• Nitrate Poisoning, Fire Retardants, and Fertilizers—Any Connection?

      Dodge, M. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Fire retardants used in combating forest and range fires have been accused of killing livestock by nitrate poisoning. Ammonia-based retardants cannot cause nitrate poisoning directly. They must first enter the soil, be converted to nitrates, then be absorbed and accumulated by plants. This process occurs only under special climatic conditions and requires two to three weeks. The possibility of injury to livestock from fire retardant materials is very slight-much less than that from a range or pasture fertilization program.
    • Range Research to Meet New Challenges And Goals

      Blaisdell, J. P.; Duvall, V. L.; Harris, R. W.; Lloyd, R. D.; Reid, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      The state of range management knowledge in relation to goals of society was considered by a Forest Service committee, and an enlarged concept of "range" was developed to include both ecological characteristics and land use. Range can contribute to better living conditions by providing stability to rural communities and regional economies and a high-quality environment, with optimum fish, wildlife, and recreational opportunities. Important range research needs are to: analyze ecosystems, inventory range resources, coordinate management and use, improve resources, maintain and improve environmental quality, and analyze social and economic aspects of resource use.
    • Blood Components of Range Cattle: Phosphorus, Calcium, Hemoglobin, and Hematocrit

      Kirk, W. G.; Davis, G. K. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Individual blood samples showed variation in components between range cows and for the same animal at different seasons. Adjusted means values for all blood samples were: phosphorus and calcium per 100 ml plasma 5.2 and 11.4 mg, respectively; hemoglobin 11.6 gm per 100 ml blood; and hematocrit 54% packed cells. Blood calcium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were significantly influenced by season and breed of cow. There was a highly significant season effect on blood phosphorus, a significant breed x season interaction, and a non-significant effect when values were averaged for all seasons.
    • Biotic and Hydrologic Variables in Prairie Potholes in North Dakota

      Sloan, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Prairie potholes or sloughs are depressions of glacial origin that occur north of the Missouri River in the prairie region of the United States and Canada. Potholes provide valuable wetland habitat for migratory water-fowl and are widely used for stock-water supplies. Differences in climate, geology, topography, ground-water hydrology, and land use create wide variations in pothole hydrology. Plants in and adjacent to potholes are useful indicators of water permanence, depth, and salinity-variables that are important in wetland management.
    • Complementary Grazing Systems for the Northern Great Plains

      Lodge, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Grazing systems for the Northern Great Plains based on the exclusive use of natural grassland are no better than continuous grazing. Since the quality of the majority of the ecosystems within the region makes seeded grass pastures feasible, seeded pastures containing highly adapted cultivars such as crested wheatgrass, Russian wildrye and alfalfa can be used in various grazing systems to balance and extend the grazing season. The growth habits and nutrient characteristics of the herbage of the native grasses are of maximum value for a relatively short period during the year. Grazing systems detailed include one in which the requirement per animal unit is reduced from 24.8 to 11.4 acres.
    • Climate and the Rangelands of Canada

      Carder, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Climate is only one of several forces that promote rangelands but it is often predominant. Climatic factors that favor the development of grass include the occurrence of extremes, recurring drought, prolonged periods of heat and cold, high winds, and perhumid conditions. Most of the grasslands of Canada fall within Köppen's climatic type "middle latitude dry" and summer drought plays a major role in their existence. There are other grasslands which evolve under quite different climatic regimes. These are much less extensive and with some climate is not the dominant cause. With one grassland form, however, climate does play a more direct role and the factors involved are almost the antithesis of those which have produced the vast rangelands of the semiarid Canadian west.
    • Barrier Effect of the Shrub Elaeagnus commutata on Grazing Cattle and Forage Production in Central Alberta

      Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Excellent condition range occurred under silverberry shrubs while fair to good condition range occurred between shrubs. The herbaceous layer dominants, rough fescue and western porcupine grass, produced nearly twice as much under shrubs. Forb increasers had a lower frequency and produced less herbage under shrubs. Silverberry is an increaser but the barrier effect it has on grazing cattle permitted a small patch of grassland directly beneath each shrub to return to near-climax condition.
    • Soil Physical Conditions after Plowing and Packing of Ridges

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      A system of seedbed preparation by moldboard plowing and packing small ridges appears to fulfill two requirements for successful seeding-control wind erosion and eliminate competing vegetation. The percentage by weight of soil aggregates larger than 0.833 mm increases greatly with an increase in the moisture content of soil at the time of packing. A sandy loam soil should contain 9 to 12% moisture when packed to obtain a surface condition greatly resistant to wind erosion.
    • Responses to Chopping and Rock Phosphate on South Florida Ranges

      Lewis, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Native plants growing on phosphorus-deficient soils in south Florida responded favorably to cross-chopping and fertilizing with ground rock phosphate. Availability of soil phosphate remained high throughout the 5-year study. Chopping effectively controlled saw palmetto and reduced the density of pineland threeawn, while increasing herbage yields, availability, and utilization. Rock phosphate increased herbage yields, raised nutrient levels, and improved palatability of most native plants. These practices offer practical opportunities for improving Florida rangelands.
    • Selenium Concentrations in Forage on Some High Northwestern Ranges

      Carter, D. L.; Robbins, C. W.; Brown, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Forages produced on some high northwestern ranges were analyzed for selenium concentration to determine the hazard of white muscle disease (WMD) in calves and lambs. The selenium concentration in 94 forage samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.78 ppm, of which 20 samples contained more than 0.10 ppm. The remaining 74 samples contained less than 0.10 ppm and 59 of those contained less than 0.05 ppm. Approximately 90% of the summer ranges studied produce forage containing less than 0.10 ppm selenium. Thus, the hazard of WMD on these northwestern ranges may be high. Ranchers should work individually and in groups to ascertain losses from the disease and minimize them by injecting the animals with selenium.
    • Relationship of Utilization Intensity to Plant Vigor in a Crested Wheatgrass Seeding

      Horton, L. E.; Weissert, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Vigor characteristics of crested wheatgrass subjected to late fall grazing at three levels of intensity were studied over an 8-year period. The indicated level of utilization for maintenance of plant vigor under conditions of this study was about 60 percent.
    • Relationships Between Visual Obstruction Measurements and Weight of Grassland Vegetation

      Robel, R. J.; Briggs, J. N.; Dayton, A. D.; Hulbert, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Visual obstruction measurements were used to determine height and density of vegetation in a Kansas grassland. These visual obstruction measurements were compared with the weight of vegetation collected from each site. The weight of vegetation collected was significantly correlated with the visual obstruction measurements.
    • Value of Broom Snakeweed as a Range Condition Indicator

      Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Following an initial 13 year stabilization period, changes in broom snakeweed populations on southwestern pinyon-juniper ranges were investigated over a subsequent 13-year period. The changes which occurred appeared to be the result of oscillating populations rather than of range condition.
    • The Role of Wet Meadows as Wildlife Habitat in the Southwest

      Patton, D. R.; Judd, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      There are approximately 43,700 acres of wet meadows on National Forests in the Southwest. Three sites (meadow, transition, and dry forest) influence herbage production and plant composition. Average per acre production for a 3-year period was 2,690 lb, 1,330 lb, and 170 lb in the meadow, transition and surrounding dry forest sites, respectively, for two areas studied. Deer and elk spent more time in the adjacent forest edge than in the meadow, but time spent in the meadow may be more important for quantity and quality of forage.
    • Ground Dwelling Beetles in Burned and Unburned Vegetation

      Rickard, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Pitfall trapping of ground dwelling beetles in burned and unburned stands of shrub steppe vegetation showed that the same four species occurred in both places. However, more Eleodes hispilabris and Pelecyphorus densicollis were caught in the unburned vegetation.
    • Hydrologic and Biotic Effects of Grazing vs. Non-grazing Near Grand Junction, Colorado

      Lusby, G. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      The effect of grazing on the hydrology of salt-desert type rangeland has been studied near Grand Junction, Colorado for the past 14 years. Measurements of precipitation, runoff, erosion, and vegetation have been made in four pairs of watersheds. One of each pair has been grazed by cattle and sheep as is normal in the region, and the other has not been used since the beginning of the study. Measurements made 10 years apart show that all four grazed watersheds have had a slight increase in the amount of bare soil and rock and a decrease in ground cover; cover on ungrazed watersheds has remained essentially unchanged. Runoff in the ungrazed watersheds has been about 30 percent less than in the grazed watersheds and sediment yield has been about 45 percent less. The greatest change in each of the relationships occurred about 3 years after livestock were excluded from one watershed of each of the pairs. Preliminary studies indicate that within areas of similar physiography, runoff is directly related to the percentage of bare soil present on a watershed.
    • Energy Balance Relative to Percent Plant Cover in a Native Community

      Aase, J. K.; Wight, J. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Net radiation (Rn) and evapotranspiration (ET) were poorly correlated during both a "wet" and a "dry" period on native range near Sidney, Montana within each of five levels of vegetational cover. The ratio ET:Rn fluctuated greatly in all cases and was generally higher during the period of higher rainfall. During dry periods, substantial amounts of energy were dissipated as heat flux to the atmosphere. Maximum evaporation and/or transpiration from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% cover occurred for 12 days after rainfall and was, respectively, 0.7, 0.8, 1.1, 0.3, and 1.9 times the evaporation from a Class A evaporation pan. Total evapotranspiration for the season was 21% lower and dry matter production was 14% higher with 50% cover than with complete cover. Water use from 75% and 25% cover was similar to that from 50% cover, but forage yields were 5% and 14% less, respectively, than from complete cover.
    • Effects of Environment on the Metabolism and Germination of Crested Wheatgrass Seeds

      Wilson, A. M.; Nelson, J. R.; Goebel, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Seeds of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum [Fisch. ex Link] Schult.), planted at a depth of 1 inch, germinated well because of relatively constant and favorable moisture conditions. These seeds rapidly synthesized hexose phosphate, uridine diphosphate hexose, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and other phosphate esters. Synthesis began 2 to 4 weeks before germination was observed. In contrast, seeds on the soil surface failed to germinate because of generally unfavorable and rapidly fluctuating moisture conditions. Adenosine triphosphate, the principal phosphate ester formed in these seeds during brief periods of precipitation, was broken down during periods of drought. Although these measurements include only a few of the biochemical reactions that occur in seeds, they contribute to an understanding of the environmental conditions that promote or retard germination processes and help explain the reasons for success or failure of seedings on semiarid rangelands.
    • Estimating Dryweights of Foodplants in Feces of Herbivores

      Free, J. C.; Hansen, R. M.; Sims, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      The dry weight composition of foodplants was estimated by a microscope technique for esophageal samples from steers, fecal samples of steers and fecal samples from sheep fed on the esophageal samples. Perennial species of foodplants forming more than 5% of the diets could be identified and quantified by the analysis of 100 microscope fields at 125 power magnification. The diagnostic features of fragile forbs were not as prominent in feces as they are in non-digested plants.