• Guidelines for Grazing Sheep on Rangelands Used by Big Game in Winter

      Jensen, C. H.; Smith, A. D.; Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      A big game winter range in northen Utah was grazed with domestic sheep to ascertain what seasons and intensity of use would maximize utilization of herbs and minimize utilization of shrubs which provide the majority of forage for big game in winter, thus minimizing forage competition between big game and sheep. In late spring and early summer sheep ate mostly herbs. The light utilization of shrubs resulted in little or no reduction in forage production by shrubs at the end of the growing season. After mid-July, sheep heavily utilized bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), the most desirable and abundant shrub for big game in this area. Grazing after mid-July reduced the volume of bitterbrush forage available for big game proportionately to the percentage utilization observed. There was no evidence that subsequent annual productivity of established plants was impaired by any of the grazing systems imposed.
    • Herbicide Interactions in Control of Sand Shinnery Oak

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Silvex was the most effective herbicide for reducing sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii Rydb.) density and increasing grass production in the Rolling Plains of Texas. Combinations of silvex or 2,4,5-T with picloram controlled more sand shinnery oak than expected (synergistic) and substantially increased grass production. Picloram and 2,4-D (1:1) at 0.5 lb./acre total were additive and less effective than other phenoxy:picloram combinations. Combinations of dicamba with 2,4,5-T or silvex were usually additive.
    • Influence of Repeated Annual Burning on a Medusahead Community

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Robison, J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Three annual burnings near Alturas, California, did not result in a decrease in medusahead. Medusahead increased and downy brome decreased after burning. No changes were observed in perennial grass populations in relation to burning. Changes in densities of annual grasses due to burning apparently were not a result of destroying caryopses; but probably were caused by alteration of the seedbed environment.
    • Price Elasticity of Demand for Beef and Range Improvement Decisions

      Workman, J. P.; King, S. L.; Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      In recent years many leaders in the cattle industry have advocated restraint in cattle numbers in order to improve the cattleman's market position. During the same period, numerous articles have appeared in the Journal of Range Management recommending various range improvements as means of increasing beef output. There has been some question as to whether these two recommendations are contradictory. Since the rationality of the two recommendations depends upon the price elasticity of demand for beef, regression analysis was used to estimate a demand function for beef. An elasticity coefficient of -0.67 was derived from this function and then employed in the construction of a payoff matrix in order to determine the correct action for the individual rancher to take with regard to cattle numbers. The analysis indicates that increases in cattle numbers by individual ranchers (through range improvements or other management tools) are economically sound goals. The study also suggests that cattle numbers at the industry level will likely continue to increase despite the recommendations of cattle industry leaders.
    • Problems in Commercial Hunting Systems: South Dakota and Texas Compared

      Severson, K. E.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      The practice of charging hunters a fee to use private lands, although extensive and well-established in Texas, is relatively new in western South Dakota. Problems caused by, and the possibilities for, commercial hunting systems are compared between these States. Discussion centers around four factors: state hunting regulations, proximity of public lands, hunter demand and the game crop, and attitudes of landowners and hunters.
    • Production and Persistence of Common Carpetgrass in Relation to Site and Harvest Frequency

      Wolters, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      On a range in central Louisiana, maximum production of carpetgrass and total herbage was obtained by harvesting once or twice per season. Carpetgrass and forbs increased in percent botanical composition with frequent harvests, while bluestems and other grasses increased with infrequent harvests. Site did not significantly affect herbage production.
    • Range Management in the United States for the Next One to Three Generations

      Clawson, M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
    • Salt Tolerance and Cation Interaction in Alkali Sacaton at Germination

      Hyder, S. Z.; Yasmin, S. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Salt tolerance and cation interaction in alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides Torr.) was studied during the germination stage. Germination was inhibited at a concentration of 275 meq/liter of sodium chloride. Mannitol and other salts at iso-osmotic pressure restricted germination in the following decreasing order: MgCl2, KCl, CaCl2, NaCl, and mannitol. Inhibitory effects of magnesium on germination were partially counteracted by calcium and sodium. Greater recovery in germination was noted by addition of calcium than sodium in seeds previously treated with a high concentration of magnesium chloride. The role of sodium and calcium in counteracting magnesium effects has been discussed. It is also concluded that specific effects of salts are more important than osmotic effects on the seed germination of this species.
    • Some Factors Influencing Tolerance to Moisture Stress of Three Range Grasses

      Schlatterer, E. F.; Hironaka, M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Pre-conditioning of bluebunch wheatgrass, squirreltail and Thurber stipa plants by exposure to different temperatures and watering schedules affected their tolerance to moisture stress. Plants conditioned under high or low temperatures were more resistant to moisture stress than plants conditioned at moderate temperature. Plants grown in fertile mound soil were less conditioned to withstand moisture stress than those grown in less fertile intermound soil.
    • Three Methods of Determining Diet, Utilization, and Trampling Damage on Sheep Ranges

      Laycock, W. A.; Buchanan, H.; Krueger, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Esophageal fistula sampling and ocular utilization estimates gave similar figures for dietary composition and for percentage utilization by sheep for most plant species in the tall-forb type. The paired-plot method gave higher utilization figures than the above methods because it estimated not only herbage eaten, but also that trampled. As a result, this method overestimated the dietary composition of species most susceptible to trampling damage; trampling accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the herbage removed by grazing.
    • Vegetation Changes as a Result of Soil Ripping on the Rio Puerco in New Mexico

      Aldon, A. F.; Garcia, G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      Soil ripping in 1963 effectively reduced runoff on the San Luis watershed of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, and caused a favorable shift in forage production from galleta to alkali sacaton. Ripping effects on runoff are short-lived, but forage production patterns may persist for 10 years.
    • Western Coneflower—A Noxious Species?

      Florez, A.; McDonough, W. T.; Balls, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1972-09-01)
      In laboratory tests, dilute foliar extracts of western coneflower (Rudbeckia occidentalis Nutt.) inhibit germination and seedling growth of seeded grasses as do those of some supposedly innocuous species. Under natural conditions on aspen range, measurements of plants of mountain brome growing in close association with coneflower gave doubtful evidence of suppressed growth. Large doses of dried aerial parts of coneflower force-fed to sheep produced no evidence of toxicity or other distress. We found no evidence of coneflower posing any special threat on mountain range, except as a relatively unpalatable increaser species.