• Alternative Cow-Calf and Stocker Production Systems in the Georgia Piedmont Area

      Lance, C.; Calvert, G. V.; Griffey, W. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Economic analyses indicated that costs and returns were closely related to age of cattle, quality of forage, and cattle market prices in the Southeast. Brood cow-calf and stocker calf operations performed best when annual winter grazing was included in the production systems. Returns per acre to capital, land, and management during the 1966-1970 period were $18.37 for the winter cow-calf system with annual winter grazing and $10.87 for the summer cow-calf unit. Returns per acre to capital, land, and management during the 1963-1970 period were estimated at $6.46 for the summer stocker calf system and $41.00 for the winter stocker calf system with annual winter grazing. The summer cow-calf system and the winter stocker calf system were the best combination of systems to increase total beef production for the Piedmont area.
    • Controlling Bitterweed with Fall and Winter Applications of 2,4-D Amine

      Bunting, S. C.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Bitterweed can be effectively controlled in central Texas with 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) amine between November 1 and January 15. To minimize damage to associated annual forbs, 2,4-D should be applied in late December or January. A rate of 1/2 to 1 lb a.e./acre of 2,4-D will give excellent control of bitterweed. However, spraying with 2,4-D has no long-term benefits under a good range management program. Its primary value is to kill bitterweed during wet winters when it is abundant. This minimizes death losses of sheep and increases the vigor of perennial grasses for 1 or 2 years.
    • Cover-Weight Relationships

      Payne, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Cover-weight relationships on 160 plots in southwestern Montana indicate that cover can be used as a suitable index to herbage production of most species.
    • Delayed Germination of Cheatgrass Seed

      Hull, A. C.; Hansen, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Cheatgrass seeds germinate readily and usually near 100% shortly after collection. Generally, practically all seeds that fall to the ground germinate and plants emerge with favorable conditions in the fall, during the winter, or in early spring. In this study, an average of 692 cheatgrass plants/ft2 emerged the first year. In the same soil samples, 273 seeds/ft2 did not germinate but produced plants when these seeds were brought into favorable conditions in the greenhouse. When these ungerminated seeds remain in the soil-litter mass in the field, they germinate and emerge more slowly than seeds brought into the greenhouse. Seeds that remain in seedheads over winter germinate slowly but with a high percent when placed in a germinator. Nitrogen at 80, 160, 320, and 640 lb/acre caused the number of plants that emerged in the field to decrease slightly as the rate of fertilizer increased.
    • Economics of Fertilizer Application on Range and Meadow Sites in Utah

      Workman, J. P.; Quigley, T. M. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Forage production response to nitrogen and phosphorus application on six Utah range and meadow sites was subjected to economic analysis. There was no response to phosphorus application, but nitrogen resulted in significant increases in forage production on three sites. When forage was harvested as hay, nitrogen application proved to be a profitable practice on semiwet meadow and mountain loam sites. Fall application was more profitable than spring on both sites. Nitrogen application proved unprofitable when increased production was valued in terms of range forage. Nitrogen application would become profitable, however, if there was either a slight increase in AUM prices or a small decrease in nitrogen price.
    • Effects of One Year of Intensive Clipping on Big Bluestem

      Owensby, C. E.; Rains, J. R.; McKendrick, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Effects of 1 year of clipping on tiller density, herbage yield, rhizome weight, rhizome nitrogen content, and rhizome total nonstructural carbohydrate content of big bluestem were investigated. We observed that as clipping frequency increased, tiller density, herbage yield, and total nonstructural carbohydrate content decreased, that recovery of rhizome nitrogen percentages was rapid under rest, and that rhizome weight was not significantly affected.
    • Fluctuations in Miserotoxin Concentration of Timber Milkvetch on Rangelands in British Columbia

      Majak, W.; McLean, A.; Pringle, T. P.; Van Ryswyk, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      The variation in miserotoxin concentration (percent dry weight) of timber milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. serotinus) was ascertained for 19 sites throughout British Columbia. Determinations were based on recently developed methods of micro-isolation and derivatization of miserotoxin from fresh-frozen timber milkvetch samples. With the exception of one site, timber milkvetch located in fescue grassland areas yielded the highest miserotoxin values (5.8 to 7.3%); whereas the lowest peaks (3.1 to 4.3%) were recorded in the medium-canopied forests of the Douglasfir-pinegrass community. Subalpine, savannah, parkland, and semiopen areas of the montane forest exhibited intermediate miserotoxin maxima (4.3 to 5.8%). The data for 1973 suggest that grazing should be avoided in the fescue grasslands in spring and minimized in exposed forest areas.
    • Forage Production and Utilization in a Sprayed Aspen Forest in Alberta

      Hilton, J. E.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      In aspen forest in Alberta, Canada, receiving as little as 3 lb/acre of 2,4-D in a single application achieved an annual herbage production of 874 lb/acre 2 years after treatment compared to only 188 lb/acre in the control. Sprayed forest border areas (small aspen) showed a four-fold increase in herbage production. Grasses, sedges, and forbs increased in herbage production in sprayed forests. Only two forbs were detrimentally affected by the herbicides. In the sprayed forest area, even though there was a considerable amount of obstruction, cattle were able to consume 48% of the total herbage and as much as 58% of the green herbage. However, even with the inclusion of 2,4,5-T in the second herbicide application, there were many woody species in the treatment areas with as high or higher densities than in the control.
    • Forest-Range Inventory: A Multiple-Use Survey

      Pearson, H. A.; Sternitzke, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Successful attempts to incorporate understory herbage and browse measurements into the nationwide Forest Survey are described and evaluated. These attempts were initiated to inventory multiple forest resources-timber, range, wildlife habitat-on a regular basis requiring minimum time and environmental disturbance.
    • Increasing Red Meat from Rangeland through Improved Range Management Practices

      Box, T. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      The demand for red meat will likely increase, not because of an increase in per capita meat consumption but from a consuming population increase. Increased demand for land for non-livestock purposes will cause an intensification of management on rangelands and a gradual decline in feedlot beef. A shift to non-beef sources of red meat may be anticipated. Increasing meat production from rangelands will require careful application of science and the development of new and innovative management systems.
    • Nutritive Characterization of Certain Grass Hays in Northern New Mexico

      Wallace, J. D.; Lenington, R. E.; Harms, L. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Botanical and chemical composition along with nutrient digestibility were studied on five grass hays from north-central New Mexico. Although botanical composition varied widely among the hays, they were similar in most chemical constituents and in digestibility of these constituents. Crude protein was the most variable chemical constituent and was also the most variable component in digestibility among the hays. Digestible protein contents for the hays were closely related to their crude protein percentages. By comparing nutrient composition to nutrient requirements for cattle, an estimate of the feeding value of the hays was obtained. All hays contained sufficient energy and all but one sufficient protein for pregnant cows, but most hays were deficient in these nutrients for lactating cows or growing calves.
    • Radiant Temperatures of Hair Surfaces

      Moen, Aaron N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      The radiant temperatures T(r) of the surfaces of winter pelage of white-tailed deer, mule deer, snowshoe hare, cottontail rabbit, and red fox decrease with a decrease in air temperature T(a) and an increase in wind velocity (U). The relationship between T(r) and T a is linear, but nonlinear for T(r):U. Changes in the lower velocities have a relatively greater effect than changes in the higher velocities. The variation between species results in considerable overlap; the use of thermal scanning techniques for censusing of these different species is doubtful under most field conditions.
    • Range Plant Yield and Species Relationships in Natural and Partially Controlled Environments

      Bleak, A. T.; Keller, W.; Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Competition and herbage production studies were established on soil columns (1.2 m square) that were isolated from the surrounding soil by heavy plastic sheeting to a depth of 1.4 m. Some plots received only natural precipitation; some 1-1/2 times the growing-season precipitation, and some 2/3 the growing-season precipitation. These different moisture levels had no significant effect on herbage yields during the 3-year period. Plots of alfalfa yielded most. Plots containing Kochia yielded as much as those containing alfalfa the first year, but not thereafter. Crested wheatgrass consistently outyielded Russian wildrye. Adjacent natural field plantings of the same species provided evidence that both alfalfa and Kochia had roots below the plastic barrier and were obtaining moisture from adjacent soil. Alfalfa was least affected and Kochia most affected by a close (5-cm) harvest height.
    • Relationship between Animal Activity and Bare Areas Associated with California Sagebrush in Annual Grassland

      Halligan, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Thickets of California sagebrush support large populations of small mammals which eliminate grassland vegetation from the vicinity of the shrubs. The effect of the shrubs is density dependent, with greatest effect at more than 50% canopy coverage and virtually no effect at 25% cover and less. The amount of grassland exclusion diminishes rapidly with distance from the shrub stands, but extends beyond the well-defined border zone as rabbit trails. Although scattered shrubs do not exclude grassland vegetation, they apparently protect the grass under their canopies from grazing by cattle. The extent of the bare areas fluctuates greatly over periods of years. The areas denuded by small mammals are populated by diminutive species which do not live in the unbroken grassland, and show a greater species diversity than unbroken grassland.
    • Response of Herbaceous Vegetation to Felling of Alligator Juniper

      Clary, W. P. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Felling of a 13% cover of alligator juniper in northcentral Arizona resulted in a 38% increase in total herbage production and a 45% increase in forage plant production. These increases were highly variable relative to the control. There was little or no apparent response in three of the seven postfelling years.
    • Response of Pensacola Bahiagrass to Irrigation and Time of N Fertilization

      Beaty, E. R.; Smith, Y. C.; Powell, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Irrigated and not-irrigated Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum var. saurae Parodi) was fertilized with 0, 84, 168, and 336 kgN/ha in six combinations of split applications during the season. Forage yields showed the following responses: Irrigation increased the average forage yield 2165 kg/ha in a dry year and 1303 kg in a wet year. Largest forage yields were obtained when irrigation was combined with the highest N rates. Average forage yield was 2967 kg/ha without fertilization and 12,017 kg with fertilization at a 336 kgN/ha rate. When N was applied to bahiagrass grown on soil low in N, best yields were obtained when 50% or more of the N was applied before growth starts in March or April. On similar soils application of N after August 1 was not as effective in increasing forage yields as March or April applications, but N applied in August or September increased forage production the following year.
    • Response of Sideoats Grama to Animal Saliva and Thiamine

      Reardon, P. O.; Leinweber, C. L.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Sideoats grama plants clipped to various heights and frequencies were used to compare plant growth response to additions of animal saliva and thiamine. Comparisons were also made between plants which were either grazed or clipped. Results indicated that plants will respond to additions of thiamine when they are clipped at a moderate intensity (6 inches) and frequency (6 weeks). Plants did not respond to thiamine or saliva when clipped to three inches regardless of the frequency. Plants grazed by cattle, sheep or goats had significantly higher growth rates than clipped plants. Caution should be taken in interpreting data when mechanical clipping is substituted for grazing.
    • Sour Paspalum—Tropical Weed or Forage?

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Where carpetgrass (Axonopus compressus) will grow, sour paspalum (Paspalum conjugatum) has no place and is probably a sign of poor management. However, in areas of poor or sour soils, in shade and in times of drought, sour paspalum comes into its own throughout the tropics as a valuable component of the total forage resource.
    • Spy Mesa Yields Better Understanding of Pinyon-Juniper in Range Ecosystem

      Thatcher, A. P.; Hart, V. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      A 2-year study on the Spy Mesa relict of the Arizona Strip provides information concerning the natural occurrence of pinyon-juniper in range ecosystems of this area. The 40-acre relict is unique because there is a wide variety of soils and natural fires have occurred over the past 50 years. The plants have been grazed by rodents and mule deer and yet they have been inaccessible to livestock. This study reveals that, following natural fires, grass became significant in the plant community only on soils that had sandy surface textures. Pinyon-juniper was the dominant species in the absence of fire, regardless of the kind of soil. Those soils having a vesicular, massive, or platy surface layer did not produce significant quantities of grass at any stage of plant succession.