• Desert Cottontail Use of Natural and Modified Pinyon-Juniper Woodland

      Kundaeli, J. N.; Reynolds, H. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Pinyon-juniper woodland, a habitat for desert cottontails throughout much of the West, is often cleared to improve grazing conditions for livestock. In southern New Mexico, habitat conditions for cottontails can be maintained or enhanced during clearing operations by preserving some combination of 70-90 down, dead trees and living shrubs per acre.
    • Comparative Susceptibility of Honey Mesquite to Dicamba and 2,4,5-T

      Scifres, C. J.; Hoffman, G. O. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Applications of dicamba controlled about the same percentage of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr., var. glandulosa) as equivalent rates of 2,4,5-T in the Rolling Plains, Coastal Prairie, and South Texas Plains. Combinations of 2,4,5-T and dicamba controlled no more honey mesquite than either herbicide alone. Honey mesquite control was governed by total herbicide applied rather than relative proportions of 2,4,5-T and dicamba in combination. Dicamba was effectively substituted for 2,4,5-T in combinations with picloram. Three-way combinations were no more effective than mixtures of dicamba and picloram or 2,4,5-T and picloram.
    • Competition Between Big Sagebrush and Crested Wheatgrass

      Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Mortality of big sagebrush appeared to be related to presence of seeded crested wheatgrass. Roots of both species were restricted by a shallow hardpan. An experiment was performed to compare relative drought resistance of the two species when rooted in the same volume of soil. Water was withheld until all leaves were airdry. Crested wheatgrass was the only survivor in all replications.
    • A Behavioral Study of Angora Goats on West Texas Range

      Askins, G. D.; Turner, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Behavior of four Angora goats was studied in sixteen observation periods for four seasons on a west Texas range. The goats consistently fed during two definite daylight feeding periods: (a) early morning, and (b) late afternoon to dusk. Bedding generally occurred whenever darkness became evident and little or no feeding activity was observed between that time and daybreak. The four goats differed somewhat in their behavioral activities, but were remarkably similar in their vegetation preference. Seasonal difference seemed to have an important effect upon both vegetative preference and behavioral activities./Cuatro cabras fueron marcadas y sus actividades fueron observadas a través del año. Las cabras mostraron un patrón de actividades sistemático a través del año. Empezaron el día levantándose y rumiando por un tiempo breve, seguido por una época de pastoreo de tres horas, luego por 30 minutos de descanso y después pastoreo otra vez hasta mediodía. Tomaron agua y descansaron en la sombra durante medio día hasta tres horas antes de la puesta del sol. Comieron otra vez por tres horas o sea hasta en la noche cuando tomaron agua otra vez y comieron sal, seguido por descanso por toda la noche. Aproximadamente de 34.4% de su tiempo de pastoreo fué con gramíneas y 65.6% fué ramoneo. Parece ser que las estaciones del año tienen un importante efecto en la preferencia del forraje pastoreado, y las actividades de las cabras.
    • Developmental Variation in Carbohydrates of Purple Nutsedge

      Smith, A. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Carbohydrate analysis of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) foliage and subterranean organs harvested over a 130 day period after planting tubers indicated that this species accumulates starch as a storge product. Glucose and fructose appeared to be the major monosaccharides and sucrose was the only disaccharide in foliage and tuber samples. Purple nutsedge appeared to maintain a tremendous capacity for starch metabolism and storage which explains, in part, the ability of this species to resist most control practices.
    • Effect of Pregnancy and Lactation on Liver Vitamin A of Beef Cows Grazing Pangolagrass

      Kirk, W. G.; Easley, J. F.; Shirley, R. L.; Hodges, E. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      The effect of pregnancy and lactation on vitamin A and carotene in liver and plasma was determined for beef cows grazing pangolagrass. The cows averaged 13.4 years of age and had grazed pangolagrass continuously as the only source of nutrients for an average of 9.5 years. Calves were weaned August 29, 1965, and cows were slaughtered December 8, 1965. Ten cows, nursing calves in 1965 and pregnant when slaughtered, had an average of 12.3 million I. U. equivalent vitamin A in liver and plasma; seven cows, dry in 1965 and pregnant, had 20.9 million I. U.; three cows, nursing calves in 1965 and open, had 13.3 million I. U.; and one cow, dry in 1965 and open, had 24 million I. U. vitamin A. A well managed pangolagrass pasture in southcentral Florida furnished adequate carotene to meet the vitamin A needs of producing beef cows.
    • Forage Selectivity by Goats on Lightly and Heavily Grazed Ranges

      Malechek, J. C.; Leinweber, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Average annual diets were similar on lightly and heavily grazed ranges, but variability over time did not always follow similar patterns on the two grazing treatments, and periodic differences in dietary botanical composition resulted. Goats in this study should be classified in the popular sense as "grazers" rather than "browsers."/El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Texas A & M ubicado cerca de Sonora, Texas, E.U.A. Se emplearon cabras con "Fístula esofógica y cánula tipo D" para determinar la composición botánica de sus dietas a través del año cuando pastorean áreas con sub y sobre pastoreo. Según el promedio del año no hubo diferencias significativas entre sus dietas en respecto a las proporciones de ramoneo, hierbas y gramíneas pero hubo diferencias entre las estaciones. Las dietas en primavera en el área con sub pastoreo tuvieron principalmente gramíneas y hierbas mientras en el área con sobre pastoreo gramíneas y especies ramoneables. En ambas áreas las gramíneas fueron muy consumidas en la época de Junio a Octubre. El pastoreo de las hierbas fué restringido a su disponibilidad pero las gramíneas y las especies ramoneables fueron consumidas a través del año dependiendo de su gustocidad. De las especies ramoneables el Encino fué el más preferido. Las cabras en el área con sobrepastoreo comieron algunas especies leñosas consideradas como especies indeseables. Principalmente los tallos y hojas jóvenes fueron consumidas. Se concluyó que para las condiciones bajo las que se hicieron las observaciones, las cabras deben considerarse como consumidoras de gramíneas en vez de ramoneadoras.
    • Forage and Woody Sprout Establishment on Cleared, Unbroken Land in Central Alberta

      Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Five cultivated forages and rough fescue, a native bunchgrass, were successfully established on cleared but unbroken land in central Alberta that was either untilled or lightly tilled with a tandem disc. Woody suckers caused considerable competition for the forages and susceptible species were only partially controlled by one application of an herbicide. The sucker density of four shrub species increased greatly between the second and third year after clearing and seeding whereas the density of suckers of the only tree, aspen, declined. There was a one-third reduction in land-clearing costs using this method of forage establishment rather than using a crawler-tractor-drawn serrated disc or moldboard plow to break the land.
    • Herbage Production Following Brush Control with Herbicides in Texas

      Bovey, R. W.; Meyer, R. E.; Morton, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      The herbicides, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) applied alone and in certain combinations caused significant increases in grass production for several months to several years at three locations in Texas, depending upon the degree of brush control obtained. Native grasses usually tolerated picloram, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine), 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine (simazine) and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) as granules and sprays at rates up to 2 lb./acre without reduction in yield on pasturelands at three locations in Texas.
    • Diet of Walkingsticks on Sandhill Rangeland in Colorado

      Ueckert, D. N.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      The seasonal dry-weight composition of the diet of walkingstick insects collected on sandhill rangeland in northeastern Colorado was determined by microscopic examination of crop contents. The walkingstick was found to be monophagous and highly selective in its feeding habits. Slimleaf scurfpea comprised essentially 100% of its seasonal diet. Preference indices were calculated from herbage availability data. The frequency of plants in the habitat and the frequency of plants in the diet of the walkingsticks were not correlated. Walkingsticks may compete with cattle for high-protein forage.
    • Fourwing Saltbush Revegetation Trials in Southern Arizona

      Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Fourwing saltbush was seeded and transplanted into native stands of (a) almost pure creosotebush and (b) velvet mesquite with burroweed understory, in southern Arizona. Burroweed and creosotebush were controlled by picloram spray and by grubbing. The mesquite was killed on half of the burroweed plots. Establishment and survival of saltbush was much higher on the creosotebush site than on the mesquite site, presumably because the calcareous (pH 8.0+) soil at the creosotebush site was more suitable than the non-calcareous neutral soil at the mesquite site. Transplants survived much better on grubbed plots than on sprayed or check plots, and seedlings on sprayed or grubbed plots than on check plots. However, after 3 years the stands were reduced to 650 and 46 plants per acre on the creosotebush and mesquite-burroweed area respectively.
    • Growth Characteristics of Crested and Fairway Wheatgrasses in Southern Idaho

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Crested and fairway wheatgrasses have been growing together and spreading in southern Idaho for over 30 years and are well-adapted to Idaho. We found that fairway produces only 79% as much herbage as crested, but that it had spread 112% further by seed and is grazed more uniformly. Both species spread more in eastern than in southwestern Idaho.
    • Influence of Competition on the Response of Bluebunch Wheatgrass to Clipping

      Mueggler, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Partial reduction of competition from surrounding vegetation more than doubled the total herbage and tripled the number of flower stalks produced the following year by bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum). Elimination of competition resulted in a sixfold increase in herbage production and a tenfold increase in number of flower stalks. The relative depressant effects of clipping were significantly reduced by concurrent reductions in competition. The beneficial effects of partial reduction of competition offset the adverse effects of heavy clipping, and elimination of competition more than offset the effects of extreme clipping. Number of flower stalks is a more sensitive indicator of vigor than total herbage production. Average flower stalk and foliage culm lengths are not useful indicators of vigor.
    • Micronutrient Trace Element Composition of Crested Wheatgrass

      Blincoe, C.; Lambert, T. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      In crested wheatgrass on northern Nevada range, high cobalt with low copper and zinc concentrations present a rather atypical pattern of trace elements. Zinc and manganese were greater in the seed head than in the foliage but no such differences were found for cobalt, copper or iron. Advancing season from April through July did not influence the micronutrient trace element composition of crested wheatgrass. Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be marginal or deficient for bovine nutrition and many zinc concentrations would generally be considered deficient for plant growth.
    • Integration of Burning with Mechanical Manipulation of South Texas Grassland

      Dodd, J. D.; Holtz, S. T. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Roller chopping and shredding of woody plants reduced the overall stature, canopy cover, and woody plant density, but stem density increased due to basal sprouting. Two consecutive years of late summer burns following mechanical treatments did not significantly lower woody plant or stem densities. Mechanical-herbicide stump treatment following mechanical treatment, but prior to burning did not affect woody plant or stem densities or the stem:plant ratio. Mechanical clearing in combination with fire promoted secondary plant succession. Treatment combinations resulted in highest total herbage production, grass production, and herbaceous basal cover. Burning reduced litter cover, while roller chopping and shredding had little effect.
    • Seasonal Changes in Herbage and Cattle Diets on Sandhill Grassland

      Wallace, J. D.; Free, J. C.; Denham, A. H. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      The chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of clipped plant species, total herbage, and actual and simulated cattle diets were studied on sandhill grassland in eastern Colorado during the growing season and after dormancy. Clipped plants declined in percent protein and digestibility and increased in other chemical components with advanced maturity. Marked differences in chemical composition were evident among species in early summer, but minimal by winter. Actual cattle diets and those simulated from hand clipped plants were similar in chemical and digestible dry matter composition during each sampling period. In early summer, cattle diets were considerably higher in quality than total herbage but this difference became progressively smaller later in the summer. During dormancy and after weathering chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of herbage and of the cattle diets were essentially the same.
    • Supplementation of Dry Annual Range by Irrigated Pasture

      Hull, J. L.; Raguse, C. A.; Guild, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Supplementation of a low protein, high-fiber, dry annual-range forage by irrigated pasture appears feasible. Data indicate that irrigated pasture can be used to increase the amount, or improve the quality, of beef production, and that it can compete economically with cottonseed meal as a supplemental protein source for cattle grazing dry annual-range forage./El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de California ubicado en Browns Valley, California, E.U.A. Los tratamientos fueron; (1) pastizal seco solamente, (2) pastizal seco mas harinolina cada tercer día, (3) pastizal seco más ocho horas de pastoreo en un pastizal de riego tres veces por semana y (4) pastizal de riego solamente. El pastoreo se realizó con novillos y el pastizal de riego fué una mezcla de gramíneas y leguminosas. Se encontró que el uso de un pastizal de riego como suplemento dió más ganancias y animales de mejor calidad que el suplemento de harinolina, resultando además más económico.
    • Rooting Cuttings of Saltbush (Atriplex halimus L.)

      Ellern, S. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Cuttings of the saltbush (Atriplex halimus L.) were rooted by keeping them at high humidity in cheap chambers of transparent plastic sheeting for two months. The method could be useful in propagating improved plant material.
    • Soil Moisture, Forage, and Beef Production Benefits from Gambel Oak Control in Southwestern Colorado

      Marquiss, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Controlling Gambel oak and other brushy species with herbicides can produce benefits to the stockman. Increased forage and beef production are products of a good brush control practice. A high percentage of oak control is necessary to offset regrowth by sprouting. Soil moisture was significantly increased in the top five feet of soil during the summer months by controlling the oak. Forage production was doubled with a five-year period. Animal weight gains per acre nearly doubled as a result of brush control on Gambel oak rangeland.