• A Pass for Antelope in Sheep-Tight Fences

      Mapston, R. D.; Zobell, R. S.; Winter, K. B.; Dooley, W. D. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      A Wyoming study has resulted in development of an inexpensive, easily installed pass structure that facilitates movement of pronghorn antelope through fences and retains livestock. Patterned after the common cattleguard, the antelope pass consists of a 5 1/2 × 6-foot lightweight grill installed on timbers over a 15-inch pit with earth ramps on each end. Proper location and installation are essential to obtain use by antelope. Adjustment and learning through experience and association are important factors in the effectiveness of pass structures. Total cost including installation, is less than $100 per unit.
    • An Evaluation of Five Methods to Retreat Sprayed Mesquite

      Weddle, J. P.; Wright, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Based on mortality, chaining is the most economical method for retreating mesquite trees that are greater than 5 inches in diameter. For smaller trees, basal spray with diesel oil is most economical. Foliar spray with a mixture 2,4,5-T and Picloram is least economical./Varios ganaderos de Texas han aplicado herbicidas con avión para combatir al mezquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa), sin embargo esta técnica solo es efectiva por tres o cinco años a-causa de sus rebrotes. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los siguientes cinco métodos para re-controlar dichos rebrotes: 1. Tirando una cadena con dos Bulldozers, 2) Aplicación foliar de Tordon 225, 3) Cortando con una chapoleadora, 4) Aplicación de diesel al tronco después de cortado, y 5) Aplicación de diesel a la base de tronco. En base al porciento de plantas muestras, el método de cadena resultó mas económico para árboles de cinco o mas pulgadas de diámetro, para diámetros mas pequeños resultó ser la aplicación basal de diesel.
    • Another Champion

      Zufelt, S. N. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      A large silverleaf buffaloberry has been found growing in western Nevada. The plant is over 20 ft tall, has an average crown spread of 18 ft, with a circumference of over 5 ft at breast height.
    • Detoxication of Timber Milkvetch by 2,4,5-T and Silvex

      Williams, M. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Timber milkvetch, Astragalus miser var. oblongifolius, was treated with esters of 2,4,5-T and silvex at 2 lb./acre. The concentration of miserotoxin, the poison contained in the plant, decreased rapidly after treatment. After 4 weeks, treated plants contained only one-third as much miserotoxin as the controls.
    • Ecosystem Approach in Teaching

      Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Criticisms of current teaching in many biological disciplines are that instruction is fragmented, textbook oriented and lacks interdisciplinary presentation. It is, therefore, suggested that college curricula in Range Science be reoriented to present material in a coherent manner that will give a holistic concept of biological systems. Course material should be updated and scheduled in context for a logical sequence of study for student matriculation. Teaching, research, and the application of academic learning must, by necessity, become more meaningful and more precise if range management is to maintain professional stature and retain identification with a discipline or area of expertise.
    • Estimating Yields of Gambel Oak from Foliage Cover and Basal Area

      Hutchings, S. S.; Mason, L. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      This study of Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii Nutt.) shows that annual yields of foliage and twigs can best be estimated from measurements of foliage and basal area. Equations for predicting yield of oakbrush foliage are given for various range sites and range condition classes. Foliage yields and yield equations are different for each site and each condition class. Yield tables illustrate the relation of foliage production to foliage area and basal area.
    • Factors Influencing Germination in Beardless Wildrye

      Wagner, R. C.; Chapman, S. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      The effects of pretreatment, strains, temperature and germination solutions on germination were studied in beardless wildrye. Rate of imbibition was also studied. Total imbibition was not influenced by either strains or solutions. For the two strains studied optimum conditions appear to be germination in distilled water with alternating temperatures of 15-20 C preceded by moist prechilling at 1.5 C.
    • Grass Seedling Emergence and Survival from Furrows

      Hull, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Intermediate wheatgrass was seeded in 8 different furrow conditions for 5 years at 8,400 feet elevation and crested wheatgrass for 3 years at 4,800 feet elevation. At the high elevation best seedling emergence was from level and from 1- and 2-inch furrows. Plant survival was best from these 3 positions and from the bottom and north exposure of 4-inch furrows. The south exposure and ridge of 4-inch furrows were poorest in plant survival. At the lower elevation, plant emergence and survival were the best on the level, 1-, 2-, and 4-inch furrows and poorest on the ridge and north and south exposures. In an earlier study .36 plants/foot of drill row emerged and .07 survived in 4-inch furrows. On the ridge between, 1.62 plants/ft emerged and .22 survived. In these studies, the deep furrows were no better for seedling emergence than shallow furrows and the level.
    • Grazing Effects on Runoff and Vegetation on Western South Dakota Rangeland

      Hanson, C. L.; Kuhlman, A. R.; Erickson, C. J.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Four 2-acre watersheds were established in 1962 on each of three pastures that had been grazed at different intensities (heavy, moderate and light) since 1942. These watersheds were located at the Cottonwood Range Field Station, Cottonwood, South Dakota. The mean seasonal runoff from May 14 through October 31 for 1963 through 1967 was 0.79, 0.56 and 0.42 inch for the heavily, moderately and lightly used watersheds, respectively. The mean weight of live and dead standing crop of vegetation plus mulch in late July was 1,752, 2,092 and 3,700 pounds per acre for the heavily, moderately and lightly used watersheds, respectively.
    • Infiltration and Erosion Studies on Pinyon-Juniper Conversion Sites in Southern Utah

      Gifford, G. F.; Williams, G.; Coltharp, G. B. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Infiltration and sediment data from small-plot studies (325 infiltrometer plots) utilizing high intensity simulated rainfall indicate that areas cleared of pinyon-juniper trees and seeded to grass in southern Utah generally show no consistent decrease or increase in sediment yields or infiltration rates at a given point. Of 14 sites studied, four indicated decreased infiltration rates and two indicated increased infiltration rates during one or more time intervals at specific points on the treated areas; one site had significantly less sediment yield and two sites had significantly higher sediment yields from points on the treated areas. These results nearly parallel those obtained during similar studies of 14 pinyon-juniper sites in central Utah.
    • Nitrate-Nitrogen Status of Fallowed Rangeland Soils

      Eckert, R. E.; Klomp, G. J.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) accumulated in the soil during the spring, summer, and fall of a fallow year. NO3-N levels in the surface 6 inches in fall, 1967 and 1968, were similar and averaged 43 lb./acre on the atrazine fallow, 27 lb./acre on the mechanical fallow, and 5 lb./acre on the check. Above average precipitation during the winter of 1968-69 resulted in less NO3-N in spring, 1969 compared to spring, 1968. A comparison between the 2 years at one location showed the following NO3-N levels in the surafce 6 inches: spring, 1968-atrazine fallow 30 lb./acre, mechanical fallow 29 lb./acre, and check 13 lb./acre; spring, 1969-atrazine fallow 5 lb./acre, and check 2 lb./acre.
    • Paraquat Curing of Seeded Dryland Pasture Species

      Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Paraquat applied at early anthesis of soft chess and wimmera ryegrass increased protein retention significantly in the following dry season. The rates of paraquat required varied with growth stage, from 1/8 to 1/4 lb./acre to cure grasses and 1/4 to 1/2 lb./acre to cure rose clover and subclover. Curing grasses increased the protein retention of dry grasses only to the maintenance level of livestock. Seeding a legume is necessary to increase the summer protein above maintenance. Spraying with paraquat increased the protein retention of legumes to twice that needed for maintenance./Un estudio anterior demostró que la aplicación de "paraquat" en zacates anuales durante la antesis, aumentó el contenido de proteína de 57 a 77%, el fósforo a 9.125% y se redujo la fibra cruda a un rango de 2 a 4%. El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en los pastizales de California, incluyendo el secado de dos zacates y dos leguminosas, anuales ambas, a los que se les aplicó "paraquat" durante la antesis, dando como resultado un aumento significativo del contenido de proteína para la siguiente época seca. El contenido nutricional de los zacates fue a nivel de mantenimiento mientras que en las leguminosas aumentó al doble, recomendándose la siembra combinada de zacates y leguminosas para obtener más proteína. La cantidad de "paraquat" por acre, varía de acuerdo a la época de crecimiento de 1/8 a 1/4 lb. para zacates y de 1/4 a 1/2 lb. para las leguminosas.
    • Paraquat—Effects of Growing Season Applications

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Paraquat applied at 0.8 lb./acre to the same stand of crested wheatgrass in three consecutive years did not significantly reduce the grass yield in the fourth year. Floral primordia mortality from paraquat application on May 20 ranged from 50 to 87 percent. Further research in application technique and timing in relation to chemical coverage and meteorlogical conditions are believed needed to assure a consistently high floral primordia mortality, a perequisite of successful two-crop management.
    • Precision of Indirect Methods for Estimating Digestibility of Forage Consumed by Grazing Cattle

      Wallace, J. D.; Van Dyne, M. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Comparisons were made of the lignin ratio and the fecal nitrogen index methods of estimating digestibility of diets of grazing animals. Special attention was given to sources of error and variability in these estimates. Evaluation of indirect methods of estimating digestibility of grazed forage were made by sampling forage from the range with esophageally-fistulated steers and later feeding it to sheep in conventional digestion trials. Regression equations for predicting diet digestibility from fecal nitrogen and factors for correcting for lignin digestibility were obtained from the digestion trials with sheep. These equations and correction factors were used with composition data for fecal and forage samples from steers on the range to calculate digestibility under grazing conditions.
    • Relationship Between Forage Intake and Gains of Grazing Steers

      Davis, D. I.; Barth, K. M.; Hobbs, C. S.; Wang, H. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Based on a study utilizing total feces collection to estimate forage intake of grazing animals, the "animal gain-forage intake" relationship can be improved by removing a maintenance factor from the intake estimates. These data indicated that differences in digestible dry matter intake explained much of the variation in body weight gain of steers grazing both tall fescuelespedeza and orchardgrass-clover pastures.
    • Relationship of Organic Reserves to Herbage Production in Crested Wheatgrass

      McKendrick, J. D.; Sharp, L. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      The weight of etiolated growth stimulated in the field by excluding sunlight from crested wheatgrass plants was measured and used as a quantitative index to the organic reserves of plants prior to spring growth. Subsequent herbage yields and vegetative/reproductive tiller composition were measured and statistically compared with the etiolated growth. Etiolated growth, basal area per plant, and number of tillers per unit surface area were all highly correlated to the subsequent herbage production. Protection from grazing for one growing season is apparently sufficient time for crested wheatgrass plants to nearly replenish their organic reserves. The use of etiolated growth in predicting herbage yields may be applicable when organic reserves are the most limiting growth factor.
    • Sage Grouse Versus Sagebrush Control in Idaho

      Klebenow, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Spraying with herbicides to control sagebrush was detrimental to nesting grouse and to sage grouse broods. Nesting ceased when one area was sprayed and another contained a nest five years after spraying. Broods were less affected. One area contained broods three years after it had been sprayed, but variation existed from one area to the next, for another that was sprayed in 1962 was not being used in 1966.
    • Seasonal Carbohydrate Reserve Cycles in Eight Desert Range Species

      Coyne, P. I.; Cook, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Delineation of seasonal carbohydrate reserve cycles in important range plants is fundamental to development of a physiological index to proper season and intensity of range use. Carbohydrate reserves were studied with relation to growth stage of eight desert range plants in northern Utah. Most species showed definite seasonal trends. Results indicated that maximum plant vigor in relation to carbohydrate reserves depends upon reserve storage sometime at the end of the growth period.
    • Seeding Rate and First-Year Stand Relationships for Six Native Grasses

      Launchbaugh, J. L.; Owensby, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Average first-year plants per foot of row were .37, .64, 1.34, and 2.80 from pure live seed rates of 4, 12, 36, and 108, respectively. Average percent establishment in relation to seeding rate was 9.3, 5.3, 3.7, and 2.6 in the same order. Planting two-species mixtures in various proportions and at increasing rates did not significantly influence plant numbers compared with pure species plantings at similar rates.