• A New Approach to Estimating Herbage Moisture Content

      Turner, G. T. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Moisture contents of different species of range plants growing under generally similar conditions are closely related during the period of peak herbage development. From regression equations that express those relationships, moisture content of several species can be predicted within reasonable limits from the content of one or more associated species.
    • Alien Plants in the Great Basin

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Major, J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Plant communities in the Great Basin are highly susceptible to invasion by hosts of alien annual species. Highly competitive native annuals did not evolve in the Great Basin to occupy a low seral situation created by intensive grazing. The introduced annual species have been the shadows of domestic livestock since the beginning of agriculture. The alien annuals have highly developed breeding systems which permit adaptation to changing environments.
    • Controlling Tall Larkspur on Snowdrift Areas in the Subalpine Zone

      Cronin, E. H.; Nielsen, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Repeated annual applications of 2,4,5-T [(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] or silvex [2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid] reduced the density of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi (Huth) Huth) below a level that is potentially dangerous to grazing cattle. Killing tall larkspur and other forbs resulted in a plant community dominated by grasses. The dominant species of grass depended on whether the treated plot was grazed by cattle. Letterman needlegrass (Stipa lettermanii Vasey) dominated on grazed plots and mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) dominated when plots were protected from grazing cattle. Reinvasion of treated areas by tall larkspur and the unpalatable weedy species occurred more rapidly on grazed plots than on ungrazed plots.
    • Emergence of Honey Mesquite Seedlings Relative to Planting Depth and Soil Temperature

      Scifres, C. J.; Brock, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Maximum emergence occurred when honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr, var. glandulosa) seeds were planted 0.5 cm deep at a soil temperature of 27 C. Percent emergence was severely reduced at a soil temperature of 18 C, regardless of planting depth. Seeds placed on the soil surface germinated, but seedlings did not survive. Seeds planted 5 to 6 cm deep germinated, but no seedlings emerged. Rate and extent of emergence in a nursery were evidently dependent on the temperature reaching 24 C in the surface 2.5 cm of soil.
    • Establishment of Perennial Wheatgrasses in Relation to Atrazine Residue in the Seedbed

      Eckert, R. E.; Klomp, G. J.; Evans, R. A.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Perennial wheatgrasses were seeded in fall, 1967 and 1968 on fallows created by atrazine at 1 lb./acre applied the previous fall or by mechanical means. Atrazine residue in the soil during seedling establishment (1.5 years after application) ranged from < 0.04 to 0.15, 0.09, 0.08, and 0.06 ppm, respectively, in the 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4-inch soil samples. Residue was less than 0.04 ppm from 4 to 8 inches. Seedlings of perennial grasses were injured or killed by these residue levels. However, poor stands were obtained at only two of seven locations in 1969 with crested wheatgrass. Generally, stands of intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses were superior to crested wheatgrass. Species response was also evaluated on fallows created by 0.5, 1.5, and 2.0 lb./acre atrazine.
    • Factors Influencing Infiltration and Erosion on Chained Pinyon-Juniper Sites in Utah

      Williams, G.; Gifford, G. F.; Coltharp, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Relationships between vegetal and edaphic factors and infiltration rates and erosion as measured on 550 infiltrometer plots at chained pinyon-juniper sites in Utah were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Those factors most important for predicting infiltration rates (regardless of time interval) included total porosity in the 0-3 inch layer of soil, percent bare soil surface, soil texture in the 0-3 inch layer of soil, and crown cover (percent or tons per acre). The ability to predict infiltration rates (as determined by R2) varied with time and geographic location. Not only did predictive ability vary, but independent variables explaining such variance also changed with time and location. Factors that influence sediment discharge were so variable from one geographic location to another that no consistent relation was found./El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Estado de Utah de E.U.A. con los objetivos de determinar que factores influyen más la erosión e infiltración de agua. Se usaron 550 infiltrometers a través de los años 1967 y 1968 y en varias localizaciones en ambos sitios de pino y enebro controlado por la cadena y sin control. Los resultados fueron analizados por regresión múltiple. Se encontraron que los factores que ocurrieron con más frecuencia en la ecuasión de predicción fueron la parosidad total en la copa de 0-3 pulgadas del suelo, porcentaje de suelo desnude, textura del suelo en la copa de 0-3 pulgadas y la cobertura vegetal. La habilidad para predicir la intensidad de la infiltración fué variable durante el año y entre las localizaciones los factores independientes que explican dicha variación fueron también variables durante el año y entre las localizaciones. Los factores que influyen erosión fueron muy variables enter las localizaciones y por éso no fué posible encontrar una interrelación consistente entre la intensidad de erosión y los factores de medio-ambiente.
    • Fee Hunting in Western South Dakota

      Gartner, F. R.; Severson, K. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      A new fee hunting system in western South Dakota is described. Its development, operation and probable reasons for future success or failure are suggested. Economic influences alone may encourage development of similar hunting systems, especially as increased hunting pressure is felt by landowners. This paper presents an approach which could further the cause of range management while simultaneously maximizing the economic return from rangeland.
    • Grazing Return Following Sagebrush Control in Eastern Oregon

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      In the 17 years following chemical brush control of a 40-acre big sagebrush-bunchgrass range, grazed during or after seed maturity of the principal grasses, yearling days of grazing increased 1.9 times as much and per acre beef gains were 2.3 times that prior to brush control. Total herbage production averaged 227 lb./acre prior to treatment and 681 lb./acre in the years following treatment. The internal rate of return derived from the beef returns of this study and estimated costs was in excess of 50%. Brush return was slow during the first decade following treatment but is now rapidly approaching pretreatment numbers and dispersion characteristics.
    • Great Basin Experiment Station Completes 60 years

      Keck, W. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      The Great Basin Experimental Range in central Utah completes 60 years of continuous ecological research in 1972. Scientists at this experiment station have pioneered research in watershed management, range management, climatology, and plant ecology. Great Basin Experimental Range will be the locale for the Society's summer tour for 1972.
    • Improved Needle Point Frames for Exact Line Transects

      Long, G. A.; Poissonet, P. S.; Poissonet, J. A.; Daget, P. M.; Godron, M. P. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
    • Intermediate Pits Reduce Gamble in Range Seeding in the Southwest

      Slayback, R. D.; Renney, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      In four consecutive years of planting, intermediate pits have shown superior establishment and herbage yields with Boer lovegrass, Lehmann lovegrass, and kleingrass on semidesert range in the 6- to 8-inch summer rainfall zone in southern Arizona. Intermediate pits were compared to the smaller conventional pits and the larger, wider spaced bulldozer pits. Herbage production of Boer lovegrass average two times as high, over a four-year period, in intermedate pits as in conventional pits and three times as much as on similar adjacent untreated range./Debido a que la resiembra de pastizales en las áreas de baja precipitación, no han tenido gran éxito. Se inició el presente estudio para determinar el mejor método de preparación de la cama de siembra. Se utilizó el pasto Lehmann Lovegrass A-68 (Eragrostis lehmanniana) como testigo y además se sembraron A-84 Boer Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula var. conferta3, A 12638 Kleingrass (Panicum cloratum) y la variedad "vaugh" del pasto banderilla (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.). En este reports se summarizan las producciones de 1964 a 1968 de áreas plantadas en 1962, 63, 64 y 65. Las áreas sembradas se encuentran en el sureste de Willcox, Arizona. Los suelos en el área de estudio fueron migajón venenoso con una capa abajo de migajón areno arcilloso (series "Sonoita-like" y "Cowan-like") con pendientes del uno porciento a cerca de completamente planos. Se excluyó el ganado del área y se controlaron las hormigas. Las microrepresas convencionales fueron realizadas con un arado de discos modificado de un largo de 18-24 pulgadas (45.7-60.9 cms), 12 pulgadas (30.5 cms) de ancho y 6 pulgadas (15.3 cm) de profundidad. Las microrepresas con bulldozer fueron de 6 pies de largo (1.8 mts), 8-10 pies (2.4-3.1 mts) de ancho y 6 a 8 pulgadas (15.2 a 20.3 cms) de profundidad. Las microrepresas intermedias de 6 pulgadas (15.2 cms) de hondo, 6 pies (1.8 mts) de largo y 5 pies (1.5 mts) de ancho, dichas microrepresas intermedias fueron hechas con un tractor con cuchilla montada atrás. En las parcelas de microrepresas convencionales y modificadas de muestreo con 20 cuadrantes de 2, 4 pies cuadrados 0.22 m2. El muestreo sistemático incluyó toda la superficie. En las microrepresas hechas con Bulldozer el muestreo se hizo con 20 cuadrantes de 9.6 pies cuadrados (0.86 m2). Los datos de producción se tomaron después de la segunda época de crecimiento. Se concluyó que las microrepresas intermedias mostraron un establecimiento y producción de forraje más alto con Boer lovegrass, Lehmann lovegrass y Kleingrass. El pasto Boer lovegrass en promedio produjo 2 veces más materia seca total en las microrepresas intermedias que en las convencionales y 3 veces mas que en áreas adyacentes similares sin tratar y cerca de 9 veces mas que en las microrepresas hechos con bulldozer.
    • Observations on Artemisia in Nevada

      Brunner, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Seven years of study of the various species and forms of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) found in Nevada reveal that although there are about 28 different sagebrushes, there are only 4 of grazing importance. Thin-layer chromatography was used to identify the sagebrushes and a system of identification using leaf shape has been devised.
    • Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Management for Multiple Use Benefits

      Jensen, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      A 4,000-acre pinyon-juniper management unit was established on the Tonopah Ranger District, Toiyabe National Forest, in central Nevada during 1968. Initially, an inventory was conducted to obtain basic data about this woodland type. By initiating silvicultural practices, the pinyon-juniper stand, forage production, wildlife habitat, soils and watershed values were improved. Eight times as many Christmas trees of an improved quality, and five times as many juniper fence posts can be produced. Forage production and shrub cover density were increased. Bitterbrush, the dominant shrub, increased in vigor and total growth. Managing selected pinyon-juniper areas can provide greater multiple use benefits and economic returns.
    • Pothole Community Management for Livestock and Wildlife in Intermountain Region

      Gunnell, F.; Smith, A. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Potholes are depressions of glacial origin occurring on the prairies of northern United States and in some of the Intermountain glaciated valleys. Intermountain potholes provide excellent wetland habitat for numerous species of migratory waterfowl, waders, game and non-game marsh associated birds. Most of the Intermountain pothole areas are located on public lands and are important sources of water for grazing livestock. Grazing is a land use compatible with wildlife needs if ranges are not overgrazed or livestock concentrated around available watering sites. This study was made with the intent of presenting a management plan whereby wildlife and livestock could jointly occupy these pothole areas of the forest lands of the northern Intermountain Forest Region to the benefit of both. Ecological stability rather than environmental competition was the goal with application over wide areas of the intermountain west. The study identifies opportunities in designing range developments to complement waterfowl and other species of wildlife on glacial terrain.
    • Recovery Rate of Depleted Range Sites Under Protection from Grazing

      McLean, A.; Tisdale, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      It is estimated to take from 20 to 40 years for overgrazed ranges in the rough fescue and ponderosa pine zones to recover to excellent range condition when fully rested. Little change in plant composition took place inside exclosures, placed on poor condition range, in less than 10 years following fencing. It took longer for the sites to progress from poor to fair condition than from fair to good condition. The main plants to increase with protection were bluebunch wheatgrass and rough fescue. The main species to decrease were Sandberg bluegrass, low pussytoes, and rabbitbrush.
    • Reindeer Ranching in Canada

      Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Of five attempts to develop reindeer ranching in Canada, the Mackenzie Delta herd is the only one still in operation. That herd was established to supplement the region's wildlife resources and to improve the Eskimos' economic condition by creating a number of viable native-owned herds. All of the native-owned herds, established from the nucleus herd, eventually reverted to government ownership. The reindeer operation has not proven to be economically viable. Game ranching with native animals in northern Canada may offer the best potential for conversion of vegetation into meat.
    • Salivary Contamination of Forage Selected by Esophageal Fistulated Steers Grazing Sandhill Grassland

      Wallace, J. D.; Hyder, D. N.; Van Dyne, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      The effect of saliva contamination on chemical composition of forage collected from esophageal fistulated steers grazing sandhill grassland was studied over four different seasons. Salivary contamination of grazed forage significantly increased the ash component but did not change other chemical constituents calculated on an organic matter basis. The increase in ash attributed to saliva varied with species of plants and season of grazing.
    • Some Herbage Responses to Fire on Pine-Wiregrass Range

      Lewis, C. E.; Hart, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Protecting two sites on pine-wiregrass range from fire caused a rapid reduction in herbage yields. Reintroducing fire on these sites resulted in significantly increased yields, but removal of old growth by hand clipping instead of burning caused a decrease in yield on the site with Olustee sand and an increase in yield on the site with Plummer sand. Although gallberry cover did not recover as rapidly after burning on the Olustee site as on the Plummer site, covariance analysis indicated that these differences in recovery did not fully account for the disparity in yield between burned and clipped plots on the two sites.
    • Wildlife Effects from Grasshopper Insecticides Sprayed on Short-Grass Range

      McEwen, L. C.; Knittle, C. E.; Richmond, M. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Insecticides were sprayed experimentally at several sites on short-grass plains vegetation by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to determine effectiveness for grasshopper (Acrididae) control. Effects of the applications on resident wildlife were studied by the Denver Wildlife Research Center. Observations were also made on the effects of an operational range caterpillar (Hemileuca oliviae) control program with toxaphene. Direct effects on birds varied widely with the chemicals applied, spray rates, and conditions. Applications (in ounces of active ingredient per acre) that killed birds and resulted in significant population decreases were: Fenitrothion (9.6 oz), BAY 77488 (4.6 and 9.3 oz), diazinon (5.0 to 8.0 oz), and toxaphene (16 oz). Applications that resulted in significant population decreases under some conditions, but without any observed bird mortality, were: Fenitrothion (6.3 oz), Baygon (3.0-4.0 oz), and Guthion (4.0 oz). Applications without observed direct effects on wildlife were: BAY 77488 (2.5 oz), carbaryl (6.4 oz), malathion (6.8 oz), and Mobam (3.0 oz). Registration and use of pesticides for range grasshopper control should be limited to those that degrade rapidly in the environment, have the least direct impact on wildlife, and have been thoroughly field-tested.