• Waterfowl Production on Stock-Watering Ponds in the Northern Plains

      Lokemoen, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      In a 5-year study of stock-watering ponds in western North Dakota, pond size was found to be the major factor influencing duck use. As pond size increased, total pair and brood use per pond increased. Pairs used ponds as small as 0.1 acre in size, but broods were seldom seen on ponds of less than 1.0 surface acre. Dam-type ponds larger than 1.0 surface acre comprised only 29% of all man-made ponds on the study area but received 65% of the pair use and 87% of the brood use. Utilization of fenced ponds by pairs and broods was not significantly different from utilization of unfenced ponds. Grazing rates of 2 to 3 acres per AUM and lower rates permitted the development of grassy shoreline cover preferred by pairs and brushy and emergent shorelines preferred by broods. Duck pairs were significantly more numerous on older ponds and ponds with grassy shorelines but less numerous on ponds that had heavy deposits of sediment or were isolated from other wetlands. Broods were significantly more numerous on ponds with brushy shorelines and emergent vegetation than on those without. Broods were less numerous on turbid and newly constructed ponds. The most suitable stock-watering units for maximum waterfowl production were dam-type ponds of 1.5 surface acres, or larger, built in gentle to rolling terrain away from major sources of siltation.
    • Survey of Professional Attitudes toward Range Science Education and Training

      Kienast, C. R.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Questionnaires relative to range science education and training were completed by about 120 professionals in the discipline. Respondents were in general agreement that coursework in the social sciences should receive more emphasis in range curricula. Most respondents also stressed the ever-increasing need for development and refinement of communicative skills. Natural resource use, planning, and management was most frequently cited as an important future problem facing range workers. Expertise in public relations also rated high as a future need for rangemen. The majority of the respondents indicated that training undergraduates as land resource managers should be emphasized instead of utilizing curricula dominated by "strictly scientific aspects." Most respondents were optimistic concerning future employment possibilities for range majors with indications that future graduates might be in increasing demand for certain areas of industry and business.
    • Stoloniferous Blue Grama

      Stubbendieck, J.; Launchbaugh, J. L.; Burzlaff, D. F.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Stolons were observed on blue grama under natural conditions and in greenhouses. Some stolons reached 70 cm with as many as 12 internodes. Stolons were induced in an environmental chamber by controlling the temperature, shortening the photoperiod, and reducing the light intensity.
    • Simulated Grazing Management Systems in Relation to Shrub Growth Responses

      Willard, E. E.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Little rabbitbrush and snowberry plants were clipped for 5 years to simulate annual browsing at the same time each year, under deferred-rotation, alternate-rest, and rest-rotation grazing systems at each of three different intensities (30, 60, and 90% of herbage removal). The number of new sprouts was increased by some clipping treatments and all intensities of clipping in both species. Sprout length was reduced by all clipping schedules and intensities of clipping on little rabbitbrush but not on snowberry. Mortality of sprouts was high during their first year of growth. Carbohydrate reserves were lowered for both species by some clipping schedules and by all intensities of clipping.
    • Seed Size Affects Germination of True Mountainmahogany

      Piatt, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Five collections of seeds of true mountainmahogany from two sites in northern New Mexico were divided into three size classes. Large seeds germinated better than medium or small seeds, within a collection as well as overall. The results suggest, however, that relative size distributions of collections may not be a reliable index of differences in source germinability.
    • Sediment Yields from Small Rangeland Watersheds in Western South Dakota

      Hanson, C. L.; Heinemann, H. G.; Kuhlman, A. R.; Neuberger, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Sedimentation studies were made between 1958 and 1969 on stock water reservoirs to determine sediment yields from rangeland watersheds on two soil textural groups of western South Dakota. Watersheds having fine-textured soils had a mean annual sediment yield of 3.47 tons per acre, while watersheds with medium-textured soils had a mean annual sediment yield of 1.03 tons per acre. The average sediment volume-weight was 62 and 81 lb/ft3 for the reservoirs on watersheds with fine- and medium-textured soils, respectively.
    • Russian-Thistle (Salsola) Species in Western United States

      Beatley, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Russian-thistle populations in western United States consist of either of two species, or both, and are distinguishable at all stages in the field. Salsola pestifer is now replaced by an earlier name, S. iberica. The second species, S. paulsenii, prevails in many areas, especially in the southwest. Where growing together they appear to hybridize freely, resulting in populations exhibiting varying degrees of genetic introgression.
    • Rootplowing and Seeding Arid Rangelands in the Southwest

      Herbel, C. H.; Abernathy, G. H.; Yarbrough, C. C.; Gardner, D. K. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Twenty-three seedings were made across southern New Mexico following rootplowing of creosotebush or tarbush. Because of the harsh environment, equipment was used that in a single operation killed the brush, formed basin pits, planted the seed on a firm seedbed, and windrowed the dead brush over the seeded area. Good to excellent stands were obtained on 10 plots; 4 had fair stands. Many of the failures were related to highly erosive or droughty sites, or to soils that form a hard surface crust. Even under droughty conditions, there generally was a good stand of the seeded species where brush cover coincided with a low place where water was concentrated. The species most easily established on the sandy to loamy sites infested with creosotebush were Lehmann and Boer lovegrass, black and sideoats grama, yellow bluestem, blue panic, and fourwing saltbush. On heavier soils, the best species were sideoats grama, yellow bluestem, and alkali sacaton. The exact seed mixture for any site depends on management objectives.
    • Responses of Semidesert Grasses to Seasonal Rest

      Martin, S. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Perennial grasses on semidesert range in southern Arizona increased more in 8 years under spring-summer (March-October) rest 2 years out of 3 than under continuous yearlong grazing or any of 13 other rest schedules. A three-pasture grazing system that provides spring-summer rest 2 years in 3 is being tested on the Santa Rita Experimental Range.
    • Response of Lehmann Lovegrass to Time of Fertilizer Application

      Billy, B.; Stroehlein, J. L.; Ogden, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      On a desert grassland site in southern Arizona, production of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) was significantly increased by applications of 30-10-0 fertilizer as late as July 22. Seed yields were least with later dates of fertilization. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the plants were increased within 1 week after application; thereafter they generally declined. Nitrate-nitrogen and available phosphate in the surface 4 inches of soil increased immediately after fertilization, and the nitrate-nitrogen then decreased rapidly. Plots fertilized at later dates generally reached their peak yield and higher nitrogen and phosphorus contents later and remained greener into the fall months than those fertilized at the beginning of the rainy season. Herbage growth of forbs the following spring was greater on fertilized plots than on control plots, but data were very variable and not significant. No residual response of Lehmann lovegrass was found the second summer growing season after fertilization, probably a result of the dry summer.
    • Reproductive Success of Squirreltail in Medusahead Infested Ranges

      Hironaka, M.; Sindelar, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix), a native perennial bunchgrass, has exhibited an ability to become established naturally in medusahead (Taeniatherum asperum) dominated ranges in Idaho. The reproductive success of squirreltail seedlings averaged 2.6% after 18 months in plots that were broadcast seeded on unprepared seedbeds. Rapid physiologic development of squirreltail seedlings appeared to be the most important characteristic to explain its successful establishment.
    • Prairie Sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia): Water Infiltration and Use

      Aase, J. K.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia) near Sidney, Mont., grows on rangeland in colonies ranging from 1 to 8 m in diameter. There were small differences in soil texture between prairie sandreed colonies and surrounding vegetation. Increased plant growth and residue accounted for higher water infiltration rates within the prairie sandreed colonies than on surrounding vegetation. Prairie sandreed used slightly more water, but the water-use efficiency was nearly twice that of the surrounding vegetation.
    • Optimizing the Calf Mix on Range Lands with Linear Programming

      Woodworth, B. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      When faced with the decision of placing calves on two or more ranges, is there an optimum pattern? This study has shown the answer to be yes. A linear programming analysis was used to incorporate differences in the growth rates of steers and heifer calves on two ranges with different costs to find the optimum allocation of calves. The proposed allocation would have resulted in over a 4% increase in profitability over that achieved by the actual random allocation.
    • Mountain Meadow Improvement through Seeding

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Three mechanical methods were evaluated for control of the meadow weeds - sedge, cheatgrass, and poverty weed. Weed control and seedling stands were best on a summer fallow. Seeding in furrows aided seedling survival. A summer fallow-furrow technique was the weed control and seeding method used to evaluate grass and forb adaptability. Acceptable stands were more difficult to obtain in the cheatgrass-poverty weed type than in the sedge type. Seedling stands of Luna pubescent and Amur intermediate wheatgrasses were similar and were superior to those of Regar bromegrass, Alta tall fescue, and Primar slender wheatgrass. Production of pubescent wheatgrass was equal to or superior to that of intermediate wheatgrass. Bromegrass and fescue were not as productive as the introduced wheatgrasses. Native slender wheatgrass was as productive as the introduced wheatgrasses in a wet year but not in a dry year. Alfalfa and sainfoin stands averaged about one plant/3 ft of row. Herbage of these forbs was similar in quantity and quality to that in good sage grouse habitat.
    • Growth and Survival of Perennial Tropical Grasses in North Georgia

      Beaty, E. R.; Smith, A. E.; Worley, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Coastal, midland, and common bermudagrasses and Pensacola and Wilmington bahiagrasses were established and grown in the Limestone Valley and upland province of Georgia at six rates of nitrogen (N) fertilization. Forage and weed yields reflected N fertilization rates. Bermudagrasses out-yielded bahiagrasses at high N levels, and weed production composed a significant part of the total harvested. Common and midland bermudagrass and Wilmington bahiagrass are significantly more winter hardy than are coastal bermuda or Pensacola bahia.
    • Germination of Range Plant Seeds after Long Periods of Uncontrolled Storage

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      One hundred sixty-six lots of seed representing 60 species were stored from 14 to 41 years in unheated sheds. After 14 years storage only 36 of the 102 lots of grass produced seedlings. Of the 68 lots stored for 20 years, only 16 emerged. After 27 years of storage no grass seeds were viable. All 24 lots of legume seed produced seedlings after 14 years storage. Fifteen lots stored 20 years or more were all viable. Of the 21 lots of forb seed stored from 23 to 41 years only Erodium cicutarium produced seedlings. Stored for 37 years, this was the oldest seed to germinate. None of five lots of shrub seed stored 20 years were viable.
    • Future of Range Management: A Student's View

      Nyren, Paul (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
    • Efficiency of Water Use and Associated Characteristics of Lehmann Lovegrass

      Wright, L. N.; Dobrenz, A. K. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Efficiency of water use of five lines and the cultivar 'A-68' of Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostic lehmanniana Nees) was related to seedling drought tolerance and to physiological and morphological plant characteristics. Components of efficiency of water use (transpired water and dry matter produced) and the values of water-use efficiency (measured as the number of units of transpired water per unit of dry matter produced) varied among lines. Line L-38 was most efficient in water use (water-use efficiency value of 135), had the highest percentage of survival, 32.4%, (seedling drouth tolerance) and produced the most dry matter (8.31g). The ratios of maximum recorder deflection of petroleum ether extract and the total area of optical deflection of petroleum ether extract to dry weight of leaves were variable among lines and significantly associated with efficiency of water use and seedling drouth tolerance. High deflection values were associated with high efficiency of water use and high percentage of survival. Stomate density was different among lines and was higher on the upper surface than on the lower surface of the leaf blade. Stomate density was not significantly associated with efficiency of water or seedling drouth tolerance.
    • Effects of Range Burning on Kansas Flint Hills Soil

      Owensby, C. E.; Wyrill, J. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Two tallgrass prairie areas burned annually for 20 (grazed) and 48 (ungrazed) years at different times showed differences in soil chemical and physical properties. Winter, early-spring, and mid-spring burned ungrazed plots were generally higher in soil pH, organic matter, and K than late-spring burned or unburned plots. Late-spring and winter burning lowered soil N on ungrazed and grazed plots. Differences in soil nutrient levels though statistically significant probably were not large enough to affect plant growth.