• 30 Years of Vegetal Change Following Burning of Sagebrush-Grass Range

      Harniss, R. O.; Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      A sagebrush-grass range was burned according to plan in 1936. Long-term results show that sagebrush yields have increased while most other important shrub, grass, and forb yields have decreased. Evaluation by subspecies of sagebrush was helpful in interpreting sagebrush behavior. The return of sagebrush shows the need for planning sagebrush control on a continuing basis for maximum forage qualities.
    • A Method for the Collection and Transport of Native Grasses from the Field to the Glasshouse

      Whalley, R. D. B.; Brown, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      A simple method for transplanting native grasses from field to glasshouse with negligible mortality is suggested. The method has been used successfully in both Australia and in the United States and was far superior to other transplanting techniques. The method has also been used successfully with forbs and shrubs.
    • Chemical Fertilization of Fourwing Saltbush

      Williams, S. W.; O'Connor, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Fourwing saltbush is an important member of arid and semiarid rangeland communities, supplying high quality forage for herbivores as well as serving as an erosion deterrent. Methods of saltbush establishment, however, have met with only limited success. Results of a greenhouse study show that small additions of balanced fertilizer can greatly increase saltbush growth and hence likely increase the probability of saltbush establishment. The results appear to warrant further study in the form of field tests to evaluate the practicality of large scale fertilization of saltbush plantings.
    • Control of Rocky Mountain Iris and Vegetation Response on Mountain Meadows

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Application of 2, 3, or 4 lb/acre of 2,4-D in mid-June or 3 or 4 lb/acre in early July gave 91 to 100% control of iris. Iris phenology at treatment ranged from late vegetative to late bloom. The 2 lb/acre rate applied when seed capsules were forming controlled 73 to 85% and control was not uniform. Reduction in iris yield ranged from 398 to 1568 lb/acre and averaged 925 lb/acre. Iris control gave a significant increase in production of grass and grasslike species of from 274 lb/acre (58%) to 2364 lb/acre (360%) with an average of 1173 lb/acre (180%). Slender wheatgrass and Nevada bluegrass were the most responsive species. Yield of sage grouse food plants, dandelion and yarrow, was severely reduced the first year after all treatments. Total forb production was deficient or minimal for sage grouse, and dandelion was deficient. Total forb production and dandelion component appeared adequate for existing sage grouse populations in the second and subsequent years after treatment.
    • Development, Testing, and Evaluation of the Deep Furrow Drill Arm Assembly for the Rangeland Drill

      Asher, J. E.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      A deep-furrow drill-arm assembly for a Rangeland drill was developed, tested, and evaluated. Horizontal disk angle was the single most important factor affecting construction of an adequate furrow. This angle varied among sites and was influenced by vegetative cover and soil conditions. The final design was an assembly with an adjustable disk angle. Seedling stands in deep furrows were equal to or superior to those in standard furrows.
    • Developmental Morphology of Blue Grama and Sand Bluestem

      Sims, P. L.; Lang'at, R. K.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      The purpose of this investigation was to study the normal growth and development of blue grama and sand bluestem. Blue grama and sand bluestem exhibited contrasting forms of growth, regrowth, and perenniality. Blue grama had culmless vegetative shoots and 12% reproductive shoots. Sand bluestem had culmed vegetative shoots and 36% of the shoots became reproductive. Regrowth of blue grama from active shoot apices proceeded rapidly after cutting when soil moisture was adequate. Good productivity, however, depended greatly on essentially free expansion of the leaf blades of phytomers 3 through 6. Good leaf growth and early drying of lowermost leaves when not utilized made sand bluestem suitable for grazing in June, when prompt regrowth of leaves from apical meristems occurred. Close harvesting in early July stopped all active shoot expansion. After grazing sand bluestem in June, a rest period in July should allow good plant development under dry land conditions. With favorable soil moisture conditions in July a close harvest near mid-July stopped first crop growth and promoted development of new tillers and high productivity of second-crop herbage of sand bluestem in late summer and fall.
    • Effects of Fire on an Ashe Juniper Community

      Wink, R. L.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      In an ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) community a minimum of 1,000 kg/ha of fine fuel was needed to carry a fire to kill juniper seedlings and burn piles of dozed juniper. Grasses recovered quickly and soil erosion was minimal when burning was done during a wet winter and spring. During a dry winter and spring, however, burning increased drouth stress on plants, reduced herbaceous yields, and exposed soil to wind and water erosion for a long period of time when soil moisture was low.
    • Estimating Food Intake by Observing Mastications by Tractable Deer

      Crawford, H. S.; Whelan, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Six confined deer were fed weighed parts of different plant species collected in southwestern Virginia and the number of mastications required to consume the material was determined. Mastications to consume a gram of plant material differed significantly by plants and by animals, and there was a significant interaction. In general, succulent plant parts required fewer mastications than did fibrous plant parts. Nineteen samples would estimate to within 20% of the mean number of mastications per gram at the 95% confidence level for the animal and plant exhibiting the greatest variation during winter. More samples would be required during spring for sampling fibrous plant parts and fewer for sampling succulent plant parts.
    • Factors Affecting Mesquite Control with Tordon 225 Mixture

      Sosebee, R. E.; Dahl, B. E.; Goen, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      The influence of various site characteristics was studied for Tordon 225 Mixture effectiveness in honey mesquite control in the Rolling Plains of Texas. Tordon 225 Mixture was commercially applied in 1970 at 0.5 lb a.e./acre under an experimental label for Texas. Generally, soil temperature (18-inch depth) above 75 degrees F, relatively low soil water content (0 to 6-inch depth), and tree height (less than 8 ft) were most influential in the root mortalities obtained in this study.
    • Factors Causing Losses during the Establishment of Surface-sown Pastures

      Campbell, M. H.; Swain, F. G. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Seeds of four pasture species were surface-sown in winter, spring, and summer and losses of seeds, seedlings, and plants during germination, radicle-entry, establishment, and survival noted under various treatments. On an unprotected soil surface losses during germination, radicle-entry and establishment were least in winter and greatest in summer. Dead plant cover on the surface reduced losses during germination and radicle-entry in the summer, while sub-irrigation reduced losses during germination in summer and radicle-entry and establishment in spring and summer. Losses during survival were heavy in all seasons, usually because of moisture stress. Other reasons for losses included harvesting of seeds by ants, damage by soil fauna, residual herbicides, and competition from weeds.
    • Fire in Medium Fuels of West Texas

      Heirman, A. L.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Chained and unchained mesquite in medium fuels were burned to measure the effect of prescribed burning on noxious brush species and on the production and utilization of major forage species. The fire did not kill any living mesquite trees. Very few standing dead mesquite stems burned down. Chained mesquite stems were easily consumed by fire with 2,000 lb/acre of fine fuel. Pricklypear and cholla mortality exceeded 50% by the end of the second growing season. Burning greatly increased production and utilization of tobosa grass; production of buffalograss was unaffected. Most annual forbs were harmed by burning.
    • Foliar-Applied Urea and Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizers on Shortgrass Range

      Houston, W. R.; Van der Sluijs, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Liquid foliar applications of urea-N fertilizer were compared with dry and foliar applications of ammonium nitrate-N fertilizer for 3 years, 1969-71. The fertilizers were applied in December, May, June, and July each year on separate plots. Treatments were repeated each year on the same plots. The source of N was far more important than method of application. Whether applied in dry form or as foliar application, the ammonium nitrate-N was superior to urea-N for increasing herbage yields, crude-protein content, and protein yields when applied in December, June, or July. When applied in May, both sources of N were equally effective, regardless of method of application. Ammonium nitrate-N in water solution may be applied as late in the growing season as early July with favorable results. The ammonium nitrate-N applied in July increased nitrate-N in herbage in the third year, although not to toxic levels.
    • Grazing Systems: A Least Cost Alternative to Proper Management of the Public Lands

      Fulcher, Glen D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
    • Growth Rate of Mixed Prairie in Response to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization

      Lorenz, R. J.; Rogler, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Earlier initiation of spring growth and increased dry matter production of mixed prairie are important to the livestock industry, particularly in the northern Plains where the winter feeding period is often prolonged. The effect of N and P levels on growth rate and production of mixed prairie was studied over an 8-year period at the Northern Great Plains Research Center near Mandan, North Dakota. Annual application of N had no effect on growth rate prior to May 1; however, during the May 1-May 15 period, and during each successive growth period, rate of growth increased as N level increased up to 160 lb elemental N/acre (160-N). By May 15, plots receiving 40-N produced more dry matter than did plots without N by June 1. As the season progressed, the production lag of the nonfertilized plots became greater. The yield level reached on June 15 by plots receiving 40-N was not attained by the 0-N plots until July 15. Yield levels reached by fertilized plots on July 1 were never attained by nonfertilized plots.
    • Musk Thistle (Carduus nutans): An Undesirable Range Plant

      Hull, A. C.; Evans, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Musk thistle, a spiny, unpalatable biennial plant native to Europe and Asia, is becoming widely established on western ranges. It is a vigorous grower and prolific seed producer and is spreading rapidly to uncultivated areas and wild lands used for ranges and watersheds. Though musk thistle spreads faster and is more vigorous where there is little plant competition, it is also spreading and growing well in good native and seeded ranges and in irrigated pastures and meadows. It is relatively easy to control with herbicides. It should be controlled before it spreads to larger acreages.
    • Phenology and Forage Production of Cool Season Grasses in the Southern Plains

      Schuster, J. L.; De Leon Garcia, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Thirteen varieties of cool season grasses were tested under dryland and irrigated conditions in the Southern High Plains. All introduced varieties out-produced the two native species. Peak percent of forage protein content corresponded with peak growth periods. Sandia orchardgrass and NM-384 tall fescue were the most productive varieties under irrigation but did not survive limited irrigation. Luna pubescent wheatgrass and largo tall wheatgrass were the most resistant to limited moisture conditions and are recommended for irrigated, cool season forage planting.
    • Qanats in the Old World: Horizontal Wells in the New

      Pearse, C. K. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Horizontal wells make use of the principle of the qanat developed in Persia about 2,500 years ago and still widely used there and in other arid regions of the world. The driven horizontal well offers several important advantages over the hand dug qanat especially for livestock watering places.
    • Relationship of Range Quality to Range Condition in the Chilcotin Region, British Columbia

      Demarchi, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Bluebunch wheatgrass and needleandthread plants were clipped from three different condition classes and six different growing periods in a wheatgrass/bluegrass association. The collected samples were chemically analyzed for crude protein, total ash, calcium, and phosphorous. The results were tested against the condition classes. There were no statistical differences for the components in needleandthread; however, bluebunch wheatgrass showed highly significant differences in the crude protein levels of ungrazed and overgrazed plants. It was also determined that even though the overgrazed wheatgrass had the highest percentage protein, the total weight of protein per unit area was much greater in ungrazed wheatgrass plants.
    • Spot Treatment for Gambel Oak Control

      Vallentine, J. F.; Schwendiman, D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Gambel oak can be effectively eliminated in localized, small scale projects by (1) foliage spraying with picloram-silvex at a 1:2 lb a.e./acre rate, (2) basal stem spraying with silvex, 2,4,5-T, or picloram, (3) soil application of picloram granules at 4 lb a.e./acre, or (4) complete top removal followed by root raking.