• Vegetation Analysis of Grazed and Ungrazed Alpine Hairgrass Meadows

      Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Alpine hairgrass meadows in Colorado and Wyoming were examined for plant species differences related to sheep grazing history. Nine alpine areas were studied and three of these had not been grazed by domestic sheep for many years. Frequency values for eight plants were found to be useful in determining whether or not hairgrass meadows have been predominantly grazed over the years by domestic sheep. No additional information was obtained by including species cover data for classification purposes.
    • Thrips of the Sagebrush-Grass Range Community in West-Central Utah

      Tingey, W. M.; Jorgensen, C. D.; Frischknecht, N. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Twenty species of thrips (Thysanoptera) were collected from big sagebrush, rubber rabbitbrush, antelope bitterbrush, and crested wheatgrass on west-central Utah sagebrush-grass rangelands. Twelve species of thrips were collected from crested wheatgrass, 10 from rubber rabbitbrush, 10 from big sagebrush, and three from antelope bitterbrush. Three species (Anaphothrips tricolor, Chirothrips aculeatus and Chirothrips simplex) were new distribution records for Utah. Thrips damage was not apparent to any of the host species examined during this study, but Anaphothrips zeae, Aptinothrips rufus, and Frankliniella occidentalis are potential pests of range species and merit further study.
    • Thrice-Weekly Supplementation Adequate for Cows on Pine-Bluestem Range

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Cows and calves on pine-bluestem range in Louisiana did as well when fed a winter supplement on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday as when they received feed daily.
    • The Sickledrat: A Circular Quadrat Modification Useful in Grassland Studies

      Kennedy, R. K. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A sickle-shaped modification of a circular quadrat has been used advantageously in tall-grass rangeland production studies in northeast Oklahoma. The main advantages of this quadrat are the reduction of the area concept bias in quadrat placement, ease of quadrat placement, reduction of perimeter decisions, and facilitation of precision clipping at various heights above the soil surface.
    • Ten Year Yield Response of Beardless Wheatgrass from a Single Nitrogen Application

      Mason, J. L.; Miltimore, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Forage yields were measured from 1959 to 1968 in response to a single fertilizer application in the fall of 1958 in southern British Columbia. The ten-year accumulated forage yield of beardless wheatgrass increased from 3000 pounds per acre at zero nitrogen treatment to 7750 pound per acre at 450 pounds per acre nitrogen treatment. Yield response from the lower application rates was greatest in the earlier years of the experiment. The general yield levels declined in the later years of the experiment. Nitrogen concentration in plant tops increased from 0.7 percent at the zero application level to 1.5 percent at the 450 pound application level in the first year. Nitrogen concentration gradually declined over the first eight years at the higher application rates. By the last two years, there was no effect remaining of treatment on nitrogen accumulation. Plant analyses for Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe showed sharp declines in Ca and Zn but only minor changes in other elements from increasing nitrogen application levels. Plant crown diameter had increased from 4.4 to 5.2 inches with increasing nitrogen rates by the fifth year of the experiment.
    • Semidesert Ecosystems—Who Will Use Them? How Will We Manage Them?

      Martin, S. Clark (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Response of Understory Species Following Herbicidal Control of Low Sagebrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Control of low sagebrush in northern Nevada increased productivity of understory grass species. On fair condition sites, climax dominant species such as Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and Thurber needlegrass gave a yield response but the response was not obtained for 2 years after treatment. However, the rapid response of Sandberg bluegrass resulted in a significant total perennial grass response the year after treatment. On poor condition sites, squirreltail gave a smaller response and the response was not obtained for 2 to 4 years after treatment. Dense stands of annual species gave a large yield response the year after treatment and suppressed the response of squirreltail. Scattered stands of annuals did not respond until 4 years after treatment. Soil moisture relations explained differences in total yield. However, differences in early spring growth were attributed to soil nitrogen.
    • Redberry Juniper Control with Soil-Applied Herbicides

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Soil-applied picloram was more effective than dicamba for control of redberry juniper in northwest Texas. From 0.02 to 0.08 oz picloram pellets per ft of canopy diameter killed over 95% of redberry juniper foliage by a year and 100% by 2 years after treatment. From 0.041 to 0.08 oz/ft dicamba controlled about 30 to 40% of the redberry junipers 1 and 2 years after treatment. Monuron did not control redberry juniper./El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Noroeste de Texas, E.U.A. para determinar la efectividad de los granulados de picloram, dicamba y monuron aplicados en el suelo sobre el control de enebro de fruta roja (Juniperus pinchoti Sudw.). Picloram fué más efectivo que dicamba y monuron no fué efectivo. Dosis de 0.02 a 0.08 onzas de los granulados de picloram por pié de diámetro de cubierta de cada planta resultó en 95% de arbustos muertos un año después de la aplicación.
    • Rapid Point Survey by Bayonet Blade

      Poissonet, Paule S.; Daget, Philippe M.; Poissonet, J. A.; Long, Gilbert A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Phreatic Tendencies of Exotic Grasses and Residual Species as Indicated by Radioisotope Absorption

      Robertson, J. H.; Blincoe, C.; Torell, C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Rooting habits with respect to the capillary moisture zone above the watertable were studied by two methods: (1) absorption and translocation of radioactive isotopes and (2) direct observation of trench walls. Isotopes used were 131-I, 99-Mo, 51-Cr and 75-Se. In general, grasses appeared to absorb more actively in spring than in fall, and more from midlevel of the capillary zone than from the top or bottom. The highest activity was in foliage of intermediate wheatgrass which accumulated 75-Se from the watertable. While some injections resulted in no detected absorption, all grasses showed ability to pick up radioactivity at various levels in the capillary zone.
    • Methods for Seeding Three Perennial Wheatgrasses on Cheatgrass Ranges in Southern Idaho

      Klomp, G. J.; Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Sixteen methods of seedbed preparation and seeding three wheatgrasses in dense stands of cheatgrass were tested from 1 to 3 years (1961-62, 1963-64, 1964-65) on an 8.5-inch rainfall area near Wendell, Idaho. Averaging all years, deep furrow drilling in the fall gave the best stands, followed by fall cultivation and drilling and then by summer fallow and drilling. Herbicidal treatment followed by drilling was good the first year but was not consistent. Seeding success was in direct relation to the kill of cheatgrass.
    • Low Level Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on High Elevation Ranges

      Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Low levels of fall applied ammonium sulphate nitrogen and treble super-phosphate phosphorus fertilization were effective to increase production, crude protein, and phosphorus content of forage on high elevation native ranges in southwestern Utah. Vegetation was dominated by bistort, western yarrow, bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, spike trisetum, alpine timothy, and letterman needlegrass. The most effective level appeared to be 60 lb. each of available nitrogen and phosphorus in combination. Fertilizers were applied once and the residual effects carried over for two growing seasons for production, three for phosphorus, and one growing season for crude protein and gross energy. Visual differences between treatments were obvious during the first two years.
    • Long-term Grazing Effects on Stripa-Bouteloua Prairie Soils

      Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F.; Johnson, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The effects of grazing on Stipa-Bouteloua prairie soils in Alberta were evaluated after 19 years of continuous summer use by sheep at three stocking intensities. Analysis of the soils under the heavy grazing treatment showed lower values for pH and percent spring moisture but higher values for total carbon (C), alcohol/benzene-extractable C, alkaline-soluble C, polysaccharides, and belowground plant material than the soil under light or no grazing. The results were attributed to changes in amounts and kinds of roots due to species changes caused by grazing and to increased amounts of manure deposited by sheep on fields grazed at a higher intensity. Shallow-rooted species replaced the deeper-rooted ones on the drier environment induced by heavy grazing.
    • Herbicidal Control of Western Ragweed in Nebraska Pastures

      McCarty, M. K.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.) in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska was usually not controlled by 1 lb./acre of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Two lb./acre was effective in three of four experiments. One lb./acre of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) effectively controlled western ragweed. Applications of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) were sometimes effective but results were erratic among studies. Two successive applications of all herbicides and rates provided effective control through the growing season of the second treatment./Ambrosia psilostachya DC. es una planta sin valor forrajero considerada como creciente o menos deseable. Se llevaron a cabo 5 experimentos de 1964 a 1967 para evaluar 2 herbicidas: ácido 4-amino-3,5,6 tricloropicolinico (picloram) y ácido 3,6-dicloro-o-anisico (dicamba) en el control de Ambrosia psilostachya DC. y a su vez comparar con los resultados obtenidos con el uso de 2,4-D. Los estudios fueron desarrollados cerca de Lincoln, Nebraska en diseños completamente al azar con cuatro a seis repeticiones. Las formulaciones y proporciones aplicados fueron: 1 y 2 lb./acre del ester 150 propilico de 2,4-D; 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0 lb./acre de la sal de potasio de picloram y 1, 2 y 3 lb./acre de la sal dimetilamina de dicamba. Los herbicidas fueron aplicados a mediados de Junio excepto para un estudio en 1965. Los tratamientos se evaluaron contando los tallos vivos de Ambrosia en áreas de muestreo de 2 × 4 pies (0.6 × 1.22 mts.) antes y después de la aplicación de los herbicidas. Las áreas de observación fueron permanentes. Para las condiciones en las que se desarrolló el presente trabajo se puede decir qua una lb./acre de 2,4-D, no controla Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Dos lbs./acre fueron efectivas en 3 de 4 experimentos. Una lb./acre de picloram fué un control efective. Los resultados obtenidos con Dicamba fueron erráticas. Dos aplicaciones sucesivas de todos los herbicidas y proporciones usados dieron un control efectivo durante la época de crecimiento del segundo tratamiento.
    • Forage and Serum Phosphorus Values for Bighorn Sheep

      Hebert, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Total phosphorus values were determined monthly for winter and summer range forages in the East Kootenay Region of British Columbia. Phosphorus was high in succulent growing forages from both ranges but declined during the seed head and cured stages. The major decline for phosphorus in winter range forage was 57.1% during late summer. Serum inorganic phosphorus values for bighorn sheep were between 4.73 and 5.08 mg percent during the winter period, when plant phosphorus was between 500 and 800 ppm.
    • Effects of Wildfire on Timber and Forage Production in Arizona

      Pearson, H. A.; Davis, J. R.; Schubert, G. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A severe May wildfire decimated an unthinned ponderosa pine stand in northern Arizona, while an adjacent thinned stand was relatively undamaged. Radial growth increased on burned trees where crown kill was less than 60% and decreased where crown kill was more than 60%. Burning initially stimulated growth of herbaceous vegetation in both stands. Herbage nutrient value was temporarily enhanced due to burning. Artificially seeded areas produced most herbage 2 years after burning.
    • Development of Grass Root Systems as Influenced by Soil Compaction

      Fryrear, D. W.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The roots of Premier sideoats grama seedlings do not penetrate a shallow compacted layer the first year. This restrictive layer, commonly found in cultivated fields being converted to grass, can be modified by tillage to permit grass roots to exploit the soil beneath these compacted layers to obtain nutrients and water.
    • Critical Soil Moisture Levels for Field Planting Fourwing Saltbush

      Aldon, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Survival of fourwing saltbush transplants was at least 80% when alluvial field sites had soil moisture levels of at least 14% by weight or were at tensions between 1/3 and 2 atmospheres.
    • Cattle Use of a Sprayed Aspen Parkland Range

      Hilton, J. E.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Aspen parkland range in central Alberta that had been treated with a herbicide two years prior to the study had greater grazing use of the sprayed forest vegetation than did the untreated forest. The grazing use was usually greater in sprayed versus unsprayed grasslands but the difference was not as great as in the forest. During 1968 and 1969 when precipitation was heavy, the grasslands were extensively used. However, when dry conditions occurred, a greater use of the forest vegetation was observed. A regression equation was developed relating grazing use to precipitation.