• An Alternate-Furrow System for Seeding Northern Colorado Rangeland

      McGinnies, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      The most successful method for seeding cool-season grasses on northern Colorado rangelands has been to plant with a drill in the spring on a smooth, fallowed seedbed. However, wind erosion may destroy a level-drilled seeding. Planting in deep furrows has resulted in poorer stands, but the deep-furrows appear to be necessary for control of wind erosion. A system is proposed for alternating deep-furrow drilling with level-drilling on the beds between the furrows in order to combine the erosion control benefits on the deep-furrows with the better stand establishment characteristics of the level-drilled planting.
    • An Experiment in Deer Detection by Thermal Scanning

      Parker, Dennison H.; Driscoll, Richard S. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      An airborne, thermal infrared scanner was tested for deer detection over penned mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) near Fort Collins, Colorado. The animals were detected at 300- and 500-ft altitudes, but not at 1,000 ft.
    • Carbohydrate Reserves of Crested Wheatgrass and Russian Wildrye as Influenced by Development and Defoliation

      Trlica, M. J.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Carbohydrate reserves of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus) were lowest after initial spring growth, but maximum levels were rapidly attained as plants approached maturity. Fall regrowth caused reductions in total available carbohydrate (TAC) stores. More TAC reserves were used to produce new growth if plants were defoliated during spring growth than if defoliated at maturity or quiescence. Autumn TAC storage levels in both crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye were reduced by all previous defoliations. Autumn reserve storage was directly related to the amount of new growth produced after defoliation. Results indicate that both crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye are adapted for either fall or early spring grazing and under some circumstances for spring-fall use. Defoliation when plants are rapidly replenishing reserves or before maturity reduces subsequent new growth and carbohydrate reserve stores in the autumn.
    • Clipping Effects on Seeded Foothill Ranges in Utah

      Drawe, D. L.; Grumbles, J. B.; Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Russian wildrye produced significantly more herbage than crested wheatgrass when clipped at intensities of 25, 50, and 75% under four clipping regimes of April, May, June, and both April and June. Thin stands of Russian wildrye were more productive than thick stands of either Russian wildrye or crested wheatgrass. Clipping in both April and June yielded the most herbage, but after five years of clipping, this treatment had the least vigorous plants. Early clipping (April) caused the least damage to plant vigor, but yielded less herbage. The heavier the intensity of clipping, the greater the amount of herbage presumably available for animal consumption, but also the lower the plant vigor. Optimum tradeoffs between herbage harvested and plant vigor appear to come from Russian wildrye or crested wheatgrass clipped 50% in April and May.
    • Computer Processing of Chart Quadrat Maps and Their Use in Plant Demographic Studies

      Wright, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Chart quadrat maps offer a unique source of data on long-term trends in grasslands. Through the use of film scanning computer systems, this information can be more easily processed and used in plant demographic studies.
    • Controlling Red Threeawn on Abandoned Cropland with Ammonium Nitrate

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      In our experience, red threeawn is more sensitive to N fertilizer than any other species. This sensitivity is fortunate because a low rate (20 lb./acre) of N fertilization controlled red threeawn, improved botanical composition, and increased herbage yield on an abandoned plowed field on the Central Great Plains. This work suggests the need for additional research to determine whether 20 lb. N/acre may cause succession to bypass the static Aristida stage and change botanical composition more quickly to desirable forage species.
    • Estimation of Herbage Intake from Jackrabbit Faces

      Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      The rate of dry weight intake of blacktailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) in northeastern Colorado was calculated from records for the rate that fecal pellets were deposited on permanent plots. The indigestibility of the native sandhill range forage was estimated from values in the literature (Arnold and Reynolds, 1943). It was estimated that if the range forage removed by jackrabbits had been eaten by yearling steers the value of the beef might have amounted to $9.35 per hectare per year (or $3.70/acre/year).
    • Evaluating Animal Forage Preference

      Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Four relative preference indices were used to rank sheep preference for twelve plant species in a tall-forb community of a summer range in southwestern Montana. Ranking of preference values for the plant species was different by all four indices. Frequency measurements of plant species both in the diet and on the range were found useful in interpreting forage preference. Diet frequency values measure consistency of intake while range frequency values measure plant distribution within a community. These values when incorporated into a relative preference index increase its sensitivity, but do not substitute for measurements of diet composition or forage availability on the rangeland studied.
    • Forage Yield in Two Forest Zones of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia

      Telfer, E. S. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      A reconnaissance was made of the forage yield in a series of forest types in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Forage yields per acre were comparable to values reported from many studies in western North America, but plant composition differed. Grasslike species constituted a small proportion of total weight in most forest cover types, while ferns provided a high proportion. Correlation of yield with density characteristics of the tree stand was poor.
    • Herbage Response to Precommercial Thinning in Direct-Seeded Slash Pine

      Grelen, H. E.; Whitaker, L. B.; Lohrey, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Direct-seeded slash pines (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) were thinned at age 3 years to densities ranging from 500 to 5,300 trees/acre. At stand age 12 years, herbage yields were inversely related to tree basal area, varying from 560 lb./acre under tree basal areas of 125 ft2 to 2,230 lb. under 54 ft2. Where timber stand densities were equal, yield did not vary between plots that had been thinned selectively and those on which continuous opening had been created by removing trees in strips.
    • Measurement of Seed Responses to Environment

      Wilson, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      The objective of this work was to develop a method for evaluating seed responses to field environments. Seeds placed in soil in the field were brought into the laboratory for germination tests under controlled conditions. Hastening of germination, an indicator of seed responses to environment, was determined by subtracting the number of days required for samples placed in soils in the field to reach 50% germination from the days required for air-dry control samples to reach 50% germination. A temperature of 5 C provided a more sensitive test for measuring hastening of germination than 10 or 20 C. Measurements of environment and of seed responses to environment will help explain why seeds sometimes fail to germinate on harsh rangeland sites.
    • Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in a Fertilized Rangeland Ecosystem of the Northern Great Plains

      Black, A. L.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Factorial combinations of ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100, 300, and 900 lb. N/acre and concentrated superphosphate at rates of 0, 100, and 200 lb. P/acre were broadcast on a native range site (a Bouteloua-Carex-[Stipa] faciation of a mixed prairie association) near Sidney, Montana. In 2 years, the addition of a high rate of N and P fertilizer increased total forage production 3.3-fold, total crude protein 6.7-fold, and plant N and P percentages about 2.0-fold. High rates of N applied alone had no marked effect on plant P percentage the year of application, but plant P percentage was reduced nearly 2.0-fold the second year by all rates of N. Nitrate-nitrogen was concentrated in the upper 3 feet of soil in 1969 and in the upper 5 feet of soil in 1970. Nearly all of the P fertilizer applied was concentrated in the upper 3 inches of soil in 1969 and in the upper 6 inches of soil in 1970. The high rate of N applied alone decreased soil pH from about 6.9 to 6.1 in the 0- to 6-inch soil depth in 1969 and from 6.9 to 6.5 in 1970 even though the soil was strongly calcareous.
    • Paraquat Kills Geyer Larkspur

      Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Geyer larkspur, a poisonous, perennial forb, is highly susceptible to paraquat applied when flowering stems are slightly above ground. At 1/2 lb./acre, paraquat killed 90 to 95% of geyer larkspur, but was less effective when the treatment was preceded with 2,4-D at 2 lb./acre. Textile onion and most annual species were susceptible to paraquat, while all other perennial species were resistant. There was some reduction in herbage yields in the year of treatment. Although paraquat is not registered for controlling geyer larkspur, it could be considered for that purpose.
    • Relationships of Wildlife to Livestock on Some Developed Ranches on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya

      Denney, R. N. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      The status and relationships of wildlife with domestic livestock on 42 ranches in the relatively developed ranching area of the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya, East Africa, were surveyed during 1967 and 1968. The average ranch was 35,400 acres, with approximately 3,000 cattle. Conservative estimates indicate a wildlife population of at least 100,000 animals of Thomson's gazelle size or larger, with some data being obtained on a total of 64 species. Most of the ranchers were tolerant of wildlife, in reasonable numbers, and except for certain species. The three most important wildlife-related problems were disease transmission, forage competition, and damage. Ranch practices which influenced wildlife were fencing (particularly game-proof fences), bush control, and shooting. The average rancher is interested in the possibility of a biologically sound, controlled game utilization scheme under which game meat could be sold. The potentials of expanded sport hunting and game cropping can make wildlife a profitable asset to the ranchers. Unless some means of assuring the landowner of a substantial return on the wildlife on his ranch is provided, the generally tolerant attitude prevailing now will deteriorate, and with it the status of the wildlife.
    • Response of a Seeded Mixture of Warm-season Prairie Grasses to Fertilization

      Rehm, G. W.; Moline, W. J.; Schwartz, E. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      A seeded mixture of warm-season prairie grasses containing big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi, Vitman), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans, L.), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula, L.) was fertilized over a four-year period with N, P, K, S and Zn. Yields were increased by N and combinations of N and P, but not by K, S, or Zn. Fertilization did not alter indexes of quality (% protein and % digestible dry matter) in the mature tissue. After four years, the percentage of each species in the mixture had not been altered by fertilizer treatment. Encroachment by cool-season species and weeds was not encouraged by fertilization which was largely attributed to the fact that fertilizers were applied after May 15 of each year.
    • Sand Shinnery Oak Response to Silvex Sprays of Varying Characteristics

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Silvex at 0.5 lb./acre applied in diesel oil, diesel oil:water emulsion, water, or water plus surfactant controlled sand shinnery oak in the Rolling Plains of Texas. Decreasing the silvex rate from 0.5 lb./acre progressively decreased sand shinnery oak control. Addition of 0.25 or 0.5 lb./acre ammonium thiocyanate did not enhance the effectiveness of 0.5 lb./acre silvex on sand shinnery oak.
    • Social Welfare and Integrated Resource Management

      Gates, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Resource management decisions cannot be properly made based upon single use but must give full consideration to alternative uses or combinations of uses. The impact of uses upon resources must be evaluated. The soundness of management decisions must be evaluated on the basis of their impact upon human welfare. A philosophy of integrated resource management will reflect concern for both resources and people.
    • Soil Properties and Nutrient Availability in Tarweed Communities of Central Washington

      Tiedemann, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Comparison of soil nutrient levels and certain soil physical properties between tarweed communities and adjacent stable, productive needlegrass communities indicated a lower nutrient capital of N, S, and exchangeable Mn and poorer physical condition in the tarweed communities. Pot studies with mountain brome and orchard grass revealed low availability of N, S, and P in soils from tarweed communities and suggest a need to amend native soil nutrients with these elements.
    • The Environment: Where Do We Stand? From the Vantage Point of Space?

      Arnold, P. K. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Remote sensing from satellite systems offers real potentials for data collection on rangeland problems, structure, and use. When techniques, now being tested at a number of locations, have been more fully developed, more information from remotely based sensors will be available for reducing the uncertainties surrounding daily policy and management decisions. Techniques under development are discussed.