• Abundance of Grasshoppers in Relation to Rangeland Renovation Practices

      Hewitt, G. B.; Rees, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      This study was conducted during a 3-year period, 1969-1971, in northcentral Montana to determine the effect of the rangeland renovation practices of scalping, interseeding, contour furrowing, and spraying sagebrush with 2,4-D and the resulting vegetational changes on grasshopper (Acrididae: Orthoptera) species and abundance. Spraying for control of sagebrush with 2 lb of 2,4-D ester in 6 gal $H_{2}O/acre$ only slightly reduced grasshopper abundance during the first 3 postspray years. However, contour furrowing, scalping, and interseeding in general adversely affected the habitat of most grasshopper species, probably because of changes in the abundance of preferred food plants. The influence of parasites, predators, and pathogens on abundance appeared to be slight.
    • Nonstructural Carbohydrates in Grazed and Ungrazed Cane Bluestem

      Reardon, P. O.; Merrill, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Trend of carbohydrate reserves, major storage carbohydrates, and primary storage locations were determined in grazed and ungrazed cane bluestem plants. Sucrose was usually the major reserve carbohydrate, and the largest concentration of reserve carbohydrates was in the crown portion of the plant. The total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were higher in grazed than in ungrazed plants. The ungrazed plants matured earlier, as indicated by an earlier TNC peak and had lower winter TNC levels. Results indicate that maximum plant vigor can be maintained with a periodic June to November grazing deferment followed by moderate foliage removal.
    • Production of Cow-Calf Herds: Effect of Burning Native Range and Supplemental Feeding

      Kirk, W. G.; Hodges, E. M.; Peacock, F. M.; Yarlett, L. L.; Martin, F. G. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Two grazing trials of 4 and 6 years' duration were conducted to determine the effect of burning unimproved range and limited supplemental feed during the fall and winter on productivity of cow-calf herds. In a 4-year trial, burning one-fourth of the range in November and an additional fourth in January increased weaned calf production from 56% to 75% and calf gain per cow from 84 kg to 106 kg over cows on unburned range. Burning one-half the range plus supplemental feeding of either cane molasses, fresh sugarcane, or cottonseed pellets resulted in a weaned calf crop of 67%, 72%, and 77%, respectively, and yearly calf production of 102 kg, 111 kg, and 117 kg/cow. In another trial of 6 years' duration, one-half of each 64.8 ha experimental range was burned each fall and winter. Supplemental feeds given the five lots were: none, oranges, grapefruit, grapefruit plus cottonseed pellets, and citrus pellets. The average weaned calf crop for the five lots was 61% (unsupplemented), 62%, 72%, 69%, and 68%. The yearly calf production/cow was 107 kg, 111 kg, 128 kg, 122 kg, and 122 kg, respectively. Supplemental feeding increased calf production, but differences were not statistically significant because of too few animals. Supplemental feeding did not offer a reasonable return over burning alone when cost of feed and labor involved were considered.
    • Relationship of Soils to Seasonal Deer Forage Quality

      Krueger, W. C.; Donart, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Blue wildrye, sheep sorrel, Oregon white oak, and arroyo willow were studied on Yorkville and Tyson soils in northern California to determine the effects of soil series and season on relative concentrations of protein, acid-insoluble lignin, and total sugars in the forage. Production of protein and sugars, but not lignin, was found to be related to soil series. Differences in levels of three chemical constituents varied among plant species with season on two soil series.
    • Range Site and Grazing System Influence Regrowth after Spraying Honey Mesquite

      Scifres, C. J.; Kothmann, M. M.; Mathis, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa) regrowth on the Texas Experimental Ranch in the Rolling Plains of northwest Texas was evaluated 8 years after aerial spraying with 2,4,5-T. Regrowth on rocky hill, rolling hill, and deep upland range sites was measured under two systems of grazing management: heavily stocked (4.86 ha/AU), continuous grazing; and, moderately stocked (6.48 ha/AU), deferred-rotation grazing. Canopy cover, density, and topgrowth production of honey mesquite regrowth were significantly greater under moderate, deferred-rotation grazing than under heavy, continuous grazing of the deep upland site. Honey mesquite density, canopy cover, and topgrowth production did not differ between grazing systems on the rocky hill site. Regrowth on the rolling hill site was usually intermediate between the rocky hill and deep upland sites. Honey mesquite plant density, topgrowth production, canopy cover, and rate of new stem initiation were greater under moderately stocked, deferred-rotation than heavily stocked, continuous grazing. Averaged across grazing systems, regrowth, regardless of variable evaluated, was greatest on the deep upland site.
    • Population Dynamics of Green Rabbitbrush in Disturbed Big Sagebrush Communities

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      We investigated the dynamics of green rabbitbrush populations in relation to burning, livestock grazing, and chemical shrub-control as a range-improvement practice in big sagebrush communities. Green rabbitbrush plants sprout from roots, and density increases by seedling establishment after a fire. Achene production and seedling establishment are paramount to dominance by rabbitbrush after burning of big sagebrush communities. Rabbitbrush continues to dominate and periodically reestablished itself for at least 15 years. Reduced populations of rabbitbrush persist in communities where dominant big sagebrush plants are 40 to 50 years old. Partial reduction in big sagebrush or rabbitbrush populations by applications of 2,4-D results in a large increase in seedling establishment of both species. When these communities are not disturbed or when all shrubs are removed, no shrub seedlings are established.
    • Responses of Range Grass Seeds to Winter Environments

      Wilson, A. M.; Wondercheck, D. E.; Goebel, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Seeds of annual and perennial grasses were planted in the field in fall, winter, and spring to test the rapidity of their germination at low temperatures. They were brought from the field into the laboratory at frequent intervals and germinated at 10 degrees C. In general, the longer the exposure to field conditions, the more rapid the subsequent germination. After 1 month of exposure to the winter environment, the ranking of species in order of decreasing rapidity of germination (at 10 degrees C) was as follows: cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), medusahead (Taeniatherum asperum), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), Siberian wheatgrass (Agropyron sibiricum), bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum), and smooth brome (Bromus inermis). The order in which seedlings emerged was the same, except that medusahead emerged earlier than cheatgrass. When seedlings are exposed to drought or to competition with other species, rapidity of germination at low temperatures may be important to their survival.
    • Some Effects of Chopping Saw-Palmetto-Pineland Threeawn Range in South Florida

      Moore, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      The cutover pinelands of south Florida are fire-dependent communities dominated by saw-palmetto and pineland threeawn, two low-quality species. Land managers interested in cattle, wildlife, or timber production seek effective ways of controlling these species. Chopping is generally used to accomplish such control. This study was designed to discover differences in forage production and species composition as a result of season of chopping. Although important differences were not revealed, chopping during periods of low soil moisture appeared to give best results. Generally, saw-palmetto was reduced from 24% to 3% coverage, while the yield of pineland threeawn decreased from an average of 80% to near 20%. Desirable species such as bluestems, panicums, paspalums, and razorsedge became abundant. After 2 years, total herbage production increased from a normally expected 3,600 lb per acre to an average of 5,400 lb per acre.
    • Species for Seeding Mountain Rangelands in Southeastern Idaho, Northeastern Utah, and Western Wyoming

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Tests of many species over several years on seven sites show that smooth brome and meadow and creeping foxtails are adapted for seeding most mountain rangelands. However, smooth brome did not maintain stands above 9,000-foot elevations. Intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses are adapted to intermediate and lower mountain ranges. Other grasses that did well in one or more seedlings are: mountain, subalpine, and Regar bromes; timothy; orchardgrass; tall oatgrass; reed canarygrass; and hard fescue. Legumes and forbs that showed promise are: birdsfoot trefoil, crownvetch, birdvetch, alfalfa, and horsemint. Mixtures of adapted species gave better stands than single species. These tests reemphasize that we must prepare good seedbeds and control plant-competition to get good stands of seeded species. Pocket gophers killed many plants and caused seeded stands to deteriorate.
    • Germination of Native Prairie Forb Seeds

      Sorensen, J. T.; Holden, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      A study was conducted on 23 tallgrass prairie forb and legume seeds to determine conditions that would lead to a high level of germination. Seed fill was physically determined, seed viability was determined chemically with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, and germination was done on moist filter paper in petri dishes. Of the 23 species of seeds tested, 69.5% germinated under normal conditions, 21.7% required moist-cold treatment, 4.4% required scarification, and 4.4% never germinated.
    • Mule Deer Responses to Deer Guards

      Reed, D. F.; Pojar, T. M.; Woodard, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      In this investigation the effectiveness of guards 12, 18, and 24 feet long in preventing mule deer from crossing vehicle openings in fences 8 feet high was evaluated. The guards were constructed of flat mill steel rails 1/2 × 4 × 120 inches, and were tested under both controlled and field conditions. Under controlled tests, 16 of 18 deer successfully crossed the guard. Fifteen deer and one elk crossed guards under field conditions. Deer did not attempt wide jumps over the guards, but rather walked, trotted, or bounded across them. Use of this guard type under the condition tested is not recommended.
    • Improvement of Panspot (Solonetzic) Range Sites by Contour Furrowing

      Soiseth, R. J.; Wight, J. R.; Aase, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      We studied the effects of 3-, 7-, and 10-year-old contour furrowing on some physical and chemical soil properties of panspot range sites in southeastern Montana. Changes in soil bulk density, sodium-adsorption-ratio (SAR), and salinity (EC) on the contour-furrowed areas were generally small, but a definite ameliorating trend was established. Contour furrowing increased infiltration rates 0.25 to 3.11 cm/hr and increased forage yields 498 to 770 kg/ha. Reduced SAR and EC on contour furrowed areas were attributed to increased infiltration.
    • Growing Strength for Greater Challenges

      Gonzales, Martin H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
    • Influence of Ethrel on Phenological Development in Hoe

      Parsons, D. L.; Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      The influence of ethrel on the phenological development of mature honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) was studied from February 15, 1971, through May 8, 1972. Ethrel (250 ppm) applied in aqueous solution in winter or early spring of 1972 decreased flower production during the spring, 1972. Ethrel applied as a pretreatment, therefore, could be quite important in relation to chemical control of honey mesquite since herbicidal mesquite kills are inversely proportional to flower production. Ethrel did not affect any other phenological event nor did it exhibit any ability to synchronize the phenological events in honey mesquite.
    • Influence of Defoliation by the Cutworm Melipotis idomita on Control of Honey Mesquite with 2,4,5-T in West Texas

      Ueckert, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Cutworms, Melipotis indomita (Walker), caused severe defoliation of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa) on heavy clay and bottomland range sites in the Rolling Plains of Texas following a late spring freeze and a drought in 1971. In some areas cutworms reduced mesquite foliage by 95%. The percent of honey mesquite killed with foliar application of 2,4,5-T was very low on both sites and was not influenced by the degree of defoliation by cutworms.
    • Meadow Forage Quality, Intake, and Milk Production of Cows

      Streeter, C. L.; Rumburg, C. B.; Hall, T. H.; Siemer, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      A native mountain meadow was grazed by cows through the summer and fall of 1970 near Gunnison, Colorado. Nutrient concentration and in vitro digestibility were measured from forage samples collected from esophageally-fistulated cows. Total fecal excretion was estimated by the Cr2O3 dilution technique. Forage consumption was calculated from digestibility and fecal-excretion data. Milk production of cows was determined at biweekly intervals by measuring calf weights before and after nursing, followed by machine milking. The cell-wall constituent (CWC) content of the diet increased from 47.2 to 62.1% from mid-June to mid-October. CWC digestibility decreased from 72.8 to 52.3% during the same period. The nitrogen concentration of the diet decreased from 3.1 to 1.2%; whereas the nitrogen concentration in standing forage decreased from 3.8 to 1.4%. Dry-matter consumption averaged 14.7, 12.0, 10.5, and 10.3 kg per day, and mean milk production was 6.0, 4.4, 4.0, and 3.0 kg in 14 hours for Brown Swiss, Charolais x Angus, and San Juan Basin and Commercial Hereford cows, respectively. Daily dry-matter consumption did not change significantly as the season advanced. Daily milk production declined from 5.7 in April to 2.0 kg in November. Animals selectively grazed bluegrass regrowth on drier sites, leaving abundant sedge growth on lightly-grazed wet sites. This grazing pattern resulted in high dietary nutrient levels throughout most of the season.
    • Evaluation of Rangeland Seedings Following Mechanical Brush Control in Texas

      Stuth, J. W.; Dahl, B. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Seeding success was evaluated on 62 ranches in Texas to compare relative success and costs of various treatments as affected by range site. Effects of precipitation and temperature were studied. Seeding during rootplow-rollerchop operations gave consistently better stands at a lower cost on all but the very shallow sites where seeding during treedozing treatments proved more economical. Relationships between site and factors affecting success differed distinctly between the wetter and drier portions of the study area. In the drier area, as soil depth decreased the amount of rainfall received close to the planting date aided seedling establishment more than did seedbed preparation. Cool temperatures favored seeding success on very shallow sites, but they were detrimental to seeding success on loamy bottomland sites. In the wetter area, degree of seedbed preparation was more important on all sites as long as sufficient rains for germination occurred within 90 days after planting. Mechanical brush control techniques that destroy most of the existing grass proved a hazardous undertaking, as half of the follow-up seedings were considered poor or total failures. This study separates those brush control practices and seeding techniques most likely to result in successful grassland restoration on west Texas brush-infested ranges from those less likely to provide successful seeded stands.
    • Growth and Longevity of Blue Grama Seedlings Restricted to Seminal Roots

      Van der Sluijs, D. H.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Contrary to previous indications, this study shows that there is no inherent limit to the longevity of seminal roots of blue grama seedlings. When restricted to seminal primary roots, blue grama seedlings grew actively in the greenhouse for 22 weeks. Tillering began at 3 weeks and continued at a linear rate of 0.165 tillers per day. Leaf length on primary shoots reached a maximum of about 80 cm at 6 to 7 weeks and decreased by death of older leaves thereafter. Total leaf length of tillers reached a maximum of 250 to 350 cm of green tissue at 13 to 14 weeks. The water-transport capacity of the subcoleoptile internode apparently prevented further leaf expansion. Since field conditions impose sudden increases in transpirational stress, it may be necessary to restrict leaf expansion until adventitious roots are well established.
    • Control of Annual Grasses and Revegetation in Ponderosa Pine Woodlands

      Christensen, M. D.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-03-01)
      Application of 1.12 kg/ha of the herbicide atrazine sufficiently controlled medusahead or downy brome to permit establishment of perennial wheatgrass in ponderosa pine woodlands previously burned in wildfires. Fall application of atrazine greatly improved survival of ponderosa pine or bitterbrush seedlings transplanted to plots the following spring. Bitterbrush seedlings established naturally in areas treated with atrazine. Apparently the herbicide treatment created a desirable habitat for seed caching by rodents, along with reduction of competition from annual grasses. Higher rates of atrazine controlled most herbaceous vegetation and resulted in greater growth of ponderosa pine seedlings. Failure to establish perennial grasses resulted in reinvasion by annual grasses.