• A Model for the Stratification of Dairy and Mutton Sheep Breeds in Middle Eastern Deserts

      Morag, M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A model is proposed in which desert regions are integrated into the sheep production of more fertile areas of the Middle East. A system of stratification of sheep breeds in which range sheep adapted to desert conditions are mated with high quality dairy and mutton breed rams, and their progeny are transferred for milk and fat-lamb production to intensive farms is set out and discussed. The model is presented in the context of the exploding population and the shortage of animal protein in the Middle East.
    • Critical Soil Moisture Levels for Field Planting Fourwing Saltbush

      Aldon, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Survival of fourwing saltbush transplants was at least 80% when alluvial field sites had soil moisture levels of at least 14% by weight or were at tensions between 1/3 and 2 atmospheres.
    • Cattle Use of a Sprayed Aspen Parkland Range

      Hilton, J. E.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Aspen parkland range in central Alberta that had been treated with a herbicide two years prior to the study had greater grazing use of the sprayed forest vegetation than did the untreated forest. The grazing use was usually greater in sprayed versus unsprayed grasslands but the difference was not as great as in the forest. During 1968 and 1969 when precipitation was heavy, the grasslands were extensively used. However, when dry conditions occurred, a greater use of the forest vegetation was observed. A regression equation was developed relating grazing use to precipitation.
    • Acreage Increase Due to Slope

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Development of Grass Root Systems as Influenced by Soil Compaction

      Fryrear, D. W.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The roots of Premier sideoats grama seedlings do not penetrate a shallow compacted layer the first year. This restrictive layer, commonly found in cultivated fields being converted to grass, can be modified by tillage to permit grass roots to exploit the soil beneath these compacted layers to obtain nutrients and water.
    • Effects of Wildfire on Timber and Forage Production in Arizona

      Pearson, H. A.; Davis, J. R.; Schubert, G. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A severe May wildfire decimated an unthinned ponderosa pine stand in northern Arizona, while an adjacent thinned stand was relatively undamaged. Radial growth increased on burned trees where crown kill was less than 60% and decreased where crown kill was more than 60%. Burning initially stimulated growth of herbaceous vegetation in both stands. Herbage nutrient value was temporarily enhanced due to burning. Artificially seeded areas produced most herbage 2 years after burning.
    • Herbicidal Control of Western Ragweed in Nebraska Pastures

      McCarty, M. K.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.) in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska was usually not controlled by 1 lb./acre of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Two lb./acre was effective in three of four experiments. One lb./acre of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) effectively controlled western ragweed. Applications of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) were sometimes effective but results were erratic among studies. Two successive applications of all herbicides and rates provided effective control through the growing season of the second treatment./Ambrosia psilostachya DC. es una planta sin valor forrajero considerada como creciente o menos deseable. Se llevaron a cabo 5 experimentos de 1964 a 1967 para evaluar 2 herbicidas: ácido 4-amino-3,5,6 tricloropicolinico (picloram) y ácido 3,6-dicloro-o-anisico (dicamba) en el control de Ambrosia psilostachya DC. y a su vez comparar con los resultados obtenidos con el uso de 2,4-D. Los estudios fueron desarrollados cerca de Lincoln, Nebraska en diseños completamente al azar con cuatro a seis repeticiones. Las formulaciones y proporciones aplicados fueron: 1 y 2 lb./acre del ester 150 propilico de 2,4-D; 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0 lb./acre de la sal de potasio de picloram y 1, 2 y 3 lb./acre de la sal dimetilamina de dicamba. Los herbicidas fueron aplicados a mediados de Junio excepto para un estudio en 1965. Los tratamientos se evaluaron contando los tallos vivos de Ambrosia en áreas de muestreo de 2 × 4 pies (0.6 × 1.22 mts.) antes y después de la aplicación de los herbicidas. Las áreas de observación fueron permanentes. Para las condiciones en las que se desarrolló el presente trabajo se puede decir qua una lb./acre de 2,4-D, no controla Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Dos lbs./acre fueron efectivas en 3 de 4 experimentos. Una lb./acre de picloram fué un control efective. Los resultados obtenidos con Dicamba fueron erráticas. Dos aplicaciones sucesivas de todos los herbicidas y proporciones usados dieron un control efectivo durante la época de crecimiento del segundo tratamiento.
    • Forage and Serum Phosphorus Values for Bighorn Sheep

      Hebert, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Total phosphorus values were determined monthly for winter and summer range forages in the East Kootenay Region of British Columbia. Phosphorus was high in succulent growing forages from both ranges but declined during the seed head and cured stages. The major decline for phosphorus in winter range forage was 57.1% during late summer. Serum inorganic phosphorus values for bighorn sheep were between 4.73 and 5.08 mg percent during the winter period, when plant phosphorus was between 500 and 800 ppm.
    • An Analysis of the Beta-Attenuation Technique for Estimating Standing Crop of Prairie Range

      Mitchell, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The standing crop of aboveground shortgrass prairie vegetation may be quickly and accurately estimated by the beta-attenuation technique. This technique is based upon the principle that herbage absorbs or attenuates beta particles emitted by certain radioactive nuclides as a predictable function of the herbage biomass intersecting the attenuation field between emitter and detector. Two methods of measurement are correlated with standing vegetation. These tests indicate that the method can account for approximately 90% of the variation measured in the field, with the exception of quadrats dominated by plains prickly pear. In addition to being accurate, precise, and relatively inexpensive, the beta-attenuation technique is nondestructive in nature, allowing repetitive sampling of the same location.
    • An Economic Evaluation of Buffelgrass in Paraguay

      Simpson, J. R.; Fretes, R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Results of a grazing trial of steers on buffelgrass at the Mennonite Colonies' Fernheim Experiment Station in the central Chaco of Paraguay were subjected to an economic evaluation. It was concluded that, despite the high transportation costs, low product prices, and high interest rates typical of a developing country, a steer operation was profitable. Renovation of the pasture twice in the projected life of 14 years was a better alternative from an economic standpoint than was one renovation. A sensitivity test indicated the closer an investment is to being of marginal profitability, the greater the error in the economic analysis from incorrect production estimates./La Estación Experimental Fernheim de las Colonias Menonitas en el Chaco central Paraguayo fue el centro de experimentación en pastoreo de novillos sobre Pasto Salinas. Los resultados de este experimento fueron sujeto de una evaluación económica. El experimento de pastoreo consideró dos alternativas de renovación de la pastura, con tres grupos de animales de peso diferente. Los pesos iniciales de estos novillos variaron de 180 kg a 303 kg por cabeza. La primera alternativa de renovación de la pastura se realizó arando con arado de disco en el septimo año de vida de la pastura. La segunda alternativa de renovación consistió de aradas en el quinto y décimo año de vida de la pastura. Los resultados establecieron que los animales de mayor peso ganaron en el promedio 0.4 kg por hectarea más que los animales livianos. La segunda parte de este experimento consistió en la proyección de la producción promedio, 274 kg/ha/año, sobre la supuesta vida de la pastura. Esto se hizo teniendo en cuenta la declinación en la productividad de la pastura a traves del tiempo. La evaluación económica, hecha en base a la structura de precios Paraguayos, estableció la superioridad económica de la alternativa con dos renovaciones de la pastura. El pastoreo de vacas no resultó beneficioso sobre una pastura de Pasto Salinas. En cuanto a la metodología, las comparaciones hechas en base a los precios de equilibrio-costo ingreso y los tests de sensibilidad demostraron su utilidad como technicas de analisis cuanto es necesario hacer supuestos acerca de la longitud de vida de la pastura, precios, tasa de interes y productividad de las pasturas.
    • Methods for Seeding Three Perennial Wheatgrasses on Cheatgrass Ranges in Southern Idaho

      Klomp, G. J.; Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Sixteen methods of seedbed preparation and seeding three wheatgrasses in dense stands of cheatgrass were tested from 1 to 3 years (1961-62, 1963-64, 1964-65) on an 8.5-inch rainfall area near Wendell, Idaho. Averaging all years, deep furrow drilling in the fall gave the best stands, followed by fall cultivation and drilling and then by summer fallow and drilling. Herbicidal treatment followed by drilling was good the first year but was not consistent. Seeding success was in direct relation to the kill of cheatgrass.
    • Long-term Grazing Effects on Stripa-Bouteloua Prairie Soils

      Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F.; Johnson, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The effects of grazing on Stipa-Bouteloua prairie soils in Alberta were evaluated after 19 years of continuous summer use by sheep at three stocking intensities. Analysis of the soils under the heavy grazing treatment showed lower values for pH and percent spring moisture but higher values for total carbon (C), alcohol/benzene-extractable C, alkaline-soluble C, polysaccharides, and belowground plant material than the soil under light or no grazing. The results were attributed to changes in amounts and kinds of roots due to species changes caused by grazing and to increased amounts of manure deposited by sheep on fields grazed at a higher intensity. Shallow-rooted species replaced the deeper-rooted ones on the drier environment induced by heavy grazing.
    • Thrips of the Sagebrush-Grass Range Community in West-Central Utah

      Tingey, W. M.; Jorgensen, C. D.; Frischknecht, N. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Twenty species of thrips (Thysanoptera) were collected from big sagebrush, rubber rabbitbrush, antelope bitterbrush, and crested wheatgrass on west-central Utah sagebrush-grass rangelands. Twelve species of thrips were collected from crested wheatgrass, 10 from rubber rabbitbrush, 10 from big sagebrush, and three from antelope bitterbrush. Three species (Anaphothrips tricolor, Chirothrips aculeatus and Chirothrips simplex) were new distribution records for Utah. Thrips damage was not apparent to any of the host species examined during this study, but Anaphothrips zeae, Aptinothrips rufus, and Frankliniella occidentalis are potential pests of range species and merit further study.
    • The Sickledrat: A Circular Quadrat Modification Useful in Grassland Studies

      Kennedy, R. K. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A sickle-shaped modification of a circular quadrat has been used advantageously in tall-grass rangeland production studies in northeast Oklahoma. The main advantages of this quadrat are the reduction of the area concept bias in quadrat placement, ease of quadrat placement, reduction of perimeter decisions, and facilitation of precision clipping at various heights above the soil surface.
    • Thrice-Weekly Supplementation Adequate for Cows on Pine-Bluestem Range

      Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Cows and calves on pine-bluestem range in Louisiana did as well when fed a winter supplement on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday as when they received feed daily.
    • Rapid Point Survey by Bayonet Blade

      Poissonet, Paule S.; Daget, Philippe M.; Poissonet, J. A.; Long, Gilbert A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Response of Understory Species Following Herbicidal Control of Low Sagebrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Control of low sagebrush in northern Nevada increased productivity of understory grass species. On fair condition sites, climax dominant species such as Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and Thurber needlegrass gave a yield response but the response was not obtained for 2 years after treatment. However, the rapid response of Sandberg bluegrass resulted in a significant total perennial grass response the year after treatment. On poor condition sites, squirreltail gave a smaller response and the response was not obtained for 2 to 4 years after treatment. Dense stands of annual species gave a large yield response the year after treatment and suppressed the response of squirreltail. Scattered stands of annuals did not respond until 4 years after treatment. Soil moisture relations explained differences in total yield. However, differences in early spring growth were attributed to soil nitrogen.
    • Vegetation Analysis of Grazed and Ungrazed Alpine Hairgrass Meadows

      Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Alpine hairgrass meadows in Colorado and Wyoming were examined for plant species differences related to sheep grazing history. Nine alpine areas were studied and three of these had not been grazed by domestic sheep for many years. Frequency values for eight plants were found to be useful in determining whether or not hairgrass meadows have been predominantly grazed over the years by domestic sheep. No additional information was obtained by including species cover data for classification purposes.
    • Low Level Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on High Elevation Ranges

      Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Low levels of fall applied ammonium sulphate nitrogen and treble super-phosphate phosphorus fertilization were effective to increase production, crude protein, and phosphorus content of forage on high elevation native ranges in southwestern Utah. Vegetation was dominated by bistort, western yarrow, bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, spike trisetum, alpine timothy, and letterman needlegrass. The most effective level appeared to be 60 lb. each of available nitrogen and phosphorus in combination. Fertilizers were applied once and the residual effects carried over for two growing seasons for production, three for phosphorus, and one growing season for crude protein and gross energy. Visual differences between treatments were obvious during the first two years.