• Asphalt-Fiberglass for Precipitation Catchments

      Myers, L. E.; Frasier, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Field experience gained in the construction of nine water harvesting catchments since 1962 has shown that field-fabricated asphalt-fiberglass coverings are a dependable means of providing water for livestock on many rangeland areas. Initial construction costs, including site preparation and labor, were less than $1.25 per square yard. The asphalt-fiberglass coverings are easy to install, require no sophisticated equipment or skills, and are highly resistant to mechanical damage to wind or animals.
    • Atrazine Residue and Seedling Establishment in Furrows

      Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Deep furrows made with shovel openers and simulated disk-type furrows were evaluated for removal of atrazine residue from the seeded row and for seedling establishment in the atrazine-fallow technique of range seeding. Atrazine residue in all furrow treatments was below the toxic level for crested and intermediate wheatgrasses. Established stands of both species were similar in all furrow treatments. Therefore, the deep-furrow rangeland drill with disk openers appears suited for large-scale application of the atrazine-fallow technique.
    • Longleaf Unicola and Spike Uniola Require Shade

      Wolters, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Three years after establishment, longleaf uniola and spike uniola plants under 92% shade were larger, more numerous, and more vigorous than those receiving more sunlight. Herbage production was 10 times greater in 92% shade than in full sunlight. Protein, phosphorus, calcium, and ash content of the herbage increased as shade deepened, while crude fiber and N.F.E. content decreased.
    • Range Burning

      Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      There are many uses for prescribed burning in the management of forests, chaparral, grasslands, watersheds, and wildlife. Some of these uses have been pointed out in this paper. There are also many dangers in using fire, both in its application and in its results. To minimize harmful effects, fire should never be used during extended dry periods; burns should always take place when the soil is damp or wet. Moreover, the user should be an experienced professional with a thorough knowledge of eco-systems, weather, and fire behavior.
    • Presettlement Vegetation Of Cache Valley, Utah and Idaho

      Hull, A. C.; Hull, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Explorers and early settlers found abundant grass and little sagebrush in Cache Valley in northeastern Utah and southeastern Idaho. Excessive grazing by livestock after settlement caused the grass to decrease and the sagebrush to increase. Most grassland areas were eventually plowed for dry-land or irrigated farming. However, in the dry-farm belt are many steep or rocky slopes, inaccessible corners, and similar areas that have not been plowed, irrigated, heavily grazed, or burned in recent years. Many of these areas support vegetation that, except for increased sagebrush, is undoubtedly similar to that described by explorers, early settlers, and historians.
    • Range Vegetation and Sheep Production at Three Stocking Rates on Stipa-Bouteloua Prairie

      Smoliak, S. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Stipa-Bouteloua prairie was grazed by sheep at three stocking rates over a 19-year period. Under continuous heavy grazing the vegetative cover and forage yield deteriorated mainly through the large increase in blue grama and the decrease in the more productive grasses. The mature ewes grazed at the heavy rate were lighter in body weight and gave birth to smaller lambs, which were weaned at lower body weights, than those grazed at the moderate or light intensities of use. The Stipa-Bouteloua prairie should be stocked at not less than 1.0 acre per ewe per month to maintain the vegetative cover in a productive condition.
    • Root Dynamics of a Shortgrass Ecosystem

      Bartos, D. L.; Sims, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Seasonal dynamics of roots of a shortgrass ecosystem were determined at 2-week intervals for the two growing seasons of 1969 and 1970 and at monthly intervals during the intervening fall and winter. Soil cores were taken to a depth of 80 cm during the first growing season to determine the amount and distribution of roots in the soil profile. Root samples in the second year were only taken to a depth of 10 cm, with periodic sampling to 80 cm. Some 55% of the root weight was found in the 0- to 10-cm segment, and 69% was found in the upper 20 cm of the soil profile. There were significant differences among sampling dates in root weights in the upper 10-cm increment. The mass of roots in the lower portion of the profile remained somewhat constant throughout the sampling period. No significant differences were found in the root mass among four grazing intensity treatments (ungrazed, light, moderate, and heavy).
    • Spring Food Habits of White-tailed Deer in the South Texas Plains

      Everitt, J. H.; Drawe, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      During the spring seasons of 1970 and 1971, rumen analyses were used to determine food preferences of white-tailed deer on the H. B. Zachry Randado Ranch in South Texas. A total of 83 plant taxa were found to be eaten by this deer herd. Forbs comprised an average of 37.1% by volume of the diet, browse 33.1%, and cacti 17.5%, while grass comprised only 2.5% volume of the diet. Pricklypear cactus was heavily consumed and comprised an average of 15.4% of the total diet. Forbs were most heavily utilized in early spring. Perennial species were more prevalent than annuals in the diet. Important differences occurred in the diet between years, between early and late spring, and between the three major range sites on the study area.
    • The Zootic Disclimax Concept

      Beetle, A. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Some ecologists are using the term "zootic climax" in the same sense that range managers use the term "zootic disclimax." If our national parks are to be managed in order that they be natural, it will be important for administrators to understand these two terms and how they differ from the Climatic Climax.
    • New Adjustable, Decimal, Collapsible Quadrat vs Three Old Quadrats—An Evaluation

      Khan, C. M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      This paper presents an evaluation of a new adjustable, decimal, collapsible quadrat (ADCQ) of meter square size in comparison with three other quadrats employed for range vegetation sampling in Pakistan since 1966. In addition to size of quadrats, the different modes of subdivisions built in as an aid for estimation of vegetation cover within the same sized quadrats affected very significantly the different attributes of quadrats as well as quality of data recorded. The new quadrat was faster than other meter square quadrats to a highly significant extent and was as fast as canopy coverage quadrat (CCQ) with only .15 m2 in size. The coefficient of variation for the new quadrat was significantly less than CCQ. The new quadrat was more precise in sampling major species than all other quadrats. Unlike the new quadrat, older meter square quadrats overestimated the cover values. Whereas CCQ was relatively better in estimating cover of minor species, the new quadrat was the best of all in estimating total vegetation cover, cover of major species and litter. It also was most efficient in sampling major species. Its efficiency computed over five vegetation criteria was significantly greater than older meter square quadrats. The constructional advantages of ADCQ over fractional quadrat (FQ) as well as the decimalized, collapsible, meter square quadrat (DCMSQ) are also of importance.
    • Microdensitometry to Identify Plant Communities and Components on Color Infrared Aerial Photos

      Driscoll, R. S.; Reppert, J. N.; Heller, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Image density differences in color infrared aerial photos can be used to discriminate individual shrub and tree species of a pinyon pine-juniper plant community. In addition, image density was used successfully to identify six general plant communities: ponderosa pine, spruce-fir, aspen, big sagebrush, native grasslands, and seeded grasslands. However, different sites and cultural treatments within native grasslands and ponderosa pine forest could not be so easily discriminated, even though visual differences were apparent in the photos.
    • Influence of Insects on Mesquite Seed Production

      Smith, L. L.; Ueckert, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      In field sleeve cage studies we found that conchuela [Chlorochroa ligata (Say)] reduced mesquite seed production at least 70% at all population densities studied by sucking juices from immature seeds. The seed beetle Algarobius prosopis LeConte reduced production of viable mesquite seeds at least 22% at the population densities studied by consuming, during its larval stage, the seed cotyledons. A seasonal insect control program on mesquite revealed that the native insect populations generally reduced 1) the numbers of mesquite pods produced per tree, 2) the total numbers of seeds per pod, and 3) the percentage of good seeds.
    • Mechanical and Chemical Range Renovation in Southeastern Wyoming

      Rauzi, F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Range renovation by strip spraying atrazine, pitting, and a combination of the two treatments was evaluated at the Archer Substation near Cheyenne, Wyoming. Perennial grasses plus sedges produced significantly more on the renovation treatments than on the check. Blue grama was more vigorous, remained green later into the season, and was more available for livestock use on the plots strip sprayed with atrazine than on the pitted or check treatments. Forage yields and composition were influenced by years and by amount and distribution of the April, May, and June precipitation.
    • Herbicide Plus Various Additives for Follow-up Control of Shredded Mesquite

      Sosebee, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      One group of 300 honey mesquite trees that had been shredded in the summer of 1969 were sprayed in June, 1970, and another group of 300 trees were sprayed in June, 1971 with 2,4,5-T (amine and ester formulation) plus an additive. Niacin (1.6 ppm) with 2,4,5-T amine applied in 1970 produced a high percentage root mortality on 1-year-old regrowth, whereas either biotin (2.4 ppm), pyridoxin (2.1 ppm), or thiamine (3.4 ppm) plus 2,4,5-T amine applied in 1971 produced a high percentage root mortality on 2-year-old regrowth. The use of these B-vitamins plus 2,4,5-T appears to be an effective and inexpensive method of follow-up control for regrowth of shredded honey mesquite. The cost of the B-vitamins was less than 5 cents/acre.
    • Condition and Trend of the Big Sagebrush/Needleandthread Habitat Type in Nevada

      Tueller, P. T.; Blackburn, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Condition and trend of the big sagebrush/needleandthread habitat-type was studied at 23 sites in northern and eastern Nevada. An inference approach was used to quantify range trend in one field season. The habitat-type was located and described in excellent, good, fair, and poor condition. Trend relationships show that needleandthread is a decreaser, while big sagebrush, squirreltail and green rabbitbrush are increasers. Quantitative guidelines are developed for each condition class.
    • Effect of a Wetting Agent and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Establishment of Ryegrass and Mustard on a Burned Watershed

      DeBano, L. F.; Conrad, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      A wetting agent was applied by sprinkler irrigation to nitrogen-fertilized plots on a burned watershed in southern California. The wetting agent decreased the total production of mustard (Brassica nigra and B. Campestris) and increased the number of ryegrass seedlings (Lolium rigidum and L. multiflorum). Where a wetting agent was applied, the moisture conditions at the soil surface were more favorable for seedling establishment and the grass was favored over mustard. In a subsequent laboratory experiment, the wetting agent suppressed mustard seedlings but had a lesser suppressive effect on ryegrass. The differential phytotoxicity was presumably responsible for much of the difference between grass and mustard seedling establishment in the field test. Nitrogen fertilizer increased total plant production and in combination with the wetting agent further enhanced the establishment of ryegrass, but not mustard.
    • Effect on pH on Germination of Three Grass Species

      Stubbendieck, J. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) affected the percent germination of weeping lovegrass, sand bluestem, and blue panic in laboratory tests. The latter two species exhibited the ability to germinate over a wide pH range but showed repressed germiantion at pH levels near neutrality. Tests using water of unknown pH may not provide a true indication of potential germination.
    • Effects of Light and Temperature on Germination of Sideoats Grama

      Cole, D. F.; Major, R. L.; Wright, L. N. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Seed from three sources of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.) were planted on one- and two-way thermogradient plates to determine the effects of light, constant and alternating temperatures, and temperature duration on germination over a range of 10 to 40 degrees C. The direction of the temperature gradients was switched on various 24-hour cycles consisting of the following combinations: 4-20, 8-16, and 12-12 hours. Dormancy was not broken by any set of alternating temperature combinations. Light did not promote the rate or completeness of germination. The seed from various sources differed in the totality of germination over the entire thermogradient plate. The best germination over the entire plate was obtained with the 12-12 hour cycle, followed in turn by the 8-16 hour cycle and finally the 4-20 hour cycle for seed source 63, 1969 seed. As the imbalance of time cycles increased, the exposure of seed to continuous extreme temperatures increased also, thereby lowering total germination. Optimum temperatures for maximum germination of each source differed depending upon year of seed production and duration of the specific temperature.
    • Estimating Intake and Digestibility of Native Flint Hills Hay

      Rao, M. R.; Harbers, L. H.; Smith, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted on native hay from the Flint Hills harvested at three stages of maturity from an area annually burned in late spring. Intake and digestibility declined with stage of maturity. In vivo organic matter intake and digestibility was satisfactorily estimated using fecal nitrogen and fecal organic matter output data as independent variables. A somewhat less reliable estimate of digestibility was provided by in vitro fermentation.