• Small Alternating Temperature Germinator

      Robocker, W. C.; Zamora, Benjamin A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A low-cost germinator for special temperature conditions can be constructed from readily available commercial materials.
    • Seasonal Beef Production from Russian Wildrye-Alfalfa Pastures

      Lodge, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus Fisch.)-Rambler alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) pastures were grazed for 28 days by yearling steers from various starting dates of use, early May, mid-May, early June and for a longer period, June to September, to determine the influence on pasture production and beef cattle performance. Steer gain per acre from Russian wildrye-alfalfa pasture was greatest under early June grazing use. Daily gain per head was greatest when the pasture was grazed from early June. Forage production was highest from the early June and early June-summer use period pastures. The trial indicates that the most productive season of use of Russian wildrye-alfalfa pastures in southwest Saskatchewan is from early June. Such use will result in maximum production in terms of beef production either per acre or individual animal daily weight gain and in maintenance of the Russian wildrye-alfalfa stand.
    • Response of Four Perennial Southwestern Grasses to Shade

      Tiedemann, A. R.; Klemmedson, J. O.; Ogden, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A nursery plot study was conducted to determine if the observed relative abundance of Arizona cottontop, bush muhly, and plains bristlegrass under mesquite trees on native range was related to the ability of these grasses to adapt to shade. Plants of these species plus black grama which grows in open areas were subjected to shading only and shading after defoliation treatments using five levels of shade from 0 to 80%. Evaluation of morphological, physiological, and yield responses showed that all plants made their best growth in full sunlight; but Arizona cottontop, bush muhly, and plains bristlegrass displayed greater ability than black grama to adapt to shade.
    • Range Seedings Versus Climax Vegetation on Three Sites in Idaho

      Rumsey, W. B. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Total annual herbage yields on three range sites in Eastern Idaho in climax condition are compared with yields of introduced grasses and legumes on the same sites. Yields of introduced grasses and legumes exceeded yields of climax vegetation on all three range sites studied.
    • Plastic Pipelines for Livestock Water in Northwest Nebraska

      Peden, W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A shortage of good quality livestock and household water has plagued northwest Nebraska ranchers. The development of Polyvinyl-chloride pipe has provided a method of piping good water into this area. Five hundred forty five miles of PVC pipe have been installed, or are planned, on 108 ranches watering approximately 300,000 acres of rangeland. This productive grassland area can now be grazed safely and efficiently with a stable, good quality water supply.
    • Oxygen Uptake and Nitrification by Soil Within a Grazed Atriplex vesicaria Community in Semiarid Rangeland

      Rixon, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      The effect of plant distribution on oxygen uptake and nitrification in surface soil of a semiarid rangeland community was studied. Oxygen uptake and nitrification in surface (0-7.5 cm) soils from sites associated with Atriplex vesicaria bushes were at least twice as great as in soils from the interbush area. The pattern of nutrient cycling tended to reflect the distribution of plant material within the plant community. The effect did not extend to the 7.5-15 cm soil horizon. The rate of nitrification per unit total soil nitrogen was greater for the sites associated with saltbush than for the interbush area. These differences in rate of nitrification per unit total nitrogen persisted for at least two years following the total elimination of saltbush (Atriplex vesicaria) by heavy grazing.
    • Medusahead Invasion as Influenced by Herbicides and Grazing on Low Sagebrush Sites

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Responses of vegetation following herbicide applications and grazing strengthened previously developed synecological concepts of the low sagebrush community in relation to medusahead invasion. Removal of the shrub cover with 2,4-D did not necessarily lead to an increase in medusahead because the perennial grasses quickly made use of the released environmental potential. Spraying 2,4-D for brush control combined with application of atrazine for herbaceous weed control further increased perennial grasses when not grazed, but with grazing, medusahead greatly increased at the expense of perennial grasses by 3 years after treatment.
    • Interseeding for Range Improvement in the Northern Great Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Adams, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A heavy-duty range interseeder is described that uses mostly commercially available parts. A rapid increase in yield of native forage species, particularly western wheatgrass, found following furrowing alone was sufficient for success of the interseeding practice. Seeding adapted grasses and legumes further increased forage production. Orenberg alfalfa was the most successful species interseeded in the Northern Great Plains. A parallel increase in the undesirable fringed sagewort may require control measures. Interseeding is a cheap and profitable method of range improvement./Encontraron que la intersembradora fabricada no era bastante fuerte para la intersiembra. Una intersembradora mas fuerte hecha por los autores usando principalmente refacciones comerciales es descrita. El aumento en la producción de forraje nativo por causa de los surcos hechos por la intersembradora fué suficiente para justificar la intersiembra. Pero, la intersiembra de gramíneas y leguminosas aumentó mas la producción. Orenburg alfalfa fué la especies más exitosa. La intersiembra es recomendable para mejorar la condición del pastizal.
    • Influence of Desert Saltbush Saponin on Germination

      Askham, L. R.; Cornelius, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A plant-produced chemical, saponin, was identified, extracted from desert saltbush, tested and quantitatively analyzed. Desert saltbush, Trigo pubescent wheatgrass, Harbinger medic, and California ephedra seeds were subjected to different concentration levels of leachates extracted from desert saltbush vegetation. These leachate solutions reduced the germination of desert saltbush, Harbinger medic, and Trigo pubescent wheatgrass. California ephedra germination was stimulated at low leachate concentration but was retarded at higher leachate concentrations.
    • Improved Heat Pulse Velocity Meter

      Clifford, G. F.; Frodsham, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      A heat pulse velocity meter useful for studying sap movement is described. The instrument is updated electronically and is slightly more compact than previous units.
    • Grazing Capacity, Sheep Gains: Cheatgrass, Bunchgrass Ranges in Southern Idaho

      Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Comparisons were made of grazing capacities and sheep gains on both cheatgrass range and on native bunchgrass range during early spring. Capacities were similar on these two range types in wet years, but were almost 60% greater on bunchgrass range during dry years. Sheep gained an average of 0.32 lb. per head per day over three spring periods on the two vegetation types. In 2 of the 4 study years, they lost weight during the first 2-week grazing period. Sheep gains per acre were similar on the two range types.
    • Freeze Branding Cattle for Individual Identification

      Pond, F. W.; Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Freeze branding appears to be a good method for marking cattle for individual identification. In three trials, over 80% of the branded animals developed readable brands, but only 60% could be identified on Super-8 film exposed from a distance of 5 ft overhead.
    • Flexibility to Combat Fluctuating Forage Production

      Hodgkinson, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Ranchers, range managers, and range conservationists are faced with the problem of year to year fluctuating forage production when making range and livestock management plans. By understanding livestock needs and the forage resource, they can build flexibility into a workable management plan. Flexibility helps the grassland manager get optimum use of the range and related resources despite fluctuating forage production.
    • Effects of Soils on Forage Utilization in the Desert Grassland

      Vandermark, J. L.; Schmutz, E. M.; Ogden, P. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      This study was made in southeastern Arizona to determine some of the factors affecting utilization by cattle of two key species on three desert grassland soils. Results showed that macronutrient content of the soil and the plants, and corresponding utilization of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri), were always significantly greater on the Pima bottomland soil than on the two upland soils, but they were not always significantly different between the two upland soils. No consistent relationships were found between forage utilization and micronutrient, sugar or starch content in the plants./El estudio se llevó a cabo en una zona desértica en el Estado de Arizona, E.U.A. Hubo una correlación significativa entre el consumo de forraje y los contenidos de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. No hubo una correlación entre el consumo y los contenidos de azúcar, almidón, micronutrientes ni humedad. El consumo fué mucho más significativo en cuanto al forraje en los valles con suelos profundos que en los suelos de las dos mesetas.
    • Effect of Time and Extent of Harvesting Basin Wildrye

      Krall, J. L.; Stroh, J. R.; Cooper, C. S.; Chapman, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Single clipping treatments of basin wildrye during the period of growth initiation to full bloom followed by removal of all growth to a 5 cm stubble at the end of the growing season reduced yields in the year of clipping and the year following. Growth reduction was greatest when plants were clipped at the boot stage. Removal of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or all of the herbage at any one of three dates in the spring of one year reduced yield the following year. Growth decreased as the level of herbage removal increased and with years of treatment or delay in harvest time when 3/4 or all of the herbage was cut. Growth reduction was greatest when herbage was cut at the boot stage which coincided with the period of rapid elevation of growing points above the soil surface and with a decrease in total available carbohydrates (TAC). Grazing of basin wildrye in early spring, based on data presented, would probably be quite detrimental just as cutting was.
    • Effect of a February Burn on Lehmann Lovegrass

      Pase, C. P. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Density and vigor of Lehmann lovegrass were essentially unaffected by burning which resulted in a 90% topkill of shrub live oak sprouts. Some increases were noted in King Ranch and yellow bluestem and associated native forbs./La densidad y el vigor de las plantas de "Lehmann Lovegrass" (Eragrostis lehmanniana) no fueron afectados por la quema, pero mató 90% de las partes aéreas de las especies arbustivas. Se aumentaron las zacates introducidos, "King Ranch y Turkestan Bluestem," y las hierbas nativas.
    • Defoliation Effects on Carbohydrate Reserves of Desert Species

      Trilica, M. J.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Representative plants of eight desert species were defoliated at four phenological stages. These species used varying amounts of carbohydrate for regrowth; however, carbohydrate use and storage varied widely among phenological stages within species. There was a direct relationship between average total carbohydrate levels in the autumn and the amount of regrowth after defoliation. The carbohydrate reserve level in the autumn appears to be a good indicator of defoliation effects during the preceding growing season./El manejo de pastizales requiere mas conocimientos sobre las respuestas fisiológicas de las plantas después del pastoreo. El estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia de la defoliación sobre las reservas de carbohidratos en las yemas basales y las raíces.
    • Cost-Size Relationships of Utah Cattle Ranches

      Workman, J. P.; Hooper, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Regression analyses of per cwt. beef production costs of four sizes of Utah cattle ranches indicate that no size of Utah range cattle operation up to 500 head is capable of covering all costs. When all production costs were taken into account, the 1968 optimum sized Utah cattle ranch from the ranch owner's viewpoint was 392 head of breeding cows. The weighted average beef price necessary for the optimum ranch size to meet all costs was $30.95 per cwt. When interest on investment in land, livestock, and improvements was ignored, the optimum sized cattle ranch from the owner's viewpoint was one with a capacity of 414 breeding cows. In order to meet all costs except interest on investment, the optimum ranch size would require a weighted average beef price of $17.77 per cwt.
    • Cliffrose Reproduction after Pinyon-Juniper Control

      McCulloch, C. Y. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Age classes determined by ring counts showed that reproduction of cliffrose (Cowania mexicana) did not increase after bulldozing a sparse stand of pinyon and juniper trees in northern Arizona.