• A Student's Views on the Future of the Society for Range Management

      Miller, Richard F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
    • AID's Interest in Range Management and Livestock Production in te Tropics and Subtropics

      Kelley, O. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Grassland resources in the tropics and subtropics of South America, Asia, and Africa occupy nearly one billion hectares of land, roughly twice as great as all arable lands in these areas. These support about four billion sheep units of ruminant livestock. One major hope for more nearly meeting animal protein needs for peoples of the tropics and subtropics is by increasing supplies of meat from ruminants grown on permanent grasslands in four ecological zones-humid tropics, savannas, sahelians, and semidesert. The five major categories of limiting factors that control progress in livestock production on rangelands are (1) feed supplies and animal nutrition, (2) animal disease control and prevention, (3) livestock husbandry and management, (4) animal breeding, and (5) efficient marketing systems. A "Range Code," consisting of 12 principles, is presented to evaluate similarities and differences between the tropics and temperate zones. Group action by "associations" of pastoral groups is suggested as a method of improving the potential for more efficient livestock production and marketing without disturbing private ownership of livestock.
    • Aspen Regrowth in Pastures of the Peace River Region

      Pringle, W. L.; Elliott, C. R.; Dobb, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Low-cost methods are required for converting wooded areas of Canada's Peace River region to productive pasture. Methods of circumventing the costly procedures of breaking the soil and removing roots preparatory to seeding were investigated. Various tillage implements (mouldboard plow, Rome disc-at 3 depths, rotovator, one-way disc, and tandem disc) were compared as to effectiveness for seed-bed preparation. In addition, seed was both drilled and broadcast. Forage yields varied greatly, from an average of 1,184 lb/acre on the plowed plots to 103 lb on the check area. It was concluded that all methods tried tend to enhance tree establishment. Because of this, none of the methods tested would bring about an economically viable pasture.
    • Calculating Grazing Intensity for Maximum Profit on Ponderosa Pine Range in Northern Arizona

      Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      The profit formula is based on forage production, digestibility and utilization, animal weight and daily gain, costs per animal day, and beef prices. Rangeland producing 500-1,000 lb forage per acre would produce maximum profit with moderate utilization.
    • Calculating Yearlong Carrying Capacity: An Algebraic Approach

      Workman, J. P.; MacPherson, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Estimates of yearlong carrying capacity obtained by three different techniques are compared in terms of accuracy as measured by actual carrying capacity of a northern Utah cattle ranch. A new "algebraic" approach appears superior to two established techniques currently in use.
    • Chromatographic Identification of Big Sagebrush Seed

      Hanks, D.; Jorgensen, K. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Paper and thin-layer chromatography of big sagebrush seed provides a rapid, simple means of identifying more palatable forms of this shrub. Methanol extraction of seed for 24 hr followed by two-dimensional paper (n-butanol:acetone:water, 4:1:3; acetic acid: water; 15:85) or single-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (chloroform:methanol:water; 85:10:5) reveals distinctive differences between Artemisia tridentata subsp. tridentata and the more palatable subsp. vaseyana and wyomingensis. A bright, iridescent blue spot characterizes the more palatable subspecies; the same spot is much smaller and duller in A. tridentata subsp. tridentata.
    • Cultural, Seasonal, and Site Effects on Pinyon-Juniper Rangeland Plantings

      Lavin, F.; Gomm, F. B.; Johnsen, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Planting season and cultural treatment effects on emergence and survival of three range species were determined for two cold, dry pinyon-juniper sites in north central Arizona. Plowing was the most effective seedbed preparation for controlling plant competition. Furrow drilling also eliminated a large amount of competition. Emergence and survival (E & S) of Luna pubescent and Nordan crested wheatgrass averaged highest with fall planting, but summer planting was best for E & S of fourwing saltbush. E & S averaged highest on plowed seedbeds and decreased progressively on undercut, undercut-strip, presprayed, sprayed, and control seedbeds. Surface drilling on tilled seedbeds increased E & S over furrow drilling for fourwing saltbush and usually for Nordan crested wheatgrass. Drilling in wide, shallow furrows increased Luna pubescent wheatgrass E & S. Furrow drilling increased E & S for all species on nontilled seedbeds. There were some significant interactions among treatment combinations. Practical application of results is discussed.
    • Evaluation of Eastern Redcedar Infestations in the Northern Kansas Flint Hills

      Owensby, C. E.; Blan, K. R.; Eaton, B. J.; Russ, O. G. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Associations among cattle stocking rate, precipitation, and eastern redcedar invasion, and possibly redcedar control measures were investigated. Redcedar numbers generally decreased as stocking rate increased. Precipitation had only a slight effect on invasion rate. Fire, cutting, and fenuron granules appear to effectively kill redcedar.
    • Herbage Yields in Relation to Soil and Water and Assimilated Nitrogen

      Cline, J. F.; Rickard, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Soil water, herbage assimilated nitrogen, and herbage were measured in the field and used to estimate the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization to increase yields in cheatgrass communities. The application of regression analysis to estimate the amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed to increase herbage in relationship to available soil moisture is presented. When herbage nitrogen is in the range of 0.5 to 0.7% at the end of the spring growing season, nitrogen rather than soil water appears to limit herbage production.
    • 'Horizontal’ Wells

      Welchert, W. T.; Freeman, B. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Forty-five horizontal wells were constructed on the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation during 1967-69. This paper describes site selection, drilling equipment, and the construction process and lists the advantages of the horizontal well system over more conventional systems.
    • Influence of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on In Vitro Digestion of Forage Samples

      Owith, A. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      The influence of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] and 2,4,5-T [(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] on in vitro digestion of dried ground corn silage (Zea mays L.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) foliage was determined using a modification of the Tilley and Terry method for determining in vitro dry matter digestibility of forage plants. Neither herbicide influenced the digestion of plant samples when treated with a herbicide concentration range of 10-8 to 10-4 M. Solutions containing 10-4 M of either herbicide did not influence the growth of microbial populations in incubated rumen liquor. The influence of rumen microorganisms on degradation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was also investigated. Samples containing sucrose or plant material, buffered rumen liquor, and 10-4 M concentrations of either herbicide were incubated for 10 day periods. Data from periodic quantification of herbicide remaining in the samples indicated that neither herbicide used in these experiments was degraded by the rumen microorganisms. Results indicate that: (1) 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T do not alter the rumen microbial functions or development and (2) these herbicides are not readily degraded in the rumen by the rumen microorganisms.
    • Livestock Grazing on Public Lands: Unity for Political, Economic, and Ecological Reasons

      Thomas, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      The increased pressure on public lands due to conflicting interests, combined with the increased concern on the part of each individual for the environment, makes it imperative that each land use alternative be carefully examined. Decisions on land use must take into consideration the economic importance of the ranching industry to the nation, the social and political climate of the times, and most importantly, sound ecological principles. A careful examination of long-range research can only lead to the conclusion that: (1) on vast areas of public lands, livestock grazing, under proper management, is compatible with other uses, (2) on a limited number of sites, grazing by domestic livestock is detrimental to the resources and competitive with other uses, and (3) on other sites, grazing by livestock can be the most beneficial use to society for economic, social, and ecological reasons.
    • Modified Step-point System for Botanical Composition and Basal Cover Estimates

      Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Instructions for use and assembly are presented for a modified step-point sampler. Modifications were made to eliminate bias and to increase ease of use.
    • Nitrogen and Paraquat Saves Range Forage for Fall Grazing

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Chemical curing of N-fertilized crested wheatgrass was examined in 3 years. Both N and paraquat, singly and in combination, significantly influenced various stand components. The combined treatments increased fall herbage yield 40%, crude protein concentration 68%, and crude protein yield 148% above that of the control.
    • Nutritive Value of Hay from Nitrogen-Fertilized Blue Grama Rangeland

      Kelsey, R. J.; Nelson, A. B.; Smith, G. S.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Wether lambs were used in a feeding study (voluntary consumption, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and nitrogen retention) to evaluate the nutritive value of hays harvested from unfertilized and nitrogen-fertilized blue grama rangeland. Fertilization increased consumption by 29%; increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, and energy by about 5%; and increased the retention of nitrogen by about 7%, although the percentage retention of absorbed nitrogen (biological value) was apparently depressed.
    • Pine Sawdust as a Roughage Replacement in Gestating Beef Heifer Rations

      Slyter, A. L.; Kamstra, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      No abortive tendencies were noted with Angus X Hereford crossbred heifers when fed a corn-roughage ration containing 25% sawdust during the last one-third of the pregnancy period. Inclusion of sawdust in the ration did not affect the calving difficulty score or birth weights.
    • Productivity of Tall Wheatgrass and Great Basin Wildrye under Irrigation on a Greasewood-Rabbitbrush Range Site

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Nonbeneficial phreatophytes, greasewood and rubber rabbitbrush, in the Humboldt River Basin annually waste approximately 103,000 acre feet of water that could be used beneficially if forage species were established. After brushbeating, tall wheatgrass and Great Basin wildrye were spring seeded and established by sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation was continued for 3 to 5 years to induce root penetration into a capillary fringe so that grasses would persist as beneficial phreatophytes. After irrigation ceased, productivity of 115 to 710 lb/acre indicated that roots had not reached the capillary fringe and that continued irrigation was necessary to maintain production. Soil physical characteristics restricted root growth, and productivity with limited water or without water was reduced by chemical properties of a saline-sodic soil. Highest production of tall wheatgrass (4000 to 6000 lb/acre) and Great Basin wildrye (2400 to 2600 lb/acre) was obtained 3 years after seeding with weekly irrigations of 1.25 inches.
    • Seasonal Changes in Quality of Some Important Range Grasses

      Kamstra, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Holocellulose, hemicellulose, and in vitro fiber digestibility were significantly different between cool and warm season grasses. A significant class x date interaction for protein and lignin suggested that each forage could be expected to follow a different growth pattern during the growing season. Sugars (xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose) were found as hemicellulose components in all grasses at all cutting dates. Xylose was the most prominent structural sugar in all grasses studied. In vitro dry matter digestibility could be most easily adapted to routine studies of forages, but cannot be expected to define the contributions of individual parameters making up plant dry matter. The nutritive differences among grasses at various sampling dates suggest the value of a mixture of desirable grasses. This would assure grazing animals continued nutrition throughout the grazing period.
    • Sheep Production on Natural Pastures by Roaming Bedouins in Lebanon

      Bhattacharya, A. N.; Harb, M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Studies have been conducted with 2,589 Awasi sheep belonging to nine family groups having an average of 11 members each to investigate the husbandry practices and production of livestock by roving Bedouins in Lebanon. The natural pasture plants grazed by the sheep were identified and analyzed for chemical composition. The growth rate of lambs and the yield and composition of ewe's milk were also determined in a selected sheep population. The study shows that natural pastoral resources contribute significantly to sheep production by the Bedouins. The traditional methods used under the circumstances do not seem to impede the yield of animal product.