• A Case Study for Optimal Allocation of Range Resources

      D'Aquino, S. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A linear programming model was developed to help in the management of range resource systems. This analysis simultaneously considers per acre management costs and resulting per animal gross revenues. The management plan sets out a season-by-season use of land areas and associated forage resources with the objective of maximizing net dollar returns. Procedures developed in this study may also be applied to public resource management problems.
    • A Physiological Study of Developing Pods and Leaves Honey Mesquite

      Wilson, R. T.; Krieg, D. R.; Dahl, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Photosynthetic and respiratory rates of developing pods and fully expanded leaves of mesquite were assayed during 1972 to determine whether current photosynthesis was sufficient to supply the demands of the developing pods or whether reserve carbohydrates from the roots were required. Net photosynthetic rates of developing pods were very low when expressed as a function of dry weight, whereas the rates of CO2 evolution were high, suggesting a very active metabolic rate. Leaf photosynthetic rates were comparable to reported rates for other tree species. From the data collected, it was concluded that current photosynthate could not supply the amount of organic matter needed for pod development on trees possessing heavy fruiting loads, and reserve carbohydrates would be needed during the period of maximum rate of dry matter accumulation by the pods.
    • A Serial Optimization Model f Ranch Management

      Bartlett, E. T.; Evans, G. R.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A linear program resource management model is described. This model is used to aid in the decision-making process of developing basic ranch management plans. A simple one-year-at-a-time ranch management plan for the Central Plains Experimental Range was developed. The model uses discrete continuity equations to facilitate the flow of resources and products through seasons of the year. Management strategies based on the amount of initial operating capital ($20,000 to unlimited) are discussed.
    • Management and Utilization of Pineland Threeawn Range in South Florida

      Hughes, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Brahman-native cattle grazed cutover forest range in south Florida at the rate of 15, 22, and 36 acres per cow per year for 14 years. As the study progressed, the weight of cows increased by 10 to 45 pounds for each decrease in rate of stocking, but all cows tended to calve in alternate years. Weight, quality, and market value of calves increased with each decrease in stocking rate. Income per acre, however, was $2.50, $2.00, and $1.25 for high, medium, and low rates. When sampled 4 months after burning, pineland threeawn, the principal forage species, was most productive on range stocked at the high rate and decreased with decreased stocking. By 19 months after burning, its production was least on range stocked at the high rate and most on that stocked at the low rate. Rate of stocking did not have a significant effect on production of total herbage during either sampling period. Utilization of pineland threeawn at 4 months was 70, 60, and 51% on range stocked at the high, medium, and low rates. At 7 and 19 months, utilization estimates did not reveal a significant response to rate of stocking. Surveys indicated that no change occurred in condition of the herbaceous vegetation on range stocked at the high rate but that pineland threeawn decreased and other grasses increased on range stocked at the low rate. Shrubby vegetation including saw-palmetto, the principal shrub, increased on range stocked at both high and low rates.
    • Species for Seeding Arid Rangeland in Southern Idaho

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Ninety species were seeded in 2,450 range plots in 60 studies on depleted rangelands and on abandoned dry farmland in the sagebrush region in southern Idaho. Seedings range from 20 to 40 years old. Crested and fairway wheatgrasses were the most successful species on the drier sagebrush sites, and intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses on the moister sites. Russian wildrye was good in southeastern Idaho, especially on saline lands. Western and Siberian wheatgrasses had some good stands but were not consistently successful. Good seedbed preparation and control of competing vegetation are necessary to get good stands of seeded species. Good seeded stands produced from 800 to 1,800 lb herbage per acre, as compared to 45 to 200 lb before seeding.
    • Indicators of Soil Movement on Range Watersheds

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Three agents of soil movement are discussed: wind, water, animal hoofs. Eight indicators of soil movement are described and their reliability for indicating soil movement is interpreted. The indicators are: trampling, soil remnants, erosion pavement, lichen lines, wind-scoured depressions, aeolian deposits, alluvial deposits, and gullies and rills. A simple field procedure for measuring gully and rill erosion is presented. This quantitative approximation of soil movement due to erosion by water has proved to be reasonably reliable.
    • Feedlot Animal Waste Compared with Cottonseed Meal as a Supplement for Pregnant Range Cows

      Hull, J. L.; Raguse, C. A.; Morris, J. G.; Delmas, R. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Three groups of pregnant beef cows grazing dry native annual range were either supplemented with pelleted cottonseed meal (0.90 kg/head daily), a pelleted mixture of 75% feedlot manure-25% barley (ad lib.), or received no supplementation for a period of 84 days. Cows were induced to consume the manure pellet on range by accustoming them to the manure-barley pellet in a preliminary period of feeding in a drylot. Individual cow variation in intake of manure supplement was similar to that found for the cottonseed meal supplement. A marked response occurred to both supplements as measured by cow weights at calving and weaning weight of the calf. Cows given the manure-barley pellet had a higher body weight than cows given the cottonseed meal supplement, but intake of supplement was much greater for those given the manure-barley pellet. The dry matter digestibility of the feedlot manure was 26.1%.
    • High-rate Fertilization of Native Rangeland in Oregon

      Baldwin, D. M.; Hawkinson, N. W.; Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A single application of 27-12-0 fertilizer on native rangeland in northwestern Oregon produced a 4-year total herbage production of 15,789 lb/acre, air dry with 1,100 lb of fertilizer; 18,383 lb/acre with 2,200 lb of fertilizer; and 16,477 lb/acre with 4,400 lb/acre of fertilizer. Unfertilized plots produced 5,932 lb/acre. Increasing the rate of fertilization improved the vigor of perennial grasses, increased utilization of herbage by cattle, extended the green-forage season, and temporarily increased nitrate nitrogen in the forage. High-rate fertilization markedly increased Kentucky bluegrass in the composition.
    • Livestock Grazing on Federal Lands in the 11 Western States

      Heady, H. F.; Box, T. W.; Butcher, J. E.; Colbert, F. T.; Cook, C. W.; Eckert, R. E.; Gray, J. R.; Hedrick, D. W.; Hodgson, H. J.; Kearl, W. G.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Almost half the land area in the 11 Western States is federally owned. Domestic livestock graze on 73% of this area. Federal land is estimated to supply 12% of all grazing resources in the region and to provide the equivalent of the feed required yearlong for 1.7 million head of cattle and 1.0 million sheep. These grazing lands provide energy, water, minerals, recreational opportunities, and wildlife in addition to forage for domestic animals. The forages, on federal lands represent a renewable natural resource and an economical source of feed for production of cattle and sheep. Loss of the products of grazing currently derived from federal lands would increase the scarcity of feed, meat, and wool. The mounting demands for both grain crops and meat point to an increase in importance of forages on both private and public lands to support the beef and sheep industries. Elimination of grazing from federal rangelands in the 11 Western States would require a shift of animals to other lands or would result in loss of these animals from the productive pool. More animals on non-federal lands would require more intensive use of private rangeland; acreage increases in pastures, harvested forages, and feed grains; more acres in cultivation; and greater dependence on feedlo ts for feeding for meat production. Only limited acreage is available for development of additional intensive pastures in the United States. The alternatives to less grazing on federal rangelands appear to us to be wasteful of natural resources and uneconomical for the producers dependent on these lands unless prices of meat and wool were to be increased considerably. Small communities and subsistence-type livestock operations within large areas of federal grazing land would suffer most if grazing on federal lands were eliminated. The grazing of herbage has been a natural process in grasslands, shrublands, and forests for as long as grazing animals have existed. The effect of grazing on the range environment depends upon the kind of vegetation, the intensity of grazing, the kind of animal, and the degree of management employed to control the animals. Experiments and widespread experiences show that moderate and planned grazing restores protective vegetational cover on deteriorated ranges, thereby reducing accelerated erosion and improving animal habitats. Planned grazing maintains good and excellent condition ranges. Most rangeland is better suited to all types of use today than it was before 1950.
    • Long-term Effects on Chemical Control of Big Sagebrush

      Thilenius, J. F.; Brown, G. R. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      In 1960 and 1961, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) on four cattle ranges in the Bighorn Mountains was sprayed with 2,4-D. By 1971, the canopy cover of big sagebrush was 8-42% of the pretreatment levels, seedling density ranged from 5.7-11.3 plants/120 ft2, herbage production was below the pretreatment levels with the proportion of graminoids about equal to that prior to spraying. Effects of grazing deferment for as long as 3 years after spraying could not be detected.
    • Evaluation of Some Herbicide Treatments for Controlling Tall Larkspur

      Cronin, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Esters or the amine formulation of silvex and 2,4,5-T were equally toxic to tall larkspur. Repeated annual treatments with 2,4,5-T, silvex, dicamba, and picloram proved equally effective for controlling tall larkspur. Applications of 2,4,5-T (or silvex) at 4 lb/acre for each of two summers were the most economical of the various effective treatments evaluated.
    • Interseeding and Pitting on a Sandy Range Site in Eastern Montana

      Wight, J. R.; White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A study of the effects of interseeding and pitting on herbage yield, species composition, soil water content, and nitrogen uptake was conducted on a sandy range site in eastern Montana from 1967 to 1972. Over these 6 years, interseeding with a lister and rotary tiller increased perennial grass yields 30 and 24%, respectively. Pitting increased the yield of sedges (Carex spp.) over most of the 6 years, but increased total grass yield only in 1969. The yield increase from interseeding was due to increased growth of native western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and interseeded species. An interseeded mixture of western wheatgrass, bluebunch wheatgrass (A. spicatum), green needlegrass (Stipa viridula), and little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius) produced two to three times more than any individual species. Interseeding by lister and rotary tiller increased perennial grass yields in the sixth year after treatment by 58 and 41%, respectively, indicating potential long-term benefits from interseeding. Of the treatments, only lister interseeding showed evidence of increasing soil water recharge on this sandy range site. Tillage associated with the interseeding and pitting treatments increased the uptake of nitrogen by plants for at least 2 years after treatment.
    • Classifying Grassland Vegetation with a Diversity Index

      Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      An objective method of classifying grassland vegetation is used to evaluate similarities of species composition between stands. The procedure used for the classification involved the calculation of a change in diversity that occurred when vegetation units, such as stands, were combined into larger units. Some species were noted to occur in several stands in such a way as to change diversity which was interpreted in terms of species importance.
    • Citizen Participation in Decision Making—A Challenge for Public Land Managers

      Irland, L. C.; Vincent, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Citizen participation in decision making presents a major challenge to public land managers. Increased participation is needed to counter an imbalance between commodity and noncommodity users in access to information and to influence on decisions. Two serious decisions in implementing participation programs are how much influence to allow to citizen groups, and how to assure proper representation of diverse groups in the process. Vigorous citizen participation programs can benefit land managing agencies by helping reduce conflict, by improving public understanding, and by helping managers assess public attitudes.
    • Effects of Temperature on Germination in Three Subspecies of Big Sagebrush

      McDonough, W. T.; Harniss, R. O. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      The relationship of germination to temperature was tested in seeds (achenes) from 10 individual plants from each of three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) collected above 5,000 ft on sagebrush-grass range in Idaho. No optimum temperature for germination within subspecies was found. Subspecies vaseyana gave the lowest mean percent germination (10%) at temperatures in the range 2 degrees-30 degrees C, compared to 28% for subspecies wyomingensis and 38% for subspecies tridentata. Stratification improved germination of seeds in all collections of vaseyana and in some collections of the other two subspecies.
    • Emergence and Yield of Six Range Grasses Planted on Four Dates Using Natural and Treated Seed

      Bleak, A. T.; Keller, W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Six range grasses were compared by sowing natural and treated seed at four dates. Seedlings from treated seeds emerged sooner in all species except Russian wildrye for the first three planting dates. The fourth planting was a failure for both treated and natural seeds. The advantages of faster emergence from treated seeds did not result in more plants at 35-46 days nor in higher yield. Intermediate wheatgrass emerged first, followed by Russian wildrye and Siberian, crested, beardless, and fairway wheatgrasses. Intermediate wheatgrass yielded most, followed by crested, Siberian, and fairway wheatgrasses, Russian wildrye, and beardless wheatgrass.
    • Viewpoint: Zootic Climax

      Houston, Douglas B.; Cole, Glen F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
    • Shade-induced Grass-Tetany-Prone Chemical Changes in Agropyron desertorum and Elymus cinereus

      Mayland, H. F.; Grunes, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Grass tetany, a magnesium (Mg) deficiency in grazing ruminants, often occurs simultaneously with periods of reduced solar radiation levels. The objective of this study was to determine if reduced radiation levels produce a chemical composition in grass indicative of a tetany-prone forage. Two grass species were exposed to three radiation levels (8, 25, and 100% of actual) by shading with burlap cloth. The vegetatively growing forage was harvested at weekly intervals over a 5-week period during early spring. Shaded forage had higher concentrations of Mg than did unshaded forage. However, shaded forage compared to forage grown in full sunlight would likely result in less Mg being available to the animal. The hypothesized inverse relationship between radiation and the incidence of grass tetany in Idaho, Nevada, and Utah is supported by field observations.
    • Yearlong Grazing of Slash Pine Ranges: Effects on Herbage and Browse

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Total herbage yields under immature slash pine were not appreciably changed by yearlong cattle grazing which removed 30 to 60% of the annual growth. However, moderate (45%) and heavy (60%) grazing reduced pinehill bluestem frequency and increased carpetgrass. Individual browse species were not affected by grazing intensity, but total cover was reduced with moderate grazing. As tree density increased, the total herbage yields decreased.