• Comparison of Lysimeter and Neutron Scatter Techniques for Measuring Evapotranspiration from Semiarid Rangelands

      Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Evapotranspiration (ET) calculated from changes in soil water content measured by the neutron scatter method was compared to ET measured by lysimetry. During 1968, a near-average precipitation year (33 cm), the neutron method was effective for determining ET over periods of 4 weeks or longer. Cumulative ET curves as determined by lysimetry and the neutron method were in excellent agreement. In 1969, a year with high precipitation in June and July, reliability of the neutron method was severely limited by deep percolation and possibly by surface runoff. Failure of the neutron method to measure accurately water content near the soil surface following periods of precipitation was the major source of error when percolation and runoff were not factors. Sensitivity of the neutron method during a 30-day drying cycle was equal to that of a hydraulic lysimeter. Upward soil water fluxes were evident and are potential sources of error.
    • Developmental Morphology of Switchgrass and Sideoats Grama

      Sims, P. L.; Ayuko, L. J.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      A study was made of the vegetative expansion, floral development, and responses to mowing of switchgrass and sideoats grama. Vegetative expansion in switchgrass was primarily by rhizomes, proaxis buds, and continuation of arrested growth, in that order. Vegetative expansion in sideoats grama was mainly by proaxis buds and the continuation of arrested growth, in that order. Mowing at about 3 cm aboveground decreased herbage production, stopped reproductive shoots after inflorescence elevation, and initiated tillering from rhizomes and proaxes of both species, and decreased the length of the third and fourth internodes of sideoats grama.
    • Effect of Site Class and Rainfall on Annual Range Response to Nitrogen and Phosphorus

      Luebs, R. E.; Laag, A. E.; Brown, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Maximum forage yield increases from application of fertilizer to annual range in southern California were in the following order according to site class: swale > gentle slope > open slope. The increase in forage yield per pound of applied nitrogen was greatest for low rates of nitrogen at the slope sites and for a much higher rate at the swale site. Residual effect of fertilizer on forage yield, measured the second and third year after application, partially compensated for a first-year lack of response at lower producing sites or during low rainfall years. Yield increase the second year after application of 60 lb. of nitrogen and 26 lb. of phosphorus per acre was 50% of the increase from the same application that year. Range site class and fertilizer residual effects are significant factors in fertilizer application programs on annual range in lower rainfall areas with high annual rainfall variability. Annual range soils that are deficient in available phosphorus by soil test require that the more limiting nitrogen deficiency be corrected before a forage yield response to phosphorus will be obtained.
    • Effects of Utah Juniper Removal on Herbage Yields from Springerville Soils

      Clary, W. P. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Yields of understory vegetation increased from 223 lb./acre, including 50 lb. of perennial grasses, to 981 lb., including 193 lb. of perennial grasses, after juniper overstory was removed in northern Arizona. Successional trends did not follow a smooth sequence; many areas remained in an annual forb-half-shrub stage for several years.
    • Grass Seedling Emergence and Survival after Treatment with Fungicides

      Hull, A. C.; Kreitlow, K. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Thiram, Captan and Semesan were used to treat seeds of intermediate wheatgrass, tall oatgrass and smooth brome, seeded in spring and fall for 5 years, and to treat seeds of crested and intermediate wheatgrasses seeded for 3 years at a second location. The same fungicides were used to treat grass seeds at 3 rates in two studies in the greenhouse. Kind or rate of fungicide treatment did not significantly influence seedling emergence in the greenhouse. Averaging the two field areas, Thiram treatments gave significant increases over the check of 14% in emergence and 20% in survival. Captan treatments gave significant increases of 12% in emergence and survival. Semesan increases were not significantly better than the check.
    • Influence of Row Spacing on Crested Wheatgrass Seed Production

      McGinnies, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Crested wheatgrass was planted in rows spaced 6, 12, 18, and 24 inches apart. During 2 years of above-average precipitation, plants in all row spacings produced enough seed to justify harvesting, but during 2 years of average precipitation, only the plants in the 18-and 24-inch spacings produced sufficient seed. In a dry year, plants in none of the spacings produced enough seed to harvest. When a seeded field is to be used for forage in dry years and seed production in wet years, an 18-inch row spacing is suggested for northern Colorado.
    • Moistening and Heating Improve Germination of Two Legume Species

      Segelquist, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Germination of Lespedeza cuneata and Desmodium pauciflorum seeds from eastern Oklahoma was increased by heating them under moist conditions. Seeds of Desmodium sessilifolium from the same area germinated well without treatment. Moistening and heating did not increase germination of Lespedeza virginica and L. capitata; mechanical scarification was very successful with seeds of these species.
    • Morphologic Development of Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) as Influenced by Seed Size

      Raguse, C. A.; Fianu, F. K. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      The time rate of appearance of trifoliolate leaves of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum cv Bacchus Marsh) was studied over a wide range of seed weight (4 to 13 mg per seed). Seedling development of all seed sizes at 25 C could be expressed as a regression equation Y = -1.96 - 0.34 X, where Y = stage of plant development and X = number of days from germination.
    • Phenology and Control of Common Broomweed on Texas Rangelands

      Scifres, C. J.; Hahn, R. R.; Brock, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Common broomweed (Gutierrezia dracunculoides (DC.) Blake) were effectively controlled with 2,4-D at 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 lb./acre applied during stem elongation around May 15. The same rates of 2,4-D were less effective when applied in early April prior to complete emergence of the common broomweed seedlings or in mid-June after initiation of floral branches. Picloram combined with 2,4-D at 0.063, 0.125 or 0.25 lb./acre of each herbicide controlled 94 to 100% of the common broomweed population regardless of application date. Dicamba was more effective when applied in early spring than were equal rates of 2,4-D. Control of common broomweed from applications of picloram or dicamba in early April was attributed to residual herbicide activity on seedlings germinated subsequent to treatment. However, no treatment prevented germination and establishment of common broomweed in the fall following application of herbicides in the spring.
    • Range Management and Improvement in New Zealand

      Chapline, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Approximately one-third of New Zealand is in improved pasture and additional areas are being developed each year. These are high producing, seeded mainly to turf forming grasses and legumes, fertilized periodically by air, and intensively managed for wool, lamb, mutton, and beef production. Range lands occur chiefly in the colder South Island, generally at elevations above 3000 feet. Wool production is paramount, although some lamb, mutton and beef are produced. As a result mainly of heavy rabbit infestation and burning to provide fresh forage in past years, these ranges were seriously deteriorated followed by excessive runoff and erosion. Rabbits have been controlled, burning largely eliminated, and better range and livestock management is being applied.
    • Rangeland Environments and Man

      Thomas, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
    • Recovery of Desert Plants in Various States of Vigor

      Cook, C. W.; Child, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Desert plants, when defoliated to the extent that vigor is even moderately reduced, require rather long periods of nonuse for complete restoration. Defoliation in the winter and again in the spring at only moderate intensities was considered deleterious to plant welfare. Late spring harvesting was significantly more harmful to plants than early spring harvesting.
    • Relevance of the Population Explosion to Management of Sparsely-Populated Lands

      Knight, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
    • Responses of Eastern Red Cedar to Control Procedures

      Buehring, N.; Santelmann, P. W.; Elwell, H. M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Various chemical, mechanical, and burning procedures were evaluated for control of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Injection treatments of picloram caused 70 to 100% desiccation and plant kill at several dates of application but 2,4,5-T did not. High rates of granular picloram applied in either August or March caused greater desiccation than did lower rates. Picloram alone or in combination with 2,4,5-T or 2,4-D as wetting foliar-stem treatments caused good kill, as did high rates of other herbicides. Low volume foliar treatments of picloram plus 2,4,5-T killed much but not all top growth. Sprouts occurred on 22% of the mowed small (0.5 to 1.25 inch basal diameter) trees. Trees less than 3 feet tall were more easily killed by burning than larger trees. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius Michx.) seed germination was not affected by water-extracts of eastern red cedar, but switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) germination was. The reverse was true of coleoptile growth.
    • Seedling Survival on Erosion Control Treatments in a Salt Desert Area

      Wein, R. W.; West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Counts of seeded crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and volunteer species were made on gully plugs and contour furrows in the spring to determine emergence and in the summer to determine survival rates. Soil surface moisture was measured 2 and 7 days following summer rain storms. Many seedlings emerged in the spring in response to winter and early spring precipitation. This moisture was quickly depleted. The retention of moisture from summer storms determined the seedling survival pattern around the structures. Drowning was apparent in gully plug bottoms, while slopes of the structures retained little water during the storms. The combination of irregular rainfalls, high evaporation rates, and poor soil infiltration rates reduced the effectiveness of summer rains. Only at the high water line of the gully plug retention dam and at the bottom of the furrows was there enough soil moisture to benefit seedlings.
    • Some Soil Age-Range Vegetation Relationships

      White, E. M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Soil texture and development determine the kinds of range plants that grow in west central South Dakota. Bluestems, sideoats grama, and prairie sandreed are important species on very weakly developed soils but are less important on more strongly developed soils than cool-season mid- and tall-grasses. Western wheatgrass, green needlegrass, and buffalograss are important on well developed soils except those that are very coarse textured where needleandthread is important. Soil structure and fertility changes probably are the important factors affecting vegetation as a soil develops.
    • Stocking Rangelands on the Rio Puerco in New Mexico

      Aldon, E. F.; Garcia, G. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      A stocking table developed on an experimental range area in the Rio Puerco drainage can be used to determine stocking rates in animal units per section. Estimates are based on perennial grass forage production and utilization percentages and are applicable to a large portion of semidesert ranges in central New Mexico.
    • Supplementing Pine-Wiregrass Range With Improved Pasture In South Georgia

      Lewis, C. E.; McCormick, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      Native forage on pine-wiregrass ranges is low in quality and poor in palatability most of the year. Management techniques to overcome these problems and to utilize this resource are needed. Acceptable beef production can be achieved with proper combination of burned-unburned range during spring and summer when accompanied by adequate feed during fall and winter. Combining use of improved pasture at the rate of 0.6 acre per cow with native range during the spring-summer grazing period or during only the summer boosts calf weights and maintains cow weights from year to year over weights of cattle grazing range-only during spring and summer./El forraje que proporcionan los pastizales nativos en bosques de pino es bajo de calidad y palatabilidad durante la mayor parte del año. La producción de bovino de carne es aceptable con una combinación de pastos quemados y sin quemar durante la primavera y el verano si los animales son suplementados durante el otoño y el invierno. Sin embargo, si se pastorea pastizal nativo y 0.6 acres por vaca diario dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) y zacate Bahía (P. notatum) durante la época de pastoreo de primavera, verano o un verano solamente, si aumenta el peso de las vacas y el de los becerros al destete.
    • Utilization of the Major Plant Communities in the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia

      McLean, A.; Lord, T. M.; Green, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-09-01)
      The plant communities of the ponderosa pine zone in southern British Columbia offer best returns from grazing by domestic and wild ungulates. The communities of the douglasfir zone should usually be considered integrated-use areas, having significant values for both grazing and timber production. The subalpine fir zone has its main value for timber production although grazing values usually persist for many years in the lower part of the zone after logging or burning. However, the upper part of the above zone is suited mainly for grazing. Although the alpine tundra has very limited forage production it sometimes provides summer range for bighorn sheep. Since the climate is usually favorable below 3000 feet elevation, arable agriculture should be considered where soils are not restrictive.