• Use of Radiophosphorus and Soil-Block Techniques to Measure Root Development

      Pettit, R. D.; Jaynes, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      A radiophosphorus and soil-block technique of root study gave comparable results when studying root growth of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula). Roots of switchgrass penetrated 60 inches laterally from the culms while the sideoats grama root system was much less extensive. The primary advantage of the radioisotope technique of root study is that it allows seasonal root developmental data to be easily collected while soil-block observations are laborious and depict root expanse at only specific times.
    • Soil and Grazing Influences on a Salt-desert Shrub Range in Western Colorado

      Turner, G. T. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Responses of vegetation and ground cover to winter grazing by livestock and to exclusion of livestock for 10 years were observed on soils derived from shale, sandstone, and a mixture of shale and sandstone. Although distinct soil-vegetation relationships were evident, changes attributable to grazing were relatively small. Vegetation and other cover on nongrazed range was practically the same at the end as at the beginning of the study. Overall reductions in galleta, shadscale, and snakeweed were attributed to drought, while differential responses of Salina wildrye, Gardner saltbush, Greenes rabbitbrush, and annual plants were ascribed to grazing. Inherently low site capability and subnormal precipitation were believed responsible for the general lack of response of vegetation to exclusion of livestock./En el estudio se compararon zonas pastoreadas en invierno con exclusiones de diez años de edad. Se concluyó que había poca influencia del pastoreo sobre le vegetación. La composición vegetal dentro de las exclusiones fué la misma al principio y al final del estudio. Hubo una disminución de las especies Atriplex confertifolia, Hilaria jamesii y Gutierrezia sarothrae por causa de las sequías. Hubo varias respuestas diferenciales de las especies Elymus salinus, Atriplex nuttallii, Chrysothamnus greenei y plantas anuales debido al pastoreo. El autor piensa que la vegetación no mejoró sin pastoreo porque el potencial fué bajo en los suelos y también hubo un bajo promedio de precipitación pluvial.
    • Seasonal Trends in Herbage and Nutrient Production of Important Sandhill Grasses

      Sims, P. L.; Lovell, G. R.; Hervey, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Aboveground biomass and nutrient production of important grasses were estimated on two range sites in the eastern Colorado sandhills. Apparent seasonal net production of blue grama and western wheatgrass on the sandy plains site was 144 g/m2 compared to 90 g/m2 for blue grama, prairie sandreed, and needleandthread grasses on the deep-sand range site. Production rates for the grasses studied were 1.8 and 0.8 g/m2/day for the sandy plains and deep-sand range sites, respectively. Herbage biomass decline 28% from the peak standing crop to fall (October 2) on both sites. During the late summer and winter months the biomass declined 50% on the deep-sand site and 35% on the sandy plains site. The sandy plains site produced a larger amount of crude protein than the deep-sand range site. This was accounted for by a larger herbage biomass and a higher percentage of crude protein in grasses grown on the sandy plains site. This more productive site appears to retain more herbage of higher nutritive value throughout the winter than the deep-sand site.
    • Seasonal Variations of the In Vitro Dry-Matter Digestibility of Three Sandhill Grasses

      Burzlaff, D. F. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Investigation of the seasonal variation of in vitro dry-matter digestibility of forage of three range grasses was completed. The in vitro dry-matter digestibility declined in all grasses with advance in maturity. Crude protein content declined with advance in maturity and was more highly correlated with dry-matter digestibility than was lignin. Predicted digestibility based on Van Soest's summative equations seemed unrealistically high for forage collections made in late season. No consistent or significant variations in cell-wall constituents or acid-detergent fiber were measured.
    • Response of Medusahead to Paraquat

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Medusahead plants from 23 sources were susceptible to paraquat at Davis, California, but resistant to applications of this herbicide at Reno or Stead, Nevada. Differences in response were not due to ecotypic variability among the sources.
    • Rainfall Pattern and Monthly Forage Yields in Thal Ranges of Pakistan

      Khan, C. M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      The multiple correlation and multiple regression between monthly forage yield of dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris Linn.) and the four factors of the amount of monthly rainfall, the number of rainy days in the month, the amount of rainfall during the previous month and the month of the growing period were positive and highly significant (0.01 level). The same multiple relationships for karera (Elyonurus hirsutus Vahl.) were significant only if rainfall during the previous month was not included. There were highly significant positive correlation and regression relationships between forage yield and monthly rainfall, for both species. For either species, positive significant correlation existed betwen monthly forage yields and number of rainy days. Dhaman was more responsive than karera to all three rainfall factors involved.
    • Natural Reproduction of Winterfat (Eurotia lanata) in New Mexico

      Woodmansee, R. G.; Potter, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      In situ ecological factors influencing the natural reproduction of the important Western browse species winterfat (Eurotia lanata) were investigated in central and west-central New Mexico from summer 1967 to spring 1969. Seed of winterfat germinated in late winter and early spring on all slopes and in soils varying widely in origin and texture. Survival was greatest on disturbed soils which supported low vegetation that afforded some shelter but little shading for seedlings. The disturbed soils indicated greater moisture availability. Seedlings were tolerant to competition, and were often found in living clumps of grass. A comparison of vegetation on heavily grazed and protected ranges indicated winterfat was susceptible to heavy grazing, and reproduced when on protected or lightly grazed range dominated by low-growing grasses.
    • Monthly Variation in the Chemical Composition of Desert Saltbush

      Chatterton, N. J.; Goodin, J. R.; McKell, C. M.; Parker, R. V.; Rible, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      An intensive study was undertaken on a southern California range to elucidate the nutritive value of Atriplex polycarpa (Torr.) S. Wats. The investigation was designed to show variations in forage values throughout the year and to denote, if any, the correlations between nutritive qualities and the environmental conditions. Forage samples were analyzed for protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, fiber, total ash, and nitrogen free extract; total digestible nutrients were calculated from digestion coefficients. Although the results showed significant variations in forage value throughout the year, the nutritional requirements of a grazing animal were generally satisfied. Desert saltbush can therefore serve as a dietary supplement and provide important nutritional components such as protein, calcium, phosphorus, and carotenoids when these components are less than adequate in the other available forage.
    • Lehmann Lovegrass on the Santa Rita Experimental Range, 1937-1968

      Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Thirty years' experience shows that Lehmann lovegrass readily establishes itself from seed under adverse conditions, reseeds itself quickly after fire or other disturbance, can withstand heavy continuous yearlong grazing, and can invade established stands of velvet mesquite. However, it is less palatable than native perennial grasses during the summer growing season, and has almost completely replaced the native perennial grasses on and adjacent to seeded areas within its preferred range./Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en la estación experimental de Santa Rita cerca de Tucson, Arizona, EUA. Se encontró después de 30 años de observaciones que el zacate Lehmann Lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees A-68) tiene buena adaptación a las zonas de 1,100 a 1,500 metros de altura y que tengan precipitación pluvial de 225 a 325 mm. Las siguientes ventajas y desventajas fueron encontradas: 1) Existe menor palatabilidad del zacate en el verano y mayor en el invierno que los zacates nativos. 2) El forraje seco dura mas que los nativos de un año a otro por lo tanto su uso es ventajoso para sequías. 3) Es muy agresivo ya que puede reemplazar las especies nativas e invadir montes de mezquite y tierra quemada. 4) Puede resistir el pastoreo pesado y continuado por todo el año.
    • Influence of Rootplowing and Seeding on Composition and Forage Production of Native Grasses

      Mathis, G. W.; Kothmann, M. M.; Waldrip, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Effects of rootplowing, with or without seeding, on forage production and composition of native grasses were determined on a deep upland range site. Percent composition of stoloniferous species, particularly buffalograss, was reduced initially and after 6 growing seasons by the rootplowing treatments. Frequency counts indicated a reduction of Texas wintergrass on rootplowed plots (seeded and nonseeded) compared to an undisturbed, native check area. This reduction the first growing season was attributed to the competitive effect of sorghum almum introduced in the seeding mixture. Unsuccessful establishment of other seeded grasses (sideoats grama and switchgrass) appeared to be related to poor seedbed preparation, competition from sorghum almum plants, and below normal rainfall immediately after seeding. Rootplowing decreased grass production. After 6 growing seasons, significantly less forage per acre was produced on rootplowed-seeded plots than on nonrootplowed plots. Differences in forage production were related to plant composition and density. /// El estudio fué empezado en el año de 1964 en el rancho experimental de Texas en el Municipio de Throckmorton; el diseño incluyó testigo; y se pasó arado para desenraizar sin la siembra y se pasó arado para desenraizar con la siembra. Después de 6 años los dos tratamientos disminuyeron la producción de forraje y composición de zacates deseables. El zacate sorghum almum (Sorghum almum) apareció en la siembra. El arado desenraizador controló el mezquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa).
    • Increasing Utilization of Weeping Lovegrass By Burning

      Klett, W. E.; Hollingsworth, D.; Schuster, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Burning increases the production and cattle preference of weeping lovegrass. A winter burn increased spring and summer herbage yields of weeping lovegrass 14% and utilization 53%. Burning increased crude protein from 3.6% on untreated lovegrass to 7.6% on unfertilized burned plots. It increased crude protein content from 5% on unburned fertilized plots to 10.5% on burned fertilized plots. Forty-four pounds per acre nitrogen fertilization increased crude protein but had little effect on forage production and utilization. /// Weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees) tiene buena adaptación a varios climas y suelos, especialmente suelos arenosos. Este zacate tiene menor palatabilidad. Este estudio se llevó a cabo en la granja experimental de Texas Tech cerca de Amarillo, Texas, E.U.A., se demostró que puede aumentar la palatabilidad del zacate con quema. La quema durante invierno aumentó la producción de forraje en un 14%, la intensidad de pastoreo en un 53%, y el contenido de proteína en un 3.4%. La fertilización de nitrógene a 44 Kgs/Ha. aumentó el contenido de proteína pero no influyó en la producción de forraje ni en la palatabilidad del zacate.
    • Imbibition by Alkali Sacaton Seeds

      Knipe, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides Torr.) seeds imbibed water rapidly. Large seeds gained 47% and small seeds gained 71% of their dry weight within the first 30 min after wetting. The large seeds had gained 124% and the small seeds 165% of their dry weight after 72 hr.
    • Grazing in the Middle East: Past, Present, and Future

      Pearse, C. K. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Grazing of native range lands by domestic livestock began in the Middle East, probably about 11,000 years ago. Too early and too heavy grazing doubtless occurred locally since earliest times but for many millennia the pressure of man and his animals had only limited impact on the environment. Within the last century unmanaged grazing increased greatly. Depletion is now serious over much of the area. Lack of management is not due to lack of a technical, legal, or administrative basis for action but rather to lack of appreciation of the seriousness of the problem and lack of desire to act. The primary aim of technical assistance should not be to provide more technical knowledge. Local understanding of the range problem and determination to find workable solutions are the urgent needs.
    • Grazing History of the Northwest

      Galbraith, W. A.; Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      The earliest grazing in the Northwest (which probably began about 1700) was by Indian horses. Livestock-a few head of cattle-were first brought to the Northwest at Nootka Bay on Vancouver Island, B.C., by Spaniards in 1789. By 1825, there were 27 head of cattle at Vancouver, Wash., near the mouth of the Columbia River. Marcus Whitman brought cattle to the area east of the Cascade Mountains in 1836. Mass movements of cattle took place from western Oregon to east of the Cascades during the 1860's. Numbers skyrocketed which resulted in sizeable exportations of livestock in the late 1800's to regions east of the Rocky Mountains, largely for building base herds. These drives contributed significantly to development of the livestock industry east of the Rockies, although they have been largely neglected by writers who chose, rather, to popularize the cattle drives from Texas and the Southwest. Raising livestock on rangeland is still, and will continue to be, one of the major basic industries in the Pacific Northwest. There are many millions of acres of private and public rangeland and grazable woodland in the Pacific Northwest on which concurrent grazing by livestock and game should continue to be one of the major uses of the resource.
    • Freeze vs. Fire Branding as Methods of Beef Cattle Identification

      Thrift, F. A.; Absher, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Over a three-week period in April 1969, 200 Hereford females, ranging in age from 15 months to 10 years, were branded with their individual herd numbers on each side of the rib cage just behind the shoulder with either freeze or fire brands. The brands were evaluated for legibility on January 14, 1970, using the following scoring system: 1 = no visible numbers; 2 = visible numbers, but illegible; 3 = incomplete numbers, but able to understand after study; 4 = easily recognizable numbers, but with breaks or unbranded areas; 5 = instantly recognizable, complete unbroken numbers. Variation among brand scores was partitioned into age of cow, side of cow, type of brand and the two-way interactions between these three effects. Type of brand was the only significant source of variation influencing the brand scores, and the fire brands (4.35) were more legible than the freeze brands (3.75). However, it should be stressed that neither type of brand was legible at the time of evaluation without first clipping the brands.
    • Estimating Digestible Energy from Digestible Dry and Organic Matter in Diets of Grazing Cattle

      Rittenhouse, L. R.; Streeter, C. L.; Clanton, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Regression equations for six methods of expressing the relationship between digestible energy and digestible dry or organic matter were developed from digestion trials conducted with cattle grazing native range forage. Concentrate feeds supplemented the grazing animal's diet in some trials. The results of this study indicated that the laborious determination of digestible energy could be replaced by a simple determination of digestible dry or organic matter. Supplementation with concentrates did not change the relationship between digestible energy and digestible dry or organic matter.
    • Blue Grama Vegetation Responds Inconsistently to Cholla Cactus Control

      Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Walkingstick cholla cactus was removed from plots with light (328 plants/acre), moderate (427 plants/acre) and heavy (607 plants/acre) cholla stands, and herbage production was determined on these and corresponding control plots over a four-year period. There were no significant differences between grubbed and ungrubbed for any year on any density class. However, when the data for four years were pooled, there was significantly greater production on the grubbed plots at the light and moderate cholla densities. On the plots with heavy cholla densities, herbaceous production was significantly higher on the ungrubbed plots. Lack of clear-cut response of herbaceous vegetation to cholla removal may be related to differences in early growth and in root distribution of cholla cactus and herbaceous vegetation.
    • Blue Grama Response to Nitrogen and Clipping Under Two Soil Moisture Levels

      Reed, J. L.; Dwyer, D. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Effects of N-fertilization and clipping on production and water use of blue grama were evaluated under two soil moisture levels, field capacity and 1/5 available water. Nitrogen increased shoot production 77% on unclipped plants. Clipping decreased shoot production 287% below the control averaged across N levels. Soil moisture levels produced no differences in yields. Root weights were decreased an average of 253% below the control by clipping. No differences were observed in total water used between fertilized and unfertilized plants but clipping reduced water used by 95%. Unclipped plants fertilized with 80# N/acre used more water than unfertilized unclipped plants. The amount of water required to produce a unit of a shoot was reduced 37% when fertilized. Clipping lowered this water requirement an average of 98%. Nitrogen greatly increased seed stalk numbers and the increase in shoot production due to fertilization came primarily from increased numbers of seed stalks.
    • Applied Landscape Management in Plant Control

      Williamson, R. M.; Currier, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Plant control results in drastic abrupt changes in the dominating landscape of a site. To lessen this impact and create a pleasing aspect, the land manager must use his ingenuity in applying techniques that will result in coordinating basic data, soils, wildlife needs, esthetics, and range to arrive at an action plan that will maximize all resources and activities. Perhaps the most difficult land resource value to assess, maintain, and manage, is natural beauty. Thus, the application of a plant control project is a challenge in landscape management application. Experience has shown that, through a joint effort by all disciplines, it is possible to apply a practical form of landscape management that results in the retention and even enhancement of the natural beauty while accomplishing the basic resource objectives desired in a plant control program.