• Carbohydrate Reserves of Intermediate Wheatgrass after Clipping and Etiolation Treatments

      Ogden, P. R.; Loomis, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The total water-soluble carbohydrate (TWSC) fraction of intermediate wheatgrass stem bases and roots is depleted with etiolation and is a good measure of the reserve energy of this species. When the TWSC fraction was depleted to about 1% dry weight, vigor of the grass was too poor to recover from a clipping treatment. Root weight was also reduced with etiolation. Late September to early November was a period of active herbage and root growth for intermediate wheatgrass. Growth during this fall period enabled grasses which had been clipped three times at 6-week intervals during the summer to recover to very nearly the level of TWSC and root weight as the check plants.
    • Conversion of Medusahead to Downy Brome Communities with Diuron

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Application of 2 lb./acre of the herbicide diuron changes rangeland communities from medusahead to downy brome dominance. This conversion lasted for at least 3 years and greatly increased utilizable forage.
    • Bitterbrush Seedling Establishment as Influenced by Soil Moisture and Soil Surface Temperature

      Ferguson, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Bitterbrush seeds exposed to field conditions for 80 days following seed fall exhibited reduced viability. Exposure of seeds to dry heat for periods up to 15 consecutive hours in the laboratory did not reduce germination percentage until temperature exceeded 176 F. No evidence was found that high soil surface temperatures resulted in seedling mortality. Seedling survival and growth were significantly affected by both artificial watering and slope exposure.
    • Beef Production on Lodgepole Pine-Pinegrass Range in the Cariboo Region of British Columbia

      McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Results from the Cariboo grazing trail confirm those from previous ones on lodgepole pine-pinegrass summer range near Kamloops. They also suggest that similar results could be expected in other regions with ecologically similar sites. Yearling steers in the Cariboo district had a 3-year average daily gain of 1.74 lb. for 97 days starting in early June. The average gain per acre was 17.8 lb. The average carrying capacity was 4.6 acres/animal unit month.
    • Developing Range Management in Latin America

      Blydenstein, J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The differences in outlook on the conservation of natural resources and multiple use of rangelands between the United States and the countries of Latin America is stressed and it is shown how technical assistance in the field of range management must take these differences into account. Proposals are made for a phased program for development of integrated grazing land management in Latin America, starting with a range resources evaluation which will be the basis for a limited intensive development of suitable areas in order to alleviate the grazing pressure on the natural vegetation. This development phase should be accompanied by range research for management applications during a second action phase. The requirements and difficulties of implementing such a programme are discussed./Se pone énfasis en las diferencias entre los EE.UU. y los países de América Latina en los puntos de vista sobre la conservación de recursos naturales y el uso múltiple de los pastizales naturales. La asistencia técnica en el campo de manejo de pastizales naturales debe tomar en cuenta estas diferencias. Se propone un programa para el desarrollo de un manejo integrado de las tierras de pastoreo en América Latina, empezando con una evaluación de los recursos forrajeros naturales, la cual formará la base para un desarrollo intensivo pero limitado de las mejores áreas para aliviar la presión de pastoreo sobre la vegetación natural. Al mismo tiempo se inician las investigaciones en manejo de pastizales naturales para su posterior aplicación en la segunda fase del programa. Se indican los requerimientos y dificultades para implementar un programa de este tipo.
    • Handy Device for Dispensing Barbed Wire

      Kerbs, Roger R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      A barbed wire dispensing device that is held vertically in the rear stake pocket of a pickup truck was constructed for about $6.00. This device frees one man of a two-man crew to do other work, and reduces the possibility of wire entanglements.
    • Infiltration Rate and Sediment Production Trends on a Plowed Big Sagebrush Site

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The trend was toward lowered infiltration rates following plowing and seeding of a big sagebrush site. The greatest decline occurred during the fall period of the second year following treatment. Sediment production rates increased following plowing, but yields were variable. The ability to predict infiltration rates using cover characteristics alone in multiple regression equations varied with time, both within a given storm event and also on a seasonal basis. Ability to predict infiltration rates was not particularly affected by the plowing treatment.
    • Estimating Cattle Gains from Consumption of Digestible Forage on Ponderosa Pine Range

      Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      In vitro digestibility measurements reduce the variability in estimating cattle gains from forage intake measurements. The daily digestible forage intake requirements of range cattle appear similar to the requirements of cattle in feedlots./Se llevó a cabo el estudio en un pastizal tipo pino ponderosa cerca de Flagstaff, Arizona, E.U.A. Las ganancias del ganado bovino fueron relacionadas directamente con el consumo de forraje digestible y el consumo ordinario. El consumo de forraje digestible explica el 80% de las ganancias y el consumo ordinario explica el 75.3%. Se concluyó que la mejor evaluación de los pastizales es el consumo de forraje digestible.
    • Economic Implications of Variable Versus Single Grazing Fees

      Nielsen, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The economic implications of variable grazing fees and single grazing fees on Federal lands are important considerations relative to further policy changes. Many factors must be considered when establishing fees on different grazing units. Quantity and quality of forage are only two of these factors and generally not the most important ones. Variable grazing fees will have to be implemented if the government is going to minimize the problem of having some of its land over-priced and some under-priced.
    • Chemical Composition and Fertilizer Response of Two Range Plants in Relation to Grass Tetany

      Azevedo, J.; Rendig, V. V. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The chemical response of two species of annual range plants, soft chess and broad-leaf filaree, to nitrogen and potassium fertilization was studied in a field plot trial in Amador County, California. Heavy losses of cows due to grass tetany have been reported from that vicinity in recent years. The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio in soft chess was significantly higher than that in broad-leaf filaree, and fertilization with N and K increased the ratio in both species. Fertilization increased the concentration of K in broad-leaf filaree, but had little effect on the concentrations of Ca and Mg. In contrast, fertilization decreased the Ca and Mg percentages in soft chess but did not change the K concentration. The presence of alkaloids in soft chess was detected by a "spot-test" technique.
    • Influence of Plant Frequency and Certain Morphological Variations on Diets of Rangeland Grasshoppers

      Ueckert, D. N.; Hansen, R. M.; Terwilliger, C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The frequency of plant species in the diets of 14 grasshopper species, collected on rangeland lightly grazed by cattle at the Eastern Colorado Range Station, was determined by microscopic examination of crop contents. Significant correlations were found between frequency of plant species in the habitat and the frequency of plant species in the diets of all grashopper species except Melanoplus confusus. No correlation was found between the body weight or potential mobility of grasshopper species and the degree to which plant frequency influences their diets. As the number of plant species eaten increased, the influence of the relative availability of plant species on the diets decreased. There was no correlation between either body weight or potential mobility and the number of plant species eaten or the number of plant species/crop.
    • Spread of African Pasture Grasses to the American Tropics

      Parsons, J. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Most of the economically important pasture grasses of the tropics have originated in Africa. Introduced into the New World, they have often become naturalized, spreading rapidly and widely. Six species have been principally involved in this massive ecologic invasion. With the aid of man the face of much of the continent is gradually being changed from forest to productive grassland.
    • What Are the Real Problems in Resource Management Education?

      Hedrick, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
    • Seeding Rates and Row Spacings for Rangelands in Southeastern Idaho and Northern Utah

      Hull, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      A mixture of five grasses and one legume was seeded at 3, 6, 12, and 24 lb./acre spring and fall for 4 years (1962-66) at a high elevation. A mixture of three grasses and one legume was similarly seeded for 2 1/2 years (1964-66) at a low elevation. To get a good stand within a reasonable time at least 6 lb./acre should be seeded at the low elevation and 12 lb./acre at the high elevation./Se sembró una mezcla de gramíneas y tréboles adaptados de las regiones a las intensidades de 3, 6, 12 y 24 libras de semilla por acre a varias distancias: entre surcos de 6 y 12 pulgadas y se sembró al voleo. No hubo diferencias significativas entre las diferentes distancias de siembra con respecto al porcentaje de plantas de los semilleros. Pero, disminuyó el porcentaje de plantas de los semilleros con el aumento en la intensidad de siembra. La intensidad de 3 libras de semilla por acre fue más recomendable pero hubo diferencias entre localidades.
    • Root Production of Seedling Grasses in Soil Containing Picloram

      Scifres, C. J.; Halifax, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Root production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) seedlings was decreased when 1 or 2 ppm picloram were placed on the soil surface or at a depth of 3 inches. Root: shoot ratios by weight of switchgrass were decreased when picloram was placed on the surface or in the third inch of soil but were not affected by placement at 6 inches. Root production of sideaots grama (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.) was decreased by picloram placed in the surface inch of soil. However, sideoats grama root production was increased in soil with 1 ppm picloram in the sixth inch. Root:shoot ratios of sideoats grama in treated soil were usually no different than those of seedlings grown in untreated soil but rooting pattern was affected.
    • Responses of Southern Bluestems to Pine Straw Mulch, Leachate, and Ash

      Wolters, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Perennial grass production on southern bluestem range was not significantly affected by pine straw mulch, ash, or leachate. Pine straw mulch and ash significantly reduced the perennial grass basal cover index but increased bluestem flower-stalk density.
    • Residual Effects of Range Renovation on Dense Clubmoss and Associated Vegetation

      Dolan, J. J.; Taylor, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      The effects of various mechanical and manuring treatments on dense clubmoss were investigated on an ungrazed mixed prairie site in northern Montana 30 years after a ten-year sequence of treatments. The least clubmoss ground cover occurred on range which had received the most intensive mechanical treatments. Manure treatments also reduced clubmoss cover but the effect of manuring intensity was not distinct. Herbage yield was highest at the lowest levels of clubmoss cover.
    • Rangeland Relations and Harvester Ants in Northcentral Wyoming

      Kirkham, D. R.; Fisser, H. G. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      This study was conducted in northcentral Wyoming to evaluate the relationships of harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) abundance and activity with grazing intensity, vegetation cover and composition and edaphic factors. Ant colony density, percent of soil surface denuded by ants, and average area denuded per ant colony were used as indices of ant abundance and activity. The study area, located in a Nuttall saltbush range type, was a pasture system of 600 acres involving four grazing intensities with distinct variations in vegetational cover and composition values. After 10 years of grazing at four intensities of use, harvester ant abundance was positively correlated with some plants, the correlations appeared incidental to the ability of a species to establish and grow in specific soil conditions and were not related to any ant preference for available food source. Soil texture was the most important factor influencing harvester ant abundance. If harvester ant abundance is affected by grazing and range condition, then such responses are very slow, requiring more than ten years in the area of this study.
    • Mule Deer Fecal Group Counts Related to Site Factors on Winter Range

      Anderson, A. E.; Medin, D. E.; Bowden, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Measurements of 32 site factors on 931, 100 ft2, circular plots systematically distributed among lower, middle and upper Cache la Poudre, Colorado winter range study areas of about 500 surface acres each, were related to cumulative mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fecal groups counted on those plots (1963-65). Single and multiple linear regression and Chi-square analyses indicated that vegetative measurements, particularly antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) parameters, were the site factors most closely related to fecal group counts. These site factors accounted for about 10-13 percent in single linear regressions, and 8-20 percent in multiple linear regressions of the significant variation (R2) in fecal group counts.