• Large Alligator Junipers Benefit Early-Spring Forage

      Clary, W. P.; Morrison, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The production of early-spring grasses in central Arizona was four to five times higher under crowns of large alligator juniper than for similar sized areas away from the trees. Virtually all utilization of green forage by grazing animals at this time of the year occurred under the juniper crowns. These large alligator junipers should be protected during pinyon-juniper control operations.
    • Nitrate-Nitrogen Accumulation in Range Plants after Massive N Fertilization on Shortgrass Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Sabatka, L. D.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Following massive nitrogen (N) fertilization, at rates of 224, 448, and 672 kg N/ha applied in April 1969, nitrate accumulation by species and plant groups on mixed-grass prairie was measured for 3 years. All species and plant groups accumulated Nitrate-N in direct relation to rates of applied N. Two annual forbs accumulated nitrate-N above the 2000 ppm level, which is considered toxic to livestock. In 1970, the first year of residual effect, slimleaf goosefoot contained nitrate-N levels two to three times higher than the potentially toxic level, and in 1971 greenflower pepperweed contained nitrate-N levels slightly above the potentially toxic level. The use of massive rates of N as a range improvement practice should be used with caution unless potentially toxic species are controlled.
    • Origin of Soil Mounds Associated with Clumps of Ribes velutinum

      Saunders, D. V.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The mounds of soil associated with multi-stem clumps of Ribes velutinum Greene are apparently the result of rodent activity and are not remnant erosion surfaces. The development of the mounds is a dynamic response to stand renewal by burning. Rodents apparently are attracted by the increase in annuals, especially downy brome, which occurs after fire. The protection of the spiney clumps of resprouting Ribes provides a safe place for the rodents to build their dens.
    • Production Potential of Four Winter Annual Grasses

      Robocker, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Forage production of downy brome, rattlesnake chess, Japanese brome, and medusahead were compared in a nursery trial on an individual plant basis. Downy brome and Japanese brome produced significantly more forage than did rattlesnake chess or medusahead. The difference in production adds justification for selective control of medusahead in downy brome with diuron.
    • Raintrap Performance on the Fishlake National Forest

      Dedrick, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Fifteen raintraps on the Fishlake National Forest in central Utah were observed over an 11-year period in an effort to evaluate field operation, maintenance requirements, and serviceability of raintrap systems. The raintraps generally functioned properly during the first 7 to 8 years. Some problems occurred during the latter part of the period. Five problem types were classified: (1) material failure-oxidation, ozone attack, and tearing; (2) mechanical damage-vermin attack and puncture by plants and animals; (3) snow accumulation which prevented water storage; (4) insufficient maintenance to catchment aprons, storage bags and ponds, watering troughs, and fences; and (5) improper design resulting from inaccurate estimate of or change in water requirements, poor site selection, and inadequate evaporation and precipitation data. Operational problems associated with the storage part of the raintrap system were more serious than those related to the catchment apron.
    • Range Plants as Ornamentals

      Steger, R. E.; Beck, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Range plants are being widely used by homeowners to make attractive settings around their homes. These plants often have desirable characteristics such as large flower, thorns, or unusual shapes. These plants are usually easy to maintain and require little irrigating, an important consideration in the Southwest. Ranchers are starting to capitalize on the demand for these range plants by selling them to either homeowners or nursuries. A few species of plants being sought for landscapes are rare and have either poor or at least slow reproduction. Already some of these rare plants have been completely removed by homeowners from the rangelands surrounding cities. Public education is needed if these plants are to remain as part of the aesthetic beauty of our ranges.
    • Responses of Crested Wheatgrass Seeds to Environment

      Wilson, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Characteristic of crested wheatgrass that favors establishment on harsh rangeland sites is the ability to germinate under conditions of low temperature and of intermittent drought. Subsequent germination was hastened as a result of exposure of seeds to favorable moisture and a temperature of 2 C. Subsequent germination was also hastened as a result of exposure of seeds to water potentials as low as -40 bars. During severe drought, seeds retained much of the advantage they had gained during periods of favorable moisture. After drought, seeds made rapid gains when moisture again became favorable.
    • Rough Fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.) in Washington

      Hodgkinson, H. S.; Young, A. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      In Washington, rough fescue occurs primarily north of the 47 degrees latitude and east of the Cascade Mountains. There are two large, well-represented areas. Other locations are represented by small areas, some containing only scattered plants. Rough fescue is very palatable and should be managed as the key species when it makes up more than 15% of the total plant composition. To maintain or improve good stands, no more than 50% of the annual current year's growth should be removed.
    • Snow Amount in Relation to Streamflow and Herbage Production in Western Colorado

      Frank, E. C. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      A 10% increase in peak snowpack, due to cloud seeding or natural events, is partly returned as runoff but has little, if any, immediate effect on the productivity and use of mountain grasslands.
    • Taxonomic and Agronomic Variation in Agropyron spicatum and Agropyron inerme

      Chapman, S. R.; Perry, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      The main morphological distinction between bluebunch wheatgrass and beardless wheatgrass is the presence of geniculate awns in the former and the absence of awns in the latter. Open pollinate progenies of plants classified as either A. spicatum or as A. inerme segregated clearly for this trait. This indicates the mere presence or absence of awns does not afford reproductive isolation; thus, the species designation is questionable. In addition, variation for rhizomes was detected in the progenies of bunch type plants, but segregation was not clear cut. Significant variation among progeny means for forage yield was also detected. There is apparent, real potential for varietal development, but care must be exercised in mixing awned and awnless types.
    • Trends in Western Ranch Prices and Values

      Saunderson, M. H. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      In the 1930's the western stock ranches were generally underdeveloped and underpriced in terms of their potential. Over the past 40 years, however, a number of factors have, in combination, greatly changed this situation. Now, the picture is that of overpricing, and to such a degree as to cause difficult problems in ranch management and in land management.
    • Western Wheatgrass Germination as Related to Temperature, Light, and Moisture Stress

      Knipe, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Germination of western wheatgrass was best when seeds were held for 16 hr at temperatures between 55 and 75 F and 8 hr at temperatures between 75 and 90 F daily. Germination was independent of light but was severely reduced by moisture stresses above 1.0 atm.