kg per ewe and between 30-60 kg per hectare. This is the first report of lamb production in such a low rainfall area.
    • Returns to Rangelands

      Kearl, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Gross value of production from western rangelands average$7.46 per AUM based upon aggregate data from Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and Oregon for 1966-70 and reached about $10 per AUM in 1972. Privately owned lands leased on an acreage basis but with the lease expressed on an AUM basis generally leased at $1.50 to $2 per AUM during 1966-70 and a little over $2 per AUM in 1972. Returns to rangeland estimated from published research by a real estate appraisal approach in which returns are imputed from an income statement were comparable to the lease rates. The imputational procedures in arriving at returns to land and the definition of an AUM should both be standardized for better comparisons among diverse areas or ranching types where animal-size and herd composition vary.
    • The Physiology of Eating and the Energy Expenditure of the Ruminant at Pasture

      Osuji, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Large areas of the world are marginal lands and extensive grazing of moderately good or poor pastures is the major avenue for producing meat and milk. As the world population increases, the future supply of meat and milk for man would of necessity have to come from the utilization of existing marginal lands in grazing systems. Conventional estimates of the energy required for maintenance have been made with animals housed indoors in respration chambers. Animals at pasture walk longer distances, and usually up gradients and ingest herbage of usually low dry matter content. Consequently, they spend considerably more time eating and foraging for food than conventionally housed animals. These extra muscular activities, over and above those observed indoors, might increase the maintenance energy requirements of animals on range by 25-50%. It is suggested that this increased requirement might be due to the energy cost of eating, walking to graze, and the "work of digestion" done by the gut in handling bulky pasture materials.
    • Vegetation Response Following Spraying a Light Infestation of Honey Mesquite

      Scifres, C. J.; Polk, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Vegetation change was evaluated for 4 years following aerial application of 2,4,5-T + picloram (1:1) at 0.56 kg/ha to semiarid rangeland with a light canopy cover of honey mesquite (12%) and sand sagebrush (2%). Stand reductions of woody plants exceeded 95% at 4 years after treatment whether in grazed or ungrazed pastures. Forage production increased on areas with brush control and protection from grazing only in years of average or above-average rainfall. However, sprayed, ungrazed areas produced during the study period an average of 3 kg/ha/year more grass for each centimeter of precipitation received than did untreated, ungrazed areas. At the end of the study, areas sprayed and protected from grazing supported more grasses of fair to good grazing value than did unsprayed areas.