• Ground Dwelling Beetles in Burned and Unburned Vegetation

      Rickard, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Pitfall trapping of ground dwelling beetles in burned and unburned stands of shrub steppe vegetation showed that the same four species occurred in both places. However, more Eleodes hispilabris and Pelecyphorus densicollis were caught in the unburned vegetation.
    • Hydrologic and Biotic Effects of Grazing vs. Non-grazing Near Grand Junction, Colorado

      Lusby, G. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      The effect of grazing on the hydrology of salt-desert type rangeland has been studied near Grand Junction, Colorado for the past 14 years. Measurements of precipitation, runoff, erosion, and vegetation have been made in four pairs of watersheds. One of each pair has been grazed by cattle and sheep as is normal in the region, and the other has not been used since the beginning of the study. Measurements made 10 years apart show that all four grazed watersheds have had a slight increase in the amount of bare soil and rock and a decrease in ground cover; cover on ungrazed watersheds has remained essentially unchanged. Runoff in the ungrazed watersheds has been about 30 percent less than in the grazed watersheds and sediment yield has been about 45 percent less. The greatest change in each of the relationships occurred about 3 years after livestock were excluded from one watershed of each of the pairs. Preliminary studies indicate that within areas of similar physiography, runoff is directly related to the percentage of bare soil present on a watershed.
    • Nitrate Poisoning, Fire Retardants, and Fertilizers—Any Connection?

      Dodge, M. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Fire retardants used in combating forest and range fires have been accused of killing livestock by nitrate poisoning. Ammonia-based retardants cannot cause nitrate poisoning directly. They must first enter the soil, be converted to nitrates, then be absorbed and accumulated by plants. This process occurs only under special climatic conditions and requires two to three weeks. The possibility of injury to livestock from fire retardant materials is very slight-much less than that from a range or pasture fertilization program.
    • Range Research to Meet New Challenges And Goals

      Blaisdell, J. P.; Duvall, V. L.; Harris, R. W.; Lloyd, R. D.; Reid, E. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      The state of range management knowledge in relation to goals of society was considered by a Forest Service committee, and an enlarged concept of "range" was developed to include both ecological characteristics and land use. Range can contribute to better living conditions by providing stability to rural communities and regional economies and a high-quality environment, with optimum fish, wildlife, and recreational opportunities. Important range research needs are to: analyze ecosystems, inventory range resources, coordinate management and use, improve resources, maintain and improve environmental quality, and analyze social and economic aspects of resource use.
    • Relationship of Utilization Intensity to Plant Vigor in a Crested Wheatgrass Seeding

      Horton, L. E.; Weissert, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Vigor characteristics of crested wheatgrass subjected to late fall grazing at three levels of intensity were studied over an 8-year period. The indicated level of utilization for maintenance of plant vigor under conditions of this study was about 60 percent.
    • Relationships Between Visual Obstruction Measurements and Weight of Grassland Vegetation

      Robel, R. J.; Briggs, J. N.; Dayton, A. D.; Hulbert, L. C. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Visual obstruction measurements were used to determine height and density of vegetation in a Kansas grassland. These visual obstruction measurements were compared with the weight of vegetation collected from each site. The weight of vegetation collected was significantly correlated with the visual obstruction measurements.
    • Responses to Chopping and Rock Phosphate on South Florida Ranges

      Lewis, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Native plants growing on phosphorus-deficient soils in south Florida responded favorably to cross-chopping and fertilizing with ground rock phosphate. Availability of soil phosphate remained high throughout the 5-year study. Chopping effectively controlled saw palmetto and reduced the density of pineland threeawn, while increasing herbage yields, availability, and utilization. Rock phosphate increased herbage yields, raised nutrient levels, and improved palatability of most native plants. These practices offer practical opportunities for improving Florida rangelands.
    • Selenium Concentrations in Forage on Some High Northwestern Ranges

      Carter, D. L.; Robbins, C. W.; Brown, M. J. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Forages produced on some high northwestern ranges were analyzed for selenium concentration to determine the hazard of white muscle disease (WMD) in calves and lambs. The selenium concentration in 94 forage samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.78 ppm, of which 20 samples contained more than 0.10 ppm. The remaining 74 samples contained less than 0.10 ppm and 59 of those contained less than 0.05 ppm. Approximately 90% of the summer ranges studied produce forage containing less than 0.10 ppm selenium. Thus, the hazard of WMD on these northwestern ranges may be high. Ranchers should work individually and in groups to ascertain losses from the disease and minimize them by injecting the animals with selenium.
    • Soil Physical Conditions after Plowing and Packing of Ridges

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      A system of seedbed preparation by moldboard plowing and packing small ridges appears to fulfill two requirements for successful seeding-control wind erosion and eliminate competing vegetation. The percentage by weight of soil aggregates larger than 0.833 mm increases greatly with an increase in the moisture content of soil at the time of packing. A sandy loam soil should contain 9 to 12% moisture when packed to obtain a surface condition greatly resistant to wind erosion.
    • The Role of Wet Meadows as Wildlife Habitat in the Southwest

      Patton, D. R.; Judd, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      There are approximately 43,700 acres of wet meadows on National Forests in the Southwest. Three sites (meadow, transition, and dry forest) influence herbage production and plant composition. Average per acre production for a 3-year period was 2,690 lb, 1,330 lb, and 170 lb in the meadow, transition and surrounding dry forest sites, respectively, for two areas studied. Deer and elk spent more time in the adjacent forest edge than in the meadow, but time spent in the meadow may be more important for quantity and quality of forage.
    • Value of Broom Snakeweed as a Range Condition Indicator

      Jameson, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Following an initial 13 year stabilization period, changes in broom snakeweed populations on southwestern pinyon-juniper ranges were investigated over a subsequent 13-year period. The changes which occurred appeared to be the result of oscillating populations rather than of range condition.