• A Model for the Stratification of Dairy and Mutton Sheep Breeds in Middle Eastern Deserts

      Morag, M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A model is proposed in which desert regions are integrated into the sheep production of more fertile areas of the Middle East. A system of stratification of sheep breeds in which range sheep adapted to desert conditions are mated with high quality dairy and mutton breed rams, and their progeny are transferred for milk and fat-lamb production to intensive farms is set out and discussed. The model is presented in the context of the exploding population and the shortage of animal protein in the Middle East.
    • Acreage Increase Due to Slope

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • An Analysis of the Beta-Attenuation Technique for Estimating Standing Crop of Prairie Range

      Mitchell, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The standing crop of aboveground shortgrass prairie vegetation may be quickly and accurately estimated by the beta-attenuation technique. This technique is based upon the principle that herbage absorbs or attenuates beta particles emitted by certain radioactive nuclides as a predictable function of the herbage biomass intersecting the attenuation field between emitter and detector. Two methods of measurement are correlated with standing vegetation. These tests indicate that the method can account for approximately 90% of the variation measured in the field, with the exception of quadrats dominated by plains prickly pear. In addition to being accurate, precise, and relatively inexpensive, the beta-attenuation technique is nondestructive in nature, allowing repetitive sampling of the same location.
    • An Economic Evaluation of Buffelgrass in Paraguay

      Simpson, J. R.; Fretes, R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Results of a grazing trial of steers on buffelgrass at the Mennonite Colonies' Fernheim Experiment Station in the central Chaco of Paraguay were subjected to an economic evaluation. It was concluded that, despite the high transportation costs, low product prices, and high interest rates typical of a developing country, a steer operation was profitable. Renovation of the pasture twice in the projected life of 14 years was a better alternative from an economic standpoint than was one renovation. A sensitivity test indicated the closer an investment is to being of marginal profitability, the greater the error in the economic analysis from incorrect production estimates./La Estación Experimental Fernheim de las Colonias Menonitas en el Chaco central Paraguayo fue el centro de experimentación en pastoreo de novillos sobre Pasto Salinas. Los resultados de este experimento fueron sujeto de una evaluación económica. El experimento de pastoreo consideró dos alternativas de renovación de la pastura, con tres grupos de animales de peso diferente. Los pesos iniciales de estos novillos variaron de 180 kg a 303 kg por cabeza. La primera alternativa de renovación de la pastura se realizó arando con arado de disco en el septimo año de vida de la pastura. La segunda alternativa de renovación consistió de aradas en el quinto y décimo año de vida de la pastura. Los resultados establecieron que los animales de mayor peso ganaron en el promedio 0.4 kg por hectarea más que los animales livianos. La segunda parte de este experimento consistió en la proyección de la producción promedio, 274 kg/ha/año, sobre la supuesta vida de la pastura. Esto se hizo teniendo en cuenta la declinación en la productividad de la pastura a traves del tiempo. La evaluación económica, hecha en base a la structura de precios Paraguayos, estableció la superioridad económica de la alternativa con dos renovaciones de la pastura. El pastoreo de vacas no resultó beneficioso sobre una pastura de Pasto Salinas. En cuanto a la metodología, las comparaciones hechas en base a los precios de equilibrio-costo ingreso y los tests de sensibilidad demostraron su utilidad como technicas de analisis cuanto es necesario hacer supuestos acerca de la longitud de vida de la pastura, precios, tasa de interes y productividad de las pasturas.
    • Cattle Use of a Sprayed Aspen Parkland Range

      Hilton, J. E.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Aspen parkland range in central Alberta that had been treated with a herbicide two years prior to the study had greater grazing use of the sprayed forest vegetation than did the untreated forest. The grazing use was usually greater in sprayed versus unsprayed grasslands but the difference was not as great as in the forest. During 1968 and 1969 when precipitation was heavy, the grasslands were extensively used. However, when dry conditions occurred, a greater use of the forest vegetation was observed. A regression equation was developed relating grazing use to precipitation.
    • Critical Soil Moisture Levels for Field Planting Fourwing Saltbush

      Aldon, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Survival of fourwing saltbush transplants was at least 80% when alluvial field sites had soil moisture levels of at least 14% by weight or were at tensions between 1/3 and 2 atmospheres.
    • Development of Grass Root Systems as Influenced by Soil Compaction

      Fryrear, D. W.; McCully, W. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The roots of Premier sideoats grama seedlings do not penetrate a shallow compacted layer the first year. This restrictive layer, commonly found in cultivated fields being converted to grass, can be modified by tillage to permit grass roots to exploit the soil beneath these compacted layers to obtain nutrients and water.
    • Effects of Wildfire on Timber and Forage Production in Arizona

      Pearson, H. A.; Davis, J. R.; Schubert, G. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      A severe May wildfire decimated an unthinned ponderosa pine stand in northern Arizona, while an adjacent thinned stand was relatively undamaged. Radial growth increased on burned trees where crown kill was less than 60% and decreased where crown kill was more than 60%. Burning initially stimulated growth of herbaceous vegetation in both stands. Herbage nutrient value was temporarily enhanced due to burning. Artificially seeded areas produced most herbage 2 years after burning.
    • Forage and Serum Phosphorus Values for Bighorn Sheep

      Hebert, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Total phosphorus values were determined monthly for winter and summer range forages in the East Kootenay Region of British Columbia. Phosphorus was high in succulent growing forages from both ranges but declined during the seed head and cured stages. The major decline for phosphorus in winter range forage was 57.1% during late summer. Serum inorganic phosphorus values for bighorn sheep were between 4.73 and 5.08 mg percent during the winter period, when plant phosphorus was between 500 and 800 ppm.
    • Herbicidal Control of Western Ragweed in Nebraska Pastures

      McCarty, M. K.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.) in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska was usually not controlled by 1 lb./acre of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Two lb./acre was effective in three of four experiments. One lb./acre of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) effectively controlled western ragweed. Applications of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) were sometimes effective but results were erratic among studies. Two successive applications of all herbicides and rates provided effective control through the growing season of the second treatment./Ambrosia psilostachya DC. es una planta sin valor forrajero considerada como creciente o menos deseable. Se llevaron a cabo 5 experimentos de 1964 a 1967 para evaluar 2 herbicidas: ácido 4-amino-3,5,6 tricloropicolinico (picloram) y ácido 3,6-dicloro-o-anisico (dicamba) en el control de Ambrosia psilostachya DC. y a su vez comparar con los resultados obtenidos con el uso de 2,4-D. Los estudios fueron desarrollados cerca de Lincoln, Nebraska en diseños completamente al azar con cuatro a seis repeticiones. Las formulaciones y proporciones aplicados fueron: 1 y 2 lb./acre del ester 150 propilico de 2,4-D; 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0 lb./acre de la sal de potasio de picloram y 1, 2 y 3 lb./acre de la sal dimetilamina de dicamba. Los herbicidas fueron aplicados a mediados de Junio excepto para un estudio en 1965. Los tratamientos se evaluaron contando los tallos vivos de Ambrosia en áreas de muestreo de 2 × 4 pies (0.6 × 1.22 mts.) antes y después de la aplicación de los herbicidas. Las áreas de observación fueron permanentes. Para las condiciones en las que se desarrolló el presente trabajo se puede decir qua una lb./acre de 2,4-D, no controla Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Dos lbs./acre fueron efectivas en 3 de 4 experimentos. Una lb./acre de picloram fué un control efective. Los resultados obtenidos con Dicamba fueron erráticas. Dos aplicaciones sucesivas de todos los herbicidas y proporciones usados dieron un control efectivo durante la época de crecimiento del segundo tratamiento.
    • Long-term Grazing Effects on Stripa-Bouteloua Prairie Soils

      Smoliak, S.; Dormaar, J. F.; Johnson, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      The effects of grazing on Stipa-Bouteloua prairie soils in Alberta were evaluated after 19 years of continuous summer use by sheep at three stocking intensities. Analysis of the soils under the heavy grazing treatment showed lower values for pH and percent spring moisture but higher values for total carbon (C), alcohol/benzene-extractable C, alkaline-soluble C, polysaccharides, and belowground plant material than the soil under light or no grazing. The results were attributed to changes in amounts and kinds of roots due to species changes caused by grazing and to increased amounts of manure deposited by sheep on fields grazed at a higher intensity. Shallow-rooted species replaced the deeper-rooted ones on the drier environment induced by heavy grazing.
    • Low Level Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on High Elevation Ranges

      Bowns, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Low levels of fall applied ammonium sulphate nitrogen and treble super-phosphate phosphorus fertilization were effective to increase production, crude protein, and phosphorus content of forage on high elevation native ranges in southwestern Utah. Vegetation was dominated by bistort, western yarrow, bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, spike trisetum, alpine timothy, and letterman needlegrass. The most effective level appeared to be 60 lb. each of available nitrogen and phosphorus in combination. Fertilizers were applied once and the residual effects carried over for two growing seasons for production, three for phosphorus, and one growing season for crude protein and gross energy. Visual differences between treatments were obvious during the first two years.
    • Methods for Seeding Three Perennial Wheatgrasses on Cheatgrass Ranges in Southern Idaho

      Klomp, G. J.; Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Sixteen methods of seedbed preparation and seeding three wheatgrasses in dense stands of cheatgrass were tested from 1 to 3 years (1961-62, 1963-64, 1964-65) on an 8.5-inch rainfall area near Wendell, Idaho. Averaging all years, deep furrow drilling in the fall gave the best stands, followed by fall cultivation and drilling and then by summer fallow and drilling. Herbicidal treatment followed by drilling was good the first year but was not consistent. Seeding success was in direct relation to the kill of cheatgrass.
    • Phreatic Tendencies of Exotic Grasses and Residual Species as Indicated by Radioisotope Absorption

      Robertson, J. H.; Blincoe, C.; Torell, C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Rooting habits with respect to the capillary moisture zone above the watertable were studied by two methods: (1) absorption and translocation of radioactive isotopes and (2) direct observation of trench walls. Isotopes used were 131-I, 99-Mo, 51-Cr and 75-Se. In general, grasses appeared to absorb more actively in spring than in fall, and more from midlevel of the capillary zone than from the top or bottom. The highest activity was in foliage of intermediate wheatgrass which accumulated 75-Se from the watertable. While some injections resulted in no detected absorption, all grasses showed ability to pick up radioactivity at various levels in the capillary zone.
    • Rapid Point Survey by Bayonet Blade

      Poissonet, Paule S.; Daget, Philippe M.; Poissonet, J. A.; Long, Gilbert A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Redberry Juniper Control with Soil-Applied Herbicides

      Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Soil-applied picloram was more effective than dicamba for control of redberry juniper in northwest Texas. From 0.02 to 0.08 oz picloram pellets per ft of canopy diameter killed over 95% of redberry juniper foliage by a year and 100% by 2 years after treatment. From 0.041 to 0.08 oz/ft dicamba controlled about 30 to 40% of the redberry junipers 1 and 2 years after treatment. Monuron did not control redberry juniper./El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Noroeste de Texas, E.U.A. para determinar la efectividad de los granulados de picloram, dicamba y monuron aplicados en el suelo sobre el control de enebro de fruta roja (Juniperus pinchoti Sudw.). Picloram fué más efectivo que dicamba y monuron no fué efectivo. Dosis de 0.02 a 0.08 onzas de los granulados de picloram por pié de diámetro de cubierta de cada planta resultó en 95% de arbustos muertos un año después de la aplicación.
    • Response of Understory Species Following Herbicidal Control of Low Sagebrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Control of low sagebrush in northern Nevada increased productivity of understory grass species. On fair condition sites, climax dominant species such as Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and Thurber needlegrass gave a yield response but the response was not obtained for 2 years after treatment. However, the rapid response of Sandberg bluegrass resulted in a significant total perennial grass response the year after treatment. On poor condition sites, squirreltail gave a smaller response and the response was not obtained for 2 to 4 years after treatment. Dense stands of annual species gave a large yield response the year after treatment and suppressed the response of squirreltail. Scattered stands of annuals did not respond until 4 years after treatment. Soil moisture relations explained differences in total yield. However, differences in early spring growth were attributed to soil nitrogen.
    • Semidesert Ecosystems—Who Will Use Them? How Will We Manage Them?

      Martin, S. Clark (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
    • Ten Year Yield Response of Beardless Wheatgrass from a Single Nitrogen Application

      Mason, J. L.; Miltimore, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Forage yields were measured from 1959 to 1968 in response to a single fertilizer application in the fall of 1958 in southern British Columbia. The ten-year accumulated forage yield of beardless wheatgrass increased from 3000 pounds per acre at zero nitrogen treatment to 7750 pound per acre at 450 pounds per acre nitrogen treatment. Yield response from the lower application rates was greatest in the earlier years of the experiment. The general yield levels declined in the later years of the experiment. Nitrogen concentration in plant tops increased from 0.7 percent at the zero application level to 1.5 percent at the 450 pound application level in the first year. Nitrogen concentration gradually declined over the first eight years at the higher application rates. By the last two years, there was no effect remaining of treatment on nitrogen accumulation. Plant analyses for Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe showed sharp declines in Ca and Zn but only minor changes in other elements from increasing nitrogen application levels. Plant crown diameter had increased from 4.4 to 5.2 inches with increasing nitrogen rates by the fifth year of the experiment.