• A Simple Stereophotographic Technique for Analyzing Small Plots

      Ratliff, R. D.; Westfall, S. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      An inexpensive stereo adapter for a camera provided stereo pairs on a single color print. At a camera height of 48 inches, we obtained good resolution of a square-foot area and a scale of 1:7. The stereo prints are used with a dot grid overlay and a pocket stereoscope to estimate foliar cover and composition.
    • A Test of Stereophotographic Sampling in Grasslands

      Pierce, W. R.; Eddleman, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Color stereophotography was used to sample a grassland vegetation type for species presence and for cover. Square foot estimate plots were used as a check. Three-Pee sample selection was also tested. Species identification proved difficult in dry, weathered vegetation. Cover estimates were lower for single stemmed and linear leaved weathered plants in the stereophotographic sample than in the square foot field estimate. Three-Pee sampling gave similar results to complete estimates.
    • Discerned Fragments in Feces Indicates Diet Overlap

      Hansen, R. M.; Peden, D. G.; Rice, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      A mean dissimilarity index was used to measure the degree of dietary overlap of appropriately paired diet and fecal samples of cows, bison, and sheep. When botanical composition is determined by the microscope technique for plant fragments identified in the feces of different kinds of herbivores (cattle, sheep, and bison), the estimated degree of dietary overlap is approximately the same as if diet samples had been used to estimate dietary overlap.
    • Duration of Seeded Stands on Terraced Mountain Lands, Davis County, Utah

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Thirty-seven species were seeded experimentally in northern Utah on 14 areas on depleted and terraced mountainous rangelands from 1936 to 1939. Seventeen species had fair to excellent 3-year-old stands. Most stands decreased; and in 1971 only smooth brome, tall oatgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, and red fescue have fair to excellent stands. Smooth brome spread slowly by rhizomes and usually formed a dense sod. Tall oatgrass spread by seed with a poor to good stand on ten times the original seeded area. Intermediate wheatgrass has spread by rhizomes and forms a good stand on the large plot where it was seeded in 1941. Red fescue did well on favorable sites but was not tested under typical conditions. Native grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees have reinvaded the seeded areas.
    • Effect of Wildfires on Woody Species in the Monte Region of Argentina

      Willard, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Woody vegetation was assessed on two adjacent areas 1 year after the occurrence of wildfires. One area was burned slowly by a backfire that moved mostly through the understory, while the other area was burned by a rapidly-moving headfire that reached into all crowns of trees and shrubs. The six woody species studied exhibited some degree of mortality after both fires, with the headfire causing significantly more mortality than the backfire. The tops of all woody plants were killed by both types of fire, except for caldén, which had considerable new crown growth following the backfire. Significantly greater percentages of plants of all six species were able to sprout following a backfire. Plant ignition and subsequent wood consumption were generally higher when subjected to a headfire than a backfire. The degree of ignition and wood consumption apparently had a direct effect on the ability of the plant to produce sprouts.
    • Effect of Woody Stems on Estimating Herbage Weights with a Capacitance Meter

      Carpenter, L. H.; Wallmo, O. C.; Morris, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Ignoring woody stems significantly improved capacitance-meter estimates of herbage weight.
    • Effects of Cultural and Management Practices on Seed Production of ‘Plains’ Bluestem

      Ahring, R. M.; Taliaferro, C. M.; Morrill, L. G. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Seed production of 'Plains' bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng.) is difficult to assess because of its indeterminate flowering habit and its vegetative canopy which, when excessive, interferes with seed harvests. The variety will produce two seed crops annually. The first matures in July and the second, if managed properly, in October. The effects of three management treatments on the amount of forage associated with each seed crop were highly significant in 2 out of 3 years. The study suggests that a delay of about 21 days in removing the residual forage remaining after the summer seed harvest will favorably influence fall seed yields. Where nitrogen was applied, the decline in vegetation associated with the seed crop was directly related to the previous year's forage cropping practice. Burning residual litter in early March, fertilizing with a 60-45-0 (N, P, K) pound rate of N and P was best for the production of a summer seed crop. The removal of residual forage by mowing and baling about July 29, cultivation, fertilization, and irrigations as needed, favorably influenced fall seed yields. The combined yield of the two crops in 1969 was in excess of 200 lb/acre pure seed.
    • Evaluating Zones of Utilization

      Anderson, E. W.; Currier, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      A method of checking utilization has been devised and tested on public and private rangelands. It involves mapping and evaluating zones of utilization within a pasture or grazing unit. It presents guidelines for determining how grazing resources are being used and what needs to be done to improve efficiency: identifying areas that need special attention, analyzing economic aspects, adjusting livestock numbers, and recording progress over a period of years. The procedure is relatively simple, inexpensive, meaningful, and easily used by resource managers on horseback, in a jeep or helicopter, or afoot. It requires only the usual equipment found on a ranch.
    • Foods Eaten by the Rocky Mountain Elk

      Kufeld, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Forty-eight food habits studies were combined to determine what plants are normally eaten by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni), and the relative value of these plants from a manager's viewpoint based on the response elk have exhibited toward them. Plant species are classified as highly valuable, valuable, or least valuabie on the basis of their contribution to the diet in food habits studies where they were recorded. A total of 159 forbs, 59 grasses, and 95 shrubs are listed as elk forage and categorized according to relative value.
    • Infiltration Rates: Three Soils with Three Grazing Levels in Northeastern Colorado

      Rauzi, F.; Smith, F. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      The influence of soil type, grazing level, and vegetation on infiltration rates were evaluated at the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado. Total plant material was significantly correlated with infiltration rates on two of the three soil types tested. Heavy grazing significantly decreased infiltration rates on two of the soil types. Grazing influences did not reduce infiltration rates until after 20 minutes of simulated rainfall.
    • Influence of Chaining Pinyon-Juniper on Net Radiation, Solar Radiation and Wind

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Net and solar radiation, and wind were measured during parts of 1968 and 1969 on a pinyon-juniper site in southwestern Utah. Treatments were chaining-with-debris windrowed, chaining-with-debris-in-place, and undisturbed woodland. Net radiation on the chain-windrow treatment and chain-debris treatment averaged 71 and 91%, respectively, of that measured on undisturbed woodland. Albedo values averaged 13 and 12% for the 2 years on woodland plots, 21 and 19% on the chain-windrow treatment, and 13 and 14% on the chain-debris treatment. Roughly 3 miles of wind (as measured at approximately mid-canopy height) occurred on the chained treatments for every 1 mile measured in the woodland.
    • Larger Seeds of Winterfat Germinate Better

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Seeds of winterfat (Eurotia lanata) were separated into three size classes and germinated under four temperature regimes. Large- and medium-size seeds germinated better and faster than small-size seeds.
    • Plant Induced Soil Salinity Patterns in Two Saltbush (Atriplex Spp.) Communities

      Sharma, M. L.; Tongway, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      A detailed examination was made into the soil salinity distribution of two Atriplex communities, A. vesicaria and A. nummularia, established at regular spacings on two soil types. The results based on total soluble salts and chlorides suggested that both saltbush species induced significantly higher salinity in the 0-15 cm soil horizon beneath the bush canopies compared to between the bushes, although A. nummularia induced significantly higher salinity than A. vesicaria on both the soils. The pH was also significantly increased under the bushes, but only for the 0-7.5 cm layer. A mechanism for plant-induced soil salinity is proposed by which distinct zones of salt depletion, accumulation and compensation are established. It is suggested that the accumulation of significantly large quantities of salt in the surface layer under the bushes occurred as a result of decomposition of large quantities of salt-rich leaves and fruits. This salt is mainly derived from the soil profile under the plant. Implications of the spatial variability in soil salinity are discussed.
    • Prescribed Burning Rotations on Pine-Bluestem Range

      Grelen, H. E.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Burning one-seventh of a range each year in winter, one-seventh in spring, and one-seventh in summer produced no more gain on Brahman crossbred heifers than did burning one-third of the unit in winter. Average gains during the 4-year study ranged from 120 to 271 lb./head for a 168-day period, or 0.7 to 1.6 lb./head/day.
    • Production and Nutrient Status of Whitetop

      Smith, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Post-flowering production of whitetop (Scolochloa festucacea [Willd.] Link.) was greater from burned and mowed sites than from undisturbed sites. Production from grazed stands was equal to that from undisturbed sites. Whitetop growth was initiated earlier on burned sites resulting in an earlier flowering time. Phenological differences in N content of the plant could be detected relative to water depth in the pothole. Nitrogen content decreased through flowering then increased. Potassium content decreased through the growing season. No concentration patterns were noted for other basic cations in the plant tissue relative to growth stage, site condition, or land-use practice. No relationship was ascertained between nutrient status of whitetop and land-use practice of the supporting site.
    • Recreation Potential of Texas Rangelands

      Berger, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      The uniqueness of the land ownership system in Texas is largely responsible for the development of recreation opportunities on private lands in that state. It appears that rangelands, in the traditional sense, are suited to a few specialized recreational uses, hunting probably being the most widely accepted and traditional. Any or a combination of hunting arrangements may be economically profitable for private landowners. The recreation potential of private rangelands awaits development.
    • Returns from Southern Forest Grazing

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Over a 10-year span, commercial herds grazing bluestem forest ranges in central Louisiana provided data on the returns from good cattle and range management. With labor cost excluded, per-cow returns on the investment were from 14 to 18%, with the best return from light stocking. Returns per acre of range varied from $1.88 under light stocking to $2.67 under heavy use.
    • Salt and Meal-Salt Help Distribute Cattle Use on Semidesert Range

      Martin, S. C.; Ward, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Cows on semidesert grass-shrub range ate less than 1/2 lb/day of 3:1 meal-salt mix when it was fed 1 to 2 1/2 miles from water. No injury to cattle due to either inadequate or excessive salt intake was observed. Compared to feeding at water, placing salt or meal-salt 1 to 2 1/2 miles from water increased average utilization of perennial grasses where use was usually light, but it did not materially decrease use near water.
    • Seasonal Changes in Trans-Aconitate and Mineral Composition of Crested Wheatgrass in Relation to Grass Tetany

      Stuart, D. M.; Mayland, H. F.; Grunes, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) frequently occurs from March through June in cattle grazing crested wheatgrass in western United States. High levels of transaconitate and/or citrate, K, K/(Ca + Mg) ratios and low Mg in the grass are implicated in the etiology of the disease. In the moist 1967 season, during periods of "flush" growth following warming trends, trans-aconitate and K increased while Ca and Mg decreased in crested wheatgrass. These characteristics may explain the incidence of grass tetany during periods of "flush" growth. During the dry 1968 season, these trends were not observed. Growth chamber studies confirmed some of the reasons for changes in crested wheatgrass composition observed in 1967 and 1968.