• Carbohydrate Reserves of Grasses: A Review

      White, L. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Carbohydrate reserves are nonstructural carbohydrates. Sucrose and fructosan are the predominant reserve constituents of temperate-origin grasses; sucrose and starch, of tropical-origin grasses. Nitrogenous compounds are used in respiration, but probably are not alternately stored and utilized as are carbohydrate reserves. Most carbohydrate reserves are stored in the lower regions of the stems-stem bases, stolons, corms, and rhizomes. Nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots of grasses are probably not used directly in herbage regrowth following herbage removal. Plant development stage, temperature, water stress, and nitrogen fertilization can drastically change the reserve level. The seasonal variation of carbohydrate reserves is often different for the same species when grown in different environments. The level of carbohydrate reserves in the lower regions of the stems apparently affects the regrowth rate for the first 2 to 7 days following herbage removal. Following the initial period, plant regrowth rate depends on other factors, such as leaf area and nutrient uptake. This initial effect from the level of carbohydrate reserves can be maintained during subsequent exponential growth. Grazing may be more detrimental than clipping if it removes herbage from some plants and not others. The ungrazed plants may take the available nutrients and water away from the grazed plants. However, grazing may be less detrimental than clipping if grazing leaves ungrazed tillers on a plant while removing others, thus allowing for the transfer of carbohydrates.
    • Chemical Composition of Six Southern Great Plains Grasses as Related to Season and Precipitation

      Willard, E. E.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      This research determined the effect of season and precipitation on the chemical composition of six grasses of the High Plains of Texas. Seasonal influences caused variations in crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, and water. Nitrogen-free extract did not show a seasonal trend. Crude protein, crude fiber, and water content were directly influenced by the rainfall pattern during the growing season; but rainfall did not appear to significantly affect the other chemical components.
    • Creeping Bluestem Compared with Four Other Native Range Grasses

      Roush, R. D.; Yarlett, L. L. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Creeping bluestem (Andropogon stolonifer [Nash] Hitchc.), an important rhizomatous perennial native bluestem of Florida and southeast Georgia, was compared under five use-management schemes with four other important native range grasses common to the same region. The creeping bluestem was found to consistently outyield the other grasses throughout all the use-management plans under which they were compared. Three systems of management found feasible for the utilization of and continuing stand development of creeping bluestem were found to be: (1) periodic spring, summer, and autumn forage removal to 50% of leaf height plus complete forage utilization in the wintertime; (2) autumn forage removal during full bloom stage to 50% of leaf height coupled with full forage utilization in wintertime; and (3) full forage utilization in the wintertime.
    • Crested Wheatgrass Response to Nitrogen and Clipping

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Nitrogen fertilizer at 30 lb./acre increased 13-year mean spring, regrowth, and fall yields of crested wheatgrass 83, 29, and 78%, respectively, above control plot yield. It increased the crude protein concentration of mature herbage, but the protein concentration decreased as fall yields increased. Mean spring plus regrowth yield, with and without N, was 82 and 85%, respectively, of the fall yield harvest on August 1. Forty-six and fifty-two percent of the fall yield with and without N, respectively, was present on May 15. Yield measurements in the 7th and 13th year revealed no yield reduction due to previous treatment on control plots but did show significant reductions in yield on plots fertilized with N and clipped in previous years on May 15. Those yield reductions were interpreted to be the result of restricted regrowth opportunity in the previous year due to weather and not to cumulative yearly clipping effects.
    • Distribution of Galleta Roots and Rhizomes at Two Utah Sites

      Moore, R. T.; West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Vertical and horizontal distributions of roots and rhizomes were examined in five clones of galleta bisected near Cisco and Cedar City, Utah. Quantity of roots and rhizomes did not differ significantly between the two sites. Although high variability existed among clones at each site, both the root and rhizome systems at Cisco tended to be shallower than at Cedar City. This difference in distribution may result from soil and climatic differences at the two sites.
    • Effect of Mesquite on Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soil

      Tiedemann, A. R.; Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Soil under the crown of mesquite trees was compared to soil from adjacent openings at three depths for several physical and chemical properties near Tucson, Ariz. Bulk density was lower in soil under mesquite but increased with depth in that location. Organic matter, total nitrogen, total sulfur, and total soluble salts were up to three times greater in the surface 0 to 4.5 cm of mesquite soil than in open soil but declined with increasing depth to levels approximately the same as in open soil. Total potassium was higher under mesquite but increased with depth. Total phosphorus and hydrogen ion concentrations were the same in soil under mesquite as in soil from open areas. Results suggest that mesquite trees function to improve soil conditions under their canopies by redistribution of nutrient ions from areas beyond the canopy to areas beneath the canopy. This process helps to explain the greater abundance and improved growth of perennial grasses observed under mesquite. It also helps to explain grazing patterns and responses on desert grassland.
    • Establishment and Growth of Selected Grasses

      Stubbendieck, J.; Koshi, P. T.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The effect of cotton-bur mulch and manure on the establishment and growth of 13 selected grasses was measured. Mulch decreased the number of seedlings during the first growing season, but the number of established plants was increased at the end of the second growing season. Plant height was increased, even after 2 years, by a post-plant application of manure. After 2 years, six of the original 13 species had a satisfactory stand.
    • Evaluation of Sampling Techniques on Tall-Grass Prairie

      Becker, D. A.; Crockett, J. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      An evaluation of sampling techniques was conducted on a tall-grass prairie in eastern Oklahoma. The point transect, a modified point transect, line transect, angle order, quarter, quadrat, and wandering quarter methods were used. Relative and total density values were determined and compared with actual values obtained by hand count. The above methods, with the exception of the quadrat, underestimated the relative density of splitbeard bluestem (Andropogon ternarius), a dominant and densely cloned species, and overestimated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a subdominant, single-stalked species. Relative and total density values obtained by the quarter method were significantly less accurate than those obtained by the other methods; no method was significantly more accurate. With recalculation excluding splitbeard bluestem data, relative densities obtained by most of the methods agreed more closely with actual values, and the quarter method was again significantly less accurate. Results indicated that degree of clone density of the dominants and subdominants, as well as sampling time, should be noted prior to the selection of a sampling method in a highly aggregated grassland type. The modified point transect or quadrat methods are considered to be most applicable if the dominants are densely cloned as in splitbeard bluestem; however, the point transect or line transect methods may be adequate if the dominants are sparsely-cloned as in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) or little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius).
    • Gambel Oak Control Studies in Southwestern Colorado

      Marquiss, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) was treated with several brush-killing herbicides in southwestern Colorado. Tordon, alone or in a mixture, as a foliar spray increased the percentage of dead stems and reduced the occurrence of root sprouts when compared to other herbicides tested. One-half pound of Tordon 22K mixed with 2,4,5-TP at the 1 1/2 and 2-pound rates (ae/acre) and Tordon 22K at the 2-pound rate have resulted in the best herbicide treatments for controlling Gambel oak in southwestern Colorado.
    • Heat Effects on Nutrient Release from Soils Under Ponderosa Pine

      White, E. M.; Thompson, W. W.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Litter and mor of ponderosa pine-forest soils released more water-soluble K and P following heating to 200 C than at higher or lower temperatures. The upper A1 horizon released the most water-soluble P and K following, respectively, 200 C and 500 C heat treatments. Total nitrogen decreased in the samples heated in excess of 200 C. Prescribed burning to control noncommercial pine on rangeland apparently would have little detrimental effect on K and P availability and cause a slight reduction in total nitrogen if heating is kept below 200 or 300 C.
    • Honey Mesquite Seedling Growth and 2,4,5-T Susceptibility as Influenced by Shading

      Scifres, C. J.; Kienast, C. R.; Elrod, D. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Honey mesquite seedlings emerged and survived continuous 50% reductions in radiant energy but were reduced in oven-dry weight. General morphological changes in seedlings from shading included increased height, decrease in number of leaves and leaf area, and delay in stem woodiness. Over 70% continuous reduction in radiant energy significantly reduced seedling survival and growth. Continuous reduction in radiant energy of over 90% of full sunlight prevented honey mesquite seedling establishment. More honey mesquite seedlings which developed under shade were killed by 2,4,5-T sprays than seedlings grown under open sunlight.
    • Interaction of Fertility Level with Harvest Date and Frequency on Productiveness of Mixed Prairie

      Lorenz, R. J.; Rogler, G. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Management practices are needed which will insure sustained production from fertilized mixed prairie. Prior to establishing grazing management practices, a better understanding of N and P fertilizer effects on the vegetation is needed. The interaction of harvest date and frequency with annual applications of N and P was studied over an 8-year period near Mandan, N. Dak. Yield increases were significant when 40 lb. N/acre (40-N) and 80-N were applied, but application of 160-N produced little or no increase over the yield from 80-N. Average yields were 548, 1,298, 1,875 and 1,908 lb./acre for the 0-, 40-, 80- and 160-N levels, respectively. Without N, response to P was small and generally not significant. When N was applied annually, response to P became significant in the fourth and subsequent years. Yields at all fertilizer levels decreased as frequency of harvest increased. Greatest yield reductions occurred when the sequence included harvest in June.
    • Large Alligator Junipers Benefit Early-Spring Forage

      Clary, W. P.; Morrison, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The production of early-spring grasses in central Arizona was four to five times higher under crowns of large alligator juniper than for similar sized areas away from the trees. Virtually all utilization of green forage by grazing animals at this time of the year occurred under the juniper crowns. These large alligator junipers should be protected during pinyon-juniper control operations.
    • Nitrate-Nitrogen Accumulation in Range Plants after Massive N Fertilization on Shortgrass Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Sabatka, L. D.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Following massive nitrogen (N) fertilization, at rates of 224, 448, and 672 kg N/ha applied in April 1969, nitrate accumulation by species and plant groups on mixed-grass prairie was measured for 3 years. All species and plant groups accumulated Nitrate-N in direct relation to rates of applied N. Two annual forbs accumulated nitrate-N above the 2000 ppm level, which is considered toxic to livestock. In 1970, the first year of residual effect, slimleaf goosefoot contained nitrate-N levels two to three times higher than the potentially toxic level, and in 1971 greenflower pepperweed contained nitrate-N levels slightly above the potentially toxic level. The use of massive rates of N as a range improvement practice should be used with caution unless potentially toxic species are controlled.
    • Origin of Soil Mounds Associated with Clumps of Ribes velutinum

      Saunders, D. V.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The mounds of soil associated with multi-stem clumps of Ribes velutinum Greene are apparently the result of rodent activity and are not remnant erosion surfaces. The development of the mounds is a dynamic response to stand renewal by burning. Rodents apparently are attracted by the increase in annuals, especially downy brome, which occurs after fire. The protection of the spiney clumps of resprouting Ribes provides a safe place for the rodents to build their dens.
    • Production Potential of Four Winter Annual Grasses

      Robocker, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Forage production of downy brome, rattlesnake chess, Japanese brome, and medusahead were compared in a nursery trial on an individual plant basis. Downy brome and Japanese brome produced significantly more forage than did rattlesnake chess or medusahead. The difference in production adds justification for selective control of medusahead in downy brome with diuron.
    • Raintrap Performance on the Fishlake National Forest

      Dedrick, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Fifteen raintraps on the Fishlake National Forest in central Utah were observed over an 11-year period in an effort to evaluate field operation, maintenance requirements, and serviceability of raintrap systems. The raintraps generally functioned properly during the first 7 to 8 years. Some problems occurred during the latter part of the period. Five problem types were classified: (1) material failure-oxidation, ozone attack, and tearing; (2) mechanical damage-vermin attack and puncture by plants and animals; (3) snow accumulation which prevented water storage; (4) insufficient maintenance to catchment aprons, storage bags and ponds, watering troughs, and fences; and (5) improper design resulting from inaccurate estimate of or change in water requirements, poor site selection, and inadequate evaporation and precipitation data. Operational problems associated with the storage part of the raintrap system were more serious than those related to the catchment apron.
    • Range Plants as Ornamentals

      Steger, R. E.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Range plants are being widely used by homeowners to make attractive settings around their homes. These plants often have desirable characteristics such as large flower, thorns, or unusual shapes. These plants are usually easy to maintain and require little irrigating, an important consideration in the Southwest. Ranchers are starting to capitalize on the demand for these range plants by selling them to either homeowners or nursuries. A few species of plants being sought for landscapes are rare and have either poor or at least slow reproduction. Already some of these rare plants have been completely removed by homeowners from the rangelands surrounding cities. Public education is needed if these plants are to remain as part of the aesthetic beauty of our ranges.
    • Responses of Crested Wheatgrass Seeds to Environment

      Wilson, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Characteristic of crested wheatgrass that favors establishment on harsh rangeland sites is the ability to germinate under conditions of low temperature and of intermittent drought. Subsequent germination was hastened as a result of exposure of seeds to favorable moisture and a temperature of 2 C. Subsequent germination was also hastened as a result of exposure of seeds to water potentials as low as -40 bars. During severe drought, seeds retained much of the advantage they had gained during periods of favorable moisture. After drought, seeds made rapid gains when moisture again became favorable.