• Infiltration Rates: Three Soils with Three Grazing Levels in Northeastern Colorado

      Rauzi, F.; Smith, F. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      The influence of soil type, grazing level, and vegetation on infiltration rates were evaluated at the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado. Total plant material was significantly correlated with infiltration rates on two of the three soil types tested. Heavy grazing significantly decreased infiltration rates on two of the soil types. Grazing influences did not reduce infiltration rates until after 20 minutes of simulated rainfall.
    • Influence of Chaining Pinyon-Juniper on Net Radiation, Solar Radiation and Wind

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Net and solar radiation, and wind were measured during parts of 1968 and 1969 on a pinyon-juniper site in southwestern Utah. Treatments were chaining-with-debris windrowed, chaining-with-debris-in-place, and undisturbed woodland. Net radiation on the chain-windrow treatment and chain-debris treatment averaged 71 and 91%, respectively, of that measured on undisturbed woodland. Albedo values averaged 13 and 12% for the 2 years on woodland plots, 21 and 19% on the chain-windrow treatment, and 13 and 14% on the chain-debris treatment. Roughly 3 miles of wind (as measured at approximately mid-canopy height) occurred on the chained treatments for every 1 mile measured in the woodland.
    • Larger Seeds of Winterfat Germinate Better

      Springfield, H. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Seeds of winterfat (Eurotia lanata) were separated into three size classes and germinated under four temperature regimes. Large- and medium-size seeds germinated better and faster than small-size seeds.
    • Plant Induced Soil Salinity Patterns in Two Saltbush (Atriplex Spp.) Communities

      Sharma, M. L.; Tongway, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      A detailed examination was made into the soil salinity distribution of two Atriplex communities, A. vesicaria and A. nummularia, established at regular spacings on two soil types. The results based on total soluble salts and chlorides suggested that both saltbush species induced significantly higher salinity in the 0-15 cm soil horizon beneath the bush canopies compared to between the bushes, although A. nummularia induced significantly higher salinity than A. vesicaria on both the soils. The pH was also significantly increased under the bushes, but only for the 0-7.5 cm layer. A mechanism for plant-induced soil salinity is proposed by which distinct zones of salt depletion, accumulation and compensation are established. It is suggested that the accumulation of significantly large quantities of salt in the surface layer under the bushes occurred as a result of decomposition of large quantities of salt-rich leaves and fruits. This salt is mainly derived from the soil profile under the plant. Implications of the spatial variability in soil salinity are discussed.
    • Prescribed Burning Rotations on Pine-Bluestem Range

      Grelen, H. E.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Burning one-seventh of a range each year in winter, one-seventh in spring, and one-seventh in summer produced no more gain on Brahman crossbred heifers than did burning one-third of the unit in winter. Average gains during the 4-year study ranged from 120 to 271 lb./head for a 168-day period, or 0.7 to 1.6 lb./head/day.
    • Production and Nutrient Status of Whitetop

      Smith, A. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Post-flowering production of whitetop (Scolochloa festucacea [Willd.] Link.) was greater from burned and mowed sites than from undisturbed sites. Production from grazed stands was equal to that from undisturbed sites. Whitetop growth was initiated earlier on burned sites resulting in an earlier flowering time. Phenological differences in N content of the plant could be detected relative to water depth in the pothole. Nitrogen content decreased through flowering then increased. Potassium content decreased through the growing season. No concentration patterns were noted for other basic cations in the plant tissue relative to growth stage, site condition, or land-use practice. No relationship was ascertained between nutrient status of whitetop and land-use practice of the supporting site.
    • Recreation Potential of Texas Rangelands

      Berger, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      The uniqueness of the land ownership system in Texas is largely responsible for the development of recreation opportunities on private lands in that state. It appears that rangelands, in the traditional sense, are suited to a few specialized recreational uses, hunting probably being the most widely accepted and traditional. Any or a combination of hunting arrangements may be economically profitable for private landowners. The recreation potential of private rangelands awaits development.
    • Returns from Southern Forest Grazing

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Over a 10-year span, commercial herds grazing bluestem forest ranges in central Louisiana provided data on the returns from good cattle and range management. With labor cost excluded, per-cow returns on the investment were from 14 to 18%, with the best return from light stocking. Returns per acre of range varied from $1.88 under light stocking to $2.67 under heavy use.
    • Salt and Meal-Salt Help Distribute Cattle Use on Semidesert Range

      Martin, S. C.; Ward, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Cows on semidesert grass-shrub range ate less than 1/2 lb/day of 3:1 meal-salt mix when it was fed 1 to 2 1/2 miles from water. No injury to cattle due to either inadequate or excessive salt intake was observed. Compared to feeding at water, placing salt or meal-salt 1 to 2 1/2 miles from water increased average utilization of perennial grasses where use was usually light, but it did not materially decrease use near water.
    • Seasonal Changes in Trans-Aconitate and Mineral Composition of Crested Wheatgrass in Relation to Grass Tetany

      Stuart, D. M.; Mayland, H. F.; Grunes, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) frequently occurs from March through June in cattle grazing crested wheatgrass in western United States. High levels of transaconitate and/or citrate, K, K/(Ca + Mg) ratios and low Mg in the grass are implicated in the etiology of the disease. In the moist 1967 season, during periods of "flush" growth following warming trends, trans-aconitate and K increased while Ca and Mg decreased in crested wheatgrass. These characteristics may explain the incidence of grass tetany during periods of "flush" growth. During the dry 1968 season, these trends were not observed. Growth chamber studies confirmed some of the reasons for changes in crested wheatgrass composition observed in 1967 and 1968.
    • Small Mammals Increase on Recently Cleared and Seeded Juniper Rangeland

      Baker, M. F.; Frischknecht, N. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Small mammal numbers were studied by snap trapping on six areas in Utah where juniper range had been cleared and seeded. On one area, which was trapped both before and for the first 3 years after treatment, numbers of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) increased greatly in the first 2 years following treatment, then declined sharply to a level which was still above that before treatment. On two areas which were trapped only the first 2 years after treatment, many more small mammals were caught in the second year. Older seedings had about the same number of small mammals as did untreated juniper. Small mammals showed a clear preference for windrowed slash. This was especially true of deer mice and long-tailed voles (Microtus longicaudus).
    • Vegetative Response to Chemical Control of Broom Snakeweed on a Blue Grama Range

      Gesink, R. W.; Alley, H. P.; Lee, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      All rates of picloram, either alone or in combination with low rates of 2,4-D, effectively controlled broom snakeweed on a blue grama range in southeastern Wyoming. Picloram also eliminated the low amounts of plains pricklypear present among the dense stands of snakeweed. Blue grama was initially injured by the 0.5 and 1 lb/acre rates of picloram, but needle-and-thread was damaged only by the 1 lb/acre rate. This initial injury to the grasses had a renovating effect upon the range, and, in combination with the elimination of undesirable plants, resulted in no table range improvement as measured 5 years after treatment. The study illustrates how herbicides may be a useful tool for selective manipulation of rangeland vegetation.
    • Wheatgrass Response to Seasonal Applications of Two Nitrogen Sources

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-03-01)
      Fall, winter, and spring applications of 20 lb. N/acre as urea or as ammonium nitrate were applied in each of 3 years to two introduced grasses, crested and Siberian wheatgrasses, on Oregon's high desert range. Mature herbage yield increased with fertilizers, but there were no significant interactions with application date. Urea increased mean yield 3% more than did ammonium nitrate, but the increase may not be of practical significance. Crude protein concentration of mature yields, evaluated in 1 year only, was not influenced by either fertilizer or application time. Fall- and winter-applied N fertilizer increased available soil nitrate concentration in mid-April, but differences due to date and source of N were nil.