• A Rapid Method for Washing Roots

      Lauenroth, W. K.; Whitman, W. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The use of a system consisting of two sieves and a pail with a spout on it greatly facilitates washing soil material from roots. Washing into the first sieve can be continued until all visible soil material is removed. The capacity of the system was 150 to 180 samples per eight hour day. The major soil type on the sampling area was a Flasher loamy fine sand.
    • Bow and Arrow Brush Transects

      Walker, Larry L. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Bow-fishing equipment makes it posible for one man to rapidly establish and record line intercept brush transects.
    • Cattle Dips Are Used as a Tool for Range Management in Masailand, Tanzania

      Van Voorthuizen, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      In many areas of east Africa cattle dips are needed to combat tickborne diseases. Currently the dips are installed near permanent water supplies and easy access roads, which leads to concentrations of livestock and overgrazing. However, with better management planning dips may be used as a tool to open new grazing areas and to increase the carrying capacity of the region. This article refers to the existing Tanzanian government programs for the pastoral peoples located mainly in the Masai district of northern Tanzania.
    • Costs and Returns in a Study of Common Property Range Improvements

      Simpson, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The clearing and reseeding of mesquite-covered alluvial flood plains on the Papago reservation in the southwestern United States to blue panic-grass was determined to be economically feasible. This improved range must, however, be used at full carrying capacity and livestock numbers restricted so the increased forage will be reflected as an increase in calves sold. A benefit-cost analyses was performed to determine what effect different methods of management would have on returns for a common property resource./El estudio fué llevado a cabo en la reservación de los indios Papagos en el Estado de Arizona, E.U.A. En el pastoreo comunal en esta reservación ha habido un sobrepastoreo que ha causado que los pastizales se encuentren en malas condiciones y de que haya baja producción de ganado y carne. Debido a que es difícil corregir el sobrepastoreo por razones sociales, los técnicos pensaron que sería mejor aumentar el coeficiente de agostadero utilizando ciertas prácticas tales como control de arbustos, siembras, bandas de dispersión de escurrimiento y construción de facilidades tales como aguajes, corrales y potreros. Sin embargo, había dudas si este método era económico o no. Se encontró que los métodos de mejorar el coeficiente de agostadero resultaban económicos solo con una carga animal adecuada. El sobrepastoreo aún en los pastizales mejorados no era económico y no cubrió los costos del mejoramiento.
    • Germination Responses of Three Desert Grasses to Moisture Stress and Light

      Tapia, C. R.; Schmutz, E. M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Lehmann lovegrass appeared very susceptible to physiological drought while Arizona cottontop and plains bristlegrass were not appreciably affected until osmotic tensions exceeded 12 atm. Lehmann lovegrass was the fastest and plains bristlegrass was the slowest to germinate. This study indicated that the adaptability and responsiveness of Lehmann lovegrass is due to its ability to germinate rapidly whereas the other two species require more time of moisture availability. Lehmann lovegrass and Arizona cottontop appeared adversely affected by constant darkness which suggests that they require a shallow planting while plains bristlegrass seemed to have the opposite response, which suggests that it requires a deeper planting.
    • Limits on Western Range Forage Production—Water or Man

      Keller, W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Water is generally regarded as the limiting factor in forage production on arid rangeland. If 800 lb. is taken as the water requirement for a pound of range forage, 12 inches as the average precipitation, and 400 lb. as the average forage production/acre, only 12.5% of the precipitation, or 1.5 inches, is used in producing the forage crop. If we estimate that in addition, 1/2 inch is lost to deep percolation, 1 inch to over-the-surface runoff, and 1 inch to undesirable vegetation, we account for 4 inches. Thus, the remainder, two-thirds of the total precipitation, is lost by evaporation, without benefit to man. The importance of the resource lost by evaporation is discussed in relation to the potential productivity of arid lands.
    • Mineral Composition of Native and Introduced Clovers

      Hamilton, J. W.; Gilbert, C. S. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Samples of seven native and four introduced clovers were collected from widely scattered areas in Wyoming and southern Montana. Most of the samples were collected at bloom stage during two successive growing seasons. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfur, colbalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc in these plants were measured. Levels of calcium were fairly high and extremely variable, ranging from 1.12 to 5.74%. Magnesium contents were quite variable with a range of 0.22 to 0.97%. Considerable variation in the levels of cobalt, range 0.09 to 1.75 ppm, exists and there were indications of species differences in accumulating ability under identical conditions. Copper accumulating capacity apparently varies from species to species and appears to be in direct contrast to cobalt accumulating ability. The range of copper was 7.0 to 49.5 ppm. Iron varied over a wide range with some unexpected high values. The levels of iron varied from 222 to 3329 ppm. Contents of manganese ranged from 39 to 250 ppm with higher levels being found in samples of alsike and white clover from the mud volcano areas of Yellowstone National Park. Amounts of mineral elements present in the clover samples were high enough to provide an adequate plane of nutrition for consuming livestock and wild game.
    • Moving and Mixing Range Steers

      McIlvain, E. H.; Shoop, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Knowledge of the weight-change response caused by moving range steers to strange pastures and mixing them with strange cattle is needed to help develop and apply improved range rotation and other grazing management systems. A 3-year grazing study showed that yearling Hereford steers were not greatly disturbed by either change of pasture or associates. The steers adjusted rapidly to new conditions, and compensatory gain offset most of the slightly smaller weight gain that occurred when the steers were moved and mixed. Behavioral disturbances were small. A little fighting and fence-walking occurred when the steers were moved and mixed, but this lasted for only 1 or 2 days. The weight-change response from moving and mixing range steers does not appear to be an important factor in the development of range rotation grazing systems, or in making other range use decisions which involve moving and mixing.
    • Native Forage Response to Clearing Low Quality Ponderosa Pine

      Thompson, W. W.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Clearing of low quality ponderosa pine in the foothills region of the Black Hills of South Dakota increased forage production 1,500 lb./acre on an east slope and 848 lb./acre on a west slope. Warm season grasses increased to a greater extent than did cool season grasses. If extensive areas were treated in this manner, management changes should be implemented to more efficiently use the increased production of warm season grasses. The increases in forage production plus the use or sale of removed timber should justify clearing low quality pine in this area. Pine reproduction will pose future management problems on cleared areas.
    • Ocular Point Quadrat Method

      Ibrahim, Karmal M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The Ocular point quadrat used in recording data by sighting through cross-haired holes instead of using pins was developed. The method reduces field work, and eliminate difficulties regarding using the pins as compared to the standard point quadrat frame.
    • Phenology of Salt Desert Plants near Contour Furrows

      Wein, R. W.; West, N. E. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The phenology of galleta (Hilaria jamesii), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), nuttall saltbush (A. nuttallii) and mat saltbush (A. corrugata) was studied to determine the effect of contour furrows on their vigor. Four years following treatment of the areas, the plants within 1 meter of the furrows were larger than control plants at least 3 meters from the treatments. Phenological index scores indicated earlier spring growth for the Atriplex species, and a longer summer and fall growth period for all species near furrows. Seed yields were significantly greater for plants near the furrows, providing a sustained seed source for natural establishment when artificial seedings in the salt desert area fail.
    • Proper Use: Old Concept—New Ideas

      Lawson, Henry (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
    • Ranching in East Africa: A Case Study

      Skovlin, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Progressive ranching is contrasted with traditional pastoralism in an effort to show how lagging rangelands might contribute more to economies of emerging countries. This is done by illustrating one rancher's success in overcoming the handicaps that limit tropical livestock production. Grassland potential and problems of rangeland development in East Africa are also considered.
    • Response of Honey Mesquite Seedlings to Top Removal

      Scifres, C. J.; Hahn, R. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa) seedlings formed branches from the cotyledonary axils within seven days after emergence when the aerial stems were removed and the cotyledons left intact. Foliar area was developed more rapidly where aerial stems were removed (from 2.6 to 3.5 cm2/day) than on intact plants (2.2 cm2/day). Seedling survival and number of branches formed per seedling increased as age increased prior to aerial stem removal. Normal branching occurred after top removal if portions of the cotyledons were left intact. Simultaneous removal of aerial stems and cotyledons of 10-day-old honey mesquites resulted in high seedling mortality and retarded branch formation.
    • Seedling Morphology and Seeding Failures with Blue Grama

      Hyder, D. N.; Everson, A. C.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Morphological differences between seedlings of blue grama and crested wheatgrass show why plantings of blue grama fail while those of crested wheatgrass succeed. When both species are planted at a depth of 18 mm, crested wheatgrass initiates adventitious roots at the depth of planting and blue grama initiates adventitious roots at an average of only 2 mm below the soil surface. Adventitious roots of blue grama usually die in the harsh environment at this shallow depth.
    • Tall Larkspur: Some Reasons for Its Continuing Preeminence as a Poisonous Plant

      Cronin, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth) causes more financial loss than all other poisonous plants growing on the Wasatch Plateau of Central Utah. It is found in the subalpine zone above 9,500 ft and is only locally abundant on a small portion of this area. Dense stands of tall larkspur occur mainly on sites where deep snowdrifts accumulate during the winter. Plants in the communities on these snowdrift areas remain tender, succulent, and green while the palatability of plants on the surrounding areas declines with increased maturity. This differential palatability limits the effectiveness of livestock management to reduce losses. Control of tall larkspur must be selective. Adequate vegetative cover must remain to protect sites which are predisposed to erosion. The survival capacity of tall larkspur indicates the need for surveillance schedule and provisions for retreating plants not killed by previous treatments.
    • Testing for Outlying Observations in a Sample Group

      Bonham, Charles D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
      The need to test for "outliers" is often overlooked both in statistical analyses of data, and in applied statistics courses. Instead of discarding an "odd" value from the sample data based on intuition, an objective approach should be used in handling spurious values found in a data group. An outlier testing procedure can be also useful in constructing future sampling designs.
    • The Profession Versus the Population

      Coyne, Patrick I. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
    • The Seventies: Challenge and Opportunity

      Dietz, Donald R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)